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Smithsonian  year 


Smithsonian  Year  •  1975 

Visitors  to  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden  in  June  not  only 
saw  Aristide  Maillol's  Nymph  but  also  this  wild  mallard  duck,  proudly  swim- 
ming with  her  young.  A  pair  of  mallards  surprisingly  had  made  the  garden 
their  home. 

Smithsonian  Year  •  7975 




JUNE  30, 1975 

Smithsonian  Institution  Press  *  City  of  Washington  •  1975 

Smithsonian  Publication  6111 

Library  of  Congress  Catalog  Card  Number  67-7980 

For  sale  by  the  Superintendent  of  Documents,  U.S.  Government  Printing  Office 
Washington,  D.C.,  20402 — Price  $8.30  (paper  cover)  Stock  Number:  047-000-00335-1 

Smithsonian  Year  •  1975 


The  Smithsonian  Institution  was  created  by  act  of  Congress  in  1846 
in  accordance  with  the  terms  of  the  will  of  James  Smithson  of  Eng- 
land, who  in  1826  bequeathed  his  property  to  the  United  States  of 
America  "to  found  at  Washington,  under  the  name  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution,  an  establishment  for  the  increase  and  diffusion 
of  knowledge  among  men."  After  receiving  the  property  and  accept- 
ing the  trust.  Congress  incorporated  the  Institution  in  an  "establish- 
ment," whose  statutory  members  are  the  President,  the  Vice 
President,  the  Chief  Justice,  and  the  heads  of  the  executive  depart- 
ments, and  vested  responsibility  for  administering  the  trust  in  the 
Smithsonian  Board  of  Regents. 


Gerald  R.  Ford,  President  of  the  United  States 

Nelson  A.  Rockefeller,  Vice  President  of  the  United  States 

Warren  E.  Burger,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States 

Henry  A.  Kissinger,  Secretary  of  State 

William  E.  Simon,  Secretary  of  Treasury 

James  R.  Schlesinger,  Secretary  of  Defense 

Edward  H.  Levi,  Attorney  General 

Stanley  K.  Hathaway,  Secretary  of  Interior 

Earl  L.  Butz,  Secretary  of  Agriculture 

Rogers  C.  B.  Morton,  Secretary  of  Commerce 

John  T.  Dunlop,  Secretary  of  Labor 

Caspar  W.  Weinberger,  Secretary  of  Health,  Education  and  Welfare 

Carla  A.  Hills,  Secretary  of  Housing  and  Urban  Development 

William  T.  Coleman,  Jr.,  Secretary  of  Transportation 

Board  of  Regents  and  Secretary  •  June  30,  1975 

REGENTS  OF  THE         Warren  E.  Burger,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States,  Chancellor 
INSTITUTION  Nelson  A.  Rockefeller,  Vice  President  of  the  United  States 

Frank  E.  Moss,  Member  of  the  Senate 
Henry  M.  Jackson,  Member  of  the  Senate 
Hugh  Scott,  Member  of  the  Senate 

George  H.  Mahon,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives 
Elford  A.  Cederberg,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives 
Sidney  R.  Yates,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives 
John  Paul  Austin,  citizen  of  Georgia 
John  Nicholas  Brown,  citizen  of  Rhode  Island 
William  A.  M.  Burden,  citizen  of  New  York 
Robert  F.  Goheen,  citizen  of  New  Jersey 
Murray  Gell-Mann,  citizen  of  California 
Caryl  P.  Haskins,  citizen  of  Washington,  D.C. 
A.  Leon  Higginbotham,  Jr.,  citizen  of  Pennsylvania 
Thomas  J.  Watson,  Jr.,  citizen  of  Connecticut 
James  E.  Webb,  citizen  of  Washington,  D.C. 

EXECUTIVE  Warren  E.  Burger,  Chancellor  (Board  of  Regents) 

COMMITTEE  William  A.  M.  Burden 

Caryl  P.  Haskins 

James  E.  Webb  (Chairman) 

THE  SECRETARY  S.  DilloR  Ripley 

UNDER  SECRETARY      Robert  A.  Brooks 



David  Challinor,  Assistant  Secretary  for  Science 
Charles  Blitzer,  Assistant  Secretary  for  History  and  Art 
Paul  N.  Perrot,  Assistant  Secretary  for  Museum  Programs 
Julian  T.  Euell,  Assistant  Secretary  for  Public  Service 
T.  Ames  Wheeler 
Peter  G.  Powers 

Smithsonian  Year  '1975 






66  Center  for  the  Study  of  Man 

74  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies 

81  Fort  Pierce  Bureau 

82  National  Air  and  Space  Museum 

92  National  Museum  of  Natural  History 

119  National  Zoological  Park 

130  Office  of  International  Programs 

132  Radiation  Biology  Laboratory 

142  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory 

152  Smithsonian  Science  Information  Exhange,  Inc. 

156  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute 


171  Archives  of  American  Art 

173  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of  Decorative  Arts  and  Design 

177  Freer  Gallery  of  Art 

181  Hilhvood 

181  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 

188  Joseph  Henry  Papers 

189  National  Armed  Forces  Museum  Advisory  Board 

190  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

195  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 

215  National  Portrait  Gallery 

218  Office  of  Academic  Studies 

220  Office  of  American  Studies 



227  Conservation-Analytical  Laboratory 

230  National  Museum  Act  Program 

232  Office  of  Exhibits  Central 

234  Office  of  Museum  Programs 

238  Office  of  the  Registrar 

239  Smithsonian  Institution  Archives 

240  Smithsonian  Institution  Libraries 

243  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service 


251  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum 

255  Division  of  Performing  Arts 

257  Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education 

260  Office  of  Public  Affairs 

265  Office  of  Smithsonian  Symposia  and  Seminars 

269  Reading  Is  Fundamental,  Inc. 

273  Smithsonian  Associates 

283  Smithsonian  Magazine 

285  Smithsonian  Institution  Press 


289  Support  Activities 

303  Financial  Services 

310  Office  of  Audits 

310  Smithsonian  Women's  Council 





Smithsonian  Year  •  7975 


Nineteenth-century  lithograph  of  the  original  Smithsonian  Building,  frequently 
referred  to  as  the  "Castle." 

Limits  to  Growth? 


It  is  appropriate  these  days  to  attempt  to  guess  what  amount  of 
growth  is  prudent  in  an  organization.  In  the  United  States  growth 
and  development  have  been  synonymous  with  "good"  for  lo  these 
many  years.  "Growth"  stocks,  corporate  "growth/'  "growth"  in- 
dustry— all  have  been  phrases  on  the  side  of  the  angels.  And  indeed 
growth  is  natural,  a  symbol  of  animate  being.  "Growth  is  the  only 
evidence  of  life,"  as  a  Dr.  Scott  said  to  Cardinal  Newman  a  cen- 
tury or  so  ago. 

If  then  growth  of  some  sort  is  natural — a  condition  of  being — 
how  can  it  be  measured?  At  what  level  is  it  healthy  as  in  arithmetic 
growth?  At  what  stage  does  it  become  out  of  control,  raging,  and 
cancerous,  as  in  exponential  growth?  A  few  years  ago  all  growth 
was  said  to  be  good,  but  with  discussions  on  natural  resources  re- 
flecting our  new  environmental  consciousness  frame  of  mind,  peo- 
ple the  world  over  have  been  made  aware  of  the  finite  quality  of 
certain  stores  of  natural  objects,  such  as  oil  or  minerals,  on  the  one 
hand,  and  of  the  worldwide  problem  of  human  population  growth 
on  the  other.  The  book.  Limits  to  Growth,  presaged  a  levelling  off 
and  decline  of  standards  of  living  based  on  development,  growth, 
and  concomitant  expectations  within  a  hundred  years,  accompanied 
along  the  way  by  a  series  of  small  crashes  as  various  raw  materials 
became  nonexistent  or  economically  unexploitable.  Given  these 
prospects,  no  matter  how  much  debate  centers  around  the  details  or 
the  time  schedule,  the  planners  of  the  world,  taking  stock  of  the 
wars  and  oil  embargoes  in  the  Middle  East,  have  grown  in- 
creasingly uncertain  of  the  future,  and  hesitate  nowadays  to  sub- 
scribe to  the  prognoses  of  pre-October  1973. 

In  this  uncertain  climate  it  seems  appropriate  to  take  stock  and 
measure  our  own  Smithsonian  growth  over  the  past  decade.  In 
approximate  terms  the  annual  federal  budget  for  salaries  and  ex- 
penses (nearly  80  percent  of  our  total  federal  budget  each  year  is 
for  operations)  has  increased  from  a  bit  over  $17  million  in  fiscal 
year  1965  to  nearly  $71  million  in  fiscal  year  1975.  At  first  glance 
this  addition  of  about  $53.5  million  over  the  period  seems  a  striking 
proportional  increase,  especially  looking  back  over  the  previous 
ten  years. 

However,  roughly  $23.5  million  of  the  $53.5  million  net  increase 
in  the  period,  or  about  44  percent  of  the  total  increase,  is  for  un- 
avoidable costs.  For  example,  nearly  $20  million  of  the  net  increase 
in  the  period  is  for  unavoidable  payroll  costs,  such  as  legislated  pay 
increases,  applying  both  to  staff  employed  in  fiscal  year  1965,  and 
for  additional  employees  subsequently  authorized  by  the  Congress. 
(Even  if  applied  just  to  fiscal  year  1965  employment  alone,  the 
cumulative  effect  of  these  pay  increases  would  have  raised  our 
operating  costs  by  more  than  $15  million;  since  fiscal  year  1965,  pay 
raises  alone  have  raised  the  pay  of  salaried  employees  nearly  70 
percent  and  wage  employees  an  estimated  83  percent.)  During  this 
same  period,  inflationary  increases  for  items  such  as  utilities,  sup- 
plies, travel,  etc.,  have  further  increased  costs  to  the  Institution  by 
$3  to  $4  million.  Thus,  well  over  40  percent  of  the  "growth"  of  the 
Smithsonian  in  the  past  ten  years  has  been  due  simply  to  rises  in 
the  cost  of  living. 

If  this  is  so,  then  what  of  the  roughly  $30-million  increase  that 
makes  up  the  rest  of  our  total  of  $53.5  million?  Where  has  this 
been  spent  and  how?  Of  this  real  increase  nearly  $4  million  has 
been  for  major  national  events  in  celebration  of  the  American 
Revolution  Bicentennial,  a  program  which  is  temporary  in  nature 
and  which  will  phase  out  gradually  over  the  next  two  years.  The 
other  $26  million  was  authorized  for  the  establishment  of  new 
activities  and  for  the  growth  of  existing  bureaux  and  offices,  in- 
cluding new  staff,  in  the  past  ten  years,  but  exclusive  of  their 
legislated  pay  increases.  Of  this  $26  million,  more  than  $6  million 
has  been  for  new  activities  such  as  the  Hirshhorn  Museum,  the 
Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum,  the  National  Museum  Act,  the 
Office  of  Computer  Services,  and  some  fifteen  other  new  bureaux 
and  offices.  The  remaining  $20  million  has  gone  to  strengthening 

4  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 





Night  at  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden. 

irr    •■*-. 

i"*""'""*"     IBSfci- 

existing  activities  and  programs  in  order  to  keep  up  with  ap- 
propriate standards  for  the  museums  and  laboratories  in  our  care. 
A  highly  visible  and  representative  illustration  is  the  Air  and  Space 
Museum,  which  has  experienced  large  increases  in  staffing  and 
funding  as  it  has  prepared  for  operations  in  its  new  building  au- 
thorized by  Congress.  Less  conspicuous  has  been  a  concerted  effort 
to  make  our  vast  natural  history  collections  more  accessible  for 
research  by  the  application  of  computer  technology  and  the  de- 
velopment of  a  more  adequate  level  of  technician  support. 

With  the  growth  of  state  and  federally  supported  university 
laboratories,  as  well  as  the  newer  support  for  museums  across  the 
land,  it  ill  behooves  the  Smithsonian  to  fail  to  keep  up,  either  in 
salaries  or  in  support  activities.  Otherwise  our  national  obligations 
would  be  severely  jeopardized.  Skilled  and  specialized  people  in 
the  museum  and  laboratory  world  are  at  a  premium.  There  is 
intense  competition  for  their  services,  just  as  there  is  high  demand 
for  particularly  skilled  teachers  in  the  academic  marketplace. 

It  is  perhaps  worthwhile  to  cast  a  glance  at  the  directions  toward 
which  our  $6  million  for  new  activities  has  been  steered.  In  the 
museum  field,  new  activities  cover  a  broad  range.  In  art,  the  In- 
stitution has  added  an  entire  new  museum,  the  Hirshhorn,  filling  a 
recognized  gap  in  the  Smithsonian's  offerings  for  public  exhibit,  a 
need  which  had  been  identified  since  as  far  back  as  1938  but  never 
previously  acted  upon.  Thus,  by  acquiring  the  Hirshhorn  collection 
and  the  museum  to  house  it,  the  Institution  took  one  giant  step 
forward  in  a  tangible  intellectual  sort  of  growth  by  adding  a  new 
dimension  of  aesthetic  appreciation  to  the  Nation's  Capital.  Al- 
ready in  the  first  nine  months  of  its  existence,  the  Hirshhorn  has 
lived  up  to  its  promise  by  receiving  1,620,540  visitors,  making  it 
one  of  our  most  popular  museums  in  Washington. 

The  Cooper-Hewitt  collections  of  decorative  arts  in  New  York,  a 
most  significant  and  growing  department,  has  been  added  to  our 
art-related  collections.  The  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum,  a 
new  experiment  in  community  relations  and  the  fostering  of  tech- 
nical museum  training  and  art  appreciation  in  a  largely  black 
community,  has  been  extremely  successful  and  is  now  the  recipient 
of  nearly  a  half-million  dollars  of  annual  federal  operating  funds. 
The  Archives  of  American  Art  is  a  new  responsibility  of  the  art 
curatorship  of  the  Institution,  bringing  to  the  Smithsonian  a  com- 

6  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

prehensive  documentation  of  the  papers  and  life  histories  of 
American  artists.  Finally,  the  Smithsonian  Traveling  Exhibition 
Service  now  receives  federal  support  enabling  it  to  present,  in  1975, 
498  exhibitions  in  forty-five  states  and  seen  by  approximately  four 
million  visitors. 

In  the  realm  of  the  sciences,  environmental  study  receives  sup- 
port through  the  newly  created  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  as  well  as 
through  the  Environmental  Sciences  Program  which,  together  with 
the  Research  Awards  Program,  represent  annual  expenses  of  more 
than  $1  million.  Additionally,  the  social  sciences  are  represented 
for  the  first  time  in  the  field  of  social  anthropology  through  the 
Center  for  the  Study  of  Man.  (History  in  the  Museum  of  History 
and  Technology  includes,  of  course,  research  in  what  could  be 
described  as  humanistic  study  as  part  of  the  social  sciences.) 

Finally,  international  programs,  public  information  and  orienta- 
tion services,  and  equal  opportunity  and  other  important  adminis- 
trative services  make  up  the  rest.  Thus  of  our  $6  million  for  new 
activities,  36  percent  has  gone  to  the  arts,  20  percent  to  the  sci- 
ences, and  about  33  percent  to  administering  various  services.  The 
remainder,  nearly  11  percent,  is  accounted  for  by  the  technical 
training  grants  program  of  the  National  Museum  Act.  This  pro- 
gram serves  other  museums  and  perhaps  should  not  thus  be  re- 
garded as  support  for  the  Smithsonian  itself. 

The  private  funds  of  the  Institution  have  also  grown  sub- 
stantially during  this  ten-year  period,  from  a  budget  of  $12.1  million 
in  fiscal  year  1965  to  $35.9  million  in  fiscal  year  1975.  As  with  our 
federal  appropriations,  however,  inflation  of  approximately  70 
percent  in  the  past  ten  years  has  cut  heavily  into  the  purchasing 
power  of  the  1975  dollars,  and  again  our  real  growth  here  has  been 
far  less  than  it  would  seem.  In  1965,  for  example,  the  Smithsonian 
spent  $9.1  million  of  federal  grant  and  contract  awards  on  various 
research  projects;  in  1975  federal  grant  and  contract  expenditures, 
once  again  exclusive  of  administrative  expenses,  were  approxi- 
mately $10.1  million.  Deflated  to  1965  dollars,  however,  it  appears, 
in  real  terms,  the  Smithsonian  this  year  had  available  $3.2  million 
less  from  these  sources  than  ten  years  ago. 

Aside  from  these  grants  and  contracts,  the  private  funds  budget 
has  grown  from  $3.0  million  to  $25.7  million.  This  growth,  al- 
though also  substantially  diminished  by  inflation,  does  reflect  the 

Statement  by  the  Secretary  I  7 

greater  flexibility  of  private  funds  to  begin  new  activities  as  op- 
portunities arise — specifically  it  has  allowed  the  expansion  of  the 
Institution's  education  "out  reach"  program  through  the  National 
Associates,  spreading  the  values  of  our  knowledge,  research,  ex- 
hibits, and  collections  to  citizens  throughout  the  Nation.  It  has 
allowed  improvements  also  in  services  to  area  residents  and  to  our 
visitors  to  the  Nation's  Capital.  Included  in  these  improvements  are 
a  first  experiment  in  a  neighborhood  museum,  an  enormously  suc- 
cessful annual  Festival  of  American  Folklife  on  the  Mall,  as  well 
as  fully  financed  activities  in  oceanographies  and  the  acquisition 
of  major  collections. 

In  all  of  this  we  feel  that  our  growth  has  been  a  logical  outcome 
of  expressed  needs  of  the  Institution  for  further  appropriate  sup- 
port, and  for  the  addition  of  new  activities  to  supplement  and 
buttress  what  we  are  already  trying  to  do.  Fortunately,  as  the 
critic  Hilton  Kramer  has  pointed  out  in  the  Neiv  York  Times  (May 
25,  1975),  where  we  have  added  museum  collections  of  real  magni- 
tude or  differing  theme,  we  have  been  able  to  house  them  in 
separate  buildings  rather  than  having  to  expand  an  ever-growing 
single  roof,  or  balloon  out  on  a  single  ever  more  vast  building.  In 
my  own  opinion  the  days  of  combining  all  the  world's  spectrum 
of  art — produced  in  all  the  continents  from  pre-classical  to  con- 
temporary times,  ranging  in  style  from  the  Old  Masters  to  "ethno- 
art"  or  tribal  arts — under  a  single  roof  in  a  multicellular  building 
are  over.  Museum  fatigue  can  be  akin  to  twisting  the  dial  too 
rapidly  on  a  television  set.  A  kaleidoscope  of  impressions  in- 
evitably brings  on  premature  symptoms  of  brain  damage.  In  a 
vast  collection  like  the  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art,  only  rigorous 
discipline  will  allow  the  practiced  museum-goer  or  guided  student 
to  focus  on  a  single  exhibit  or  period  of  time  in  cultural  history  on 
a  single  visit,  presumably  one  of  many.  The  average  museum-goer 
has  no  such  opportunity.  A  single  visit  can  only  produce  a  kind  of 
cosmorama  or  phantasmagoria  so  that  the  etiology  of  museumitis 
is  assured. 

But  if  we  attempt  to  make  the  Institution's  growth  selective, 
how  do  we  select?  In  the  past  two  years  the  Smithsonian  has  em- 
barked on  a  series  of  priorities  studies,  using  our  administrative 
resources  to  marshal  bureau  directors,  our  distinguished  Smithson- 
ian Council,  our  National  Associates  Board,  and  our  Development 

8  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Office,  to  focus  on  where  our  real  needs  remain.  A  seminar  among 
our  science  bureaux  last  February  at  Front  Royal,  Virginia,  was 
another  example  of  our  reassessment  of  our  own  progress. 

It  is  quite  clear  from  all  these  discussions  that  the  future  growth 
of  the  Institution  should  consist  of  two  parallel  and  distinct  types 
of  activity.  Physically,  as  far  as  existing  needs  are  concerned,  we 
have  reached  a  sort  of  plateau  of  new  growth.  We  need  desperately 
a  consolidated  Museum  Support  Facility  to  house,  curate,  and  con- 
serve collections,  in  an  off-campus  setting,  away  from  the  Mall. 
The  public  exhibition  facilities  on  the  Mall  should  not  be  further 
cramped  by  the  increasing  pressures  of  storage  and  curation. 

We  already  possess  the  land  and  some  of  the  facilities  at  Suit- 
land,  Maryland,  to  expand  appropriately.  We  need  to  create  a  new 
way  of  looking  at  collections,  working  with  them,  and  training 
conservators  as  a  prototype  for  a  national  conservation  school. 
Surely  the  Smithsonian  must  accept  the  responsibility  for  conserva- 
tion of  objects.  We  curate  and  store  hundreds  of  thousands  of 
objects  made  by  man,  just  as  the  Library  of  Congress  and  the 
National  Archives  curate  and  store  millions  of  documents,  records, 
manuscripts,  and  books.  Only  recently  has  it  been  realized  that  the 
legacy  of  man-made  objects  is  just  as  valuable  historically  and 
philosophically  as  the  testament  of  the  written  word.  Present 
efforts  to  conserve  these  objects  are  still  in  their  infancy,  carried 
on  spottily  throughout  museums  and  historical  collections  all  over 
the  country  by  about  two  hundred  trained  persons.  The  training  of 
conservationists  and  the  study  of  conservation  techniques  are  of 
the  highest  priority.  Unless  the  Smithsonian  can  develop  a  Museum 
Support  Facility^  outside  the  District  of  Columbia  but  still  available 
for  curation  and  training,  we  shall  be  shirking  our  national  re- 
sponsibility, the  outline  of  which  was  laid  down  in  our  original 
charter  of  1846  to  be  the  "keeper  of  the  national  collections." 

Additionally,  of  course,  we  must  renovate,  repair,  and  refurbish 
our  old  buildings  and  their  surroundings.  This  task  of  keeping  level 
with  decay  and  over-use  is  a  fearsome  one  which  never  ceases.  It 
is  a  task  occasioned  not  so  much  by  growth  as  by  the  need  to  main- 
tain our  installations  at  many  levels — physical,  aesthetic,  and  in- 
tellectual. Lack  of  attention  to  these  concerns  brings  more  expense 
and  trouble.  Our  surroundings  directly  affect  their  own  mainte- 
nance. It  is  easy  enough  to  note  that  run-down  lawns,  neglected 

Statement  by  the  Secretary  I  9 

bushes  or  flower  beds  have  just  as  direct  an  effect  in  increasing 
untidyness  and  litter,  as  do  shabby  interiors,  torn  rugs,  or  broken 

One  of  the  sadnesses  of  some  contemporary  architecture  today 
is  contrived  drabness.  I  recall  sitting  on  an  austere  stone  bench 
(very  new  and  stark)  in  the  lower  lobby  of  a  brand  new  building 
at  Yale  University,  whose  extruded  aggregate  wall  and  studied 
terrazzo  and  cement  floors  conveyed  all  the  style  of  a  World  War  II 
European  concentration  camp.  A  graduate  student  having  finished 
a  soft  drink  bottle  taken  from  a  vending  machine  near  the  door  to 
the  library,  simply  hurled  it  into  the  corner  to  smash  and  add  to 
the  litter  rather  than  place  it  in  the  handy  rack  for  empties.  This 
was  not  an  isolated  gesture  but  rather  a  symbolic  act.  When  in 
Bedlam  or  in  Belsen  by  all  means  behave  like  the  other  inmates — 
or  the  guards? 

The  positive  aspect  of  maintenance  may  be  summed  up:  to 
preserve  is  also  to  improve.  And  so  the  tasks  of  conservation, 
curation,  and  storage  go  hand-in-hand  with  the  tasks  of  keeping  up, 
of  refurbishing,  and  of  redoing  our  exhibits — whether  in  the  Na- 
tional Zoo,  or  the  museums — and  of  refining  our  laboratory 
facilities.  These  tasks  are  not  those  having  to  do  with  growth  but 
rather  those  pertaining  to  prudent  management. 

The  final,  most  important  task  which  involves  taking  care  of 
what  we  already  have  is  how  to  utilize  the  objects.  With  the  in- 
crease in  collected  objects  comes  an  increasing  responsibility  for 
growth  in  depth.  Communication  between  bureaux  and  between 
museums  concerning  collections,  understanding  what  it  is  that  we 
possess,  where  it  is,  and  how  to  retrieve  the  pertinent  data,  becomes 
a  new  priority.  Like  libraries,  museums  suffer  from  bigness.  Often 
one  department  does  not  know  what  another  has  or  where  it  is  or 
how  to  find  it.  Cataloguing  and  retrieval  of  museum  information 
are  still  miles  behind  the  universality  of  present  library  techniques. 

Here  is  an  area  where  the  Smithsonian  has  an  opportunity  to 
provide  national  and  international  leadership  in  handling  the  trans- 
mittal of  information  on  collections;  where  they  are,  who  knows 
about  them,  and  what  more  remains  to  be  found  out?  We  still  have 
no  mechanism  to  correlate  our  cataloguing  information  with  the 
records  of  our  registrar,  who  is  concerned  with  logging  objects  in 
or  logging  them  out.  We  have  no  compatibility  in   systems,  no 

10  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

agreed-upon  vocabulary,  no  way  of  meshing  in  objects  data  with 
Ubrary  data,  even  though  we  know  the  basic  principles  for  carrying 
out  these  procedures.  Thus  the  work  of  finding  out  how  to  use  and 
how  to  exchange  information  on  our  objects  is  in  its  prehistoric 
stages.  And  yet  as  we  are  the  caretakers  of  a  finite  set  of  things 
for  posterity,  we  must  not  only  conserve  them  but  we  must  pro- 
vide the  memory  bank  to  let  our  successors  know  that  we  even 
knew  we  had  them  and,  as  well,  what  we  thought  about  them. 

Finally,  the  second  parallel  and  distinct  type  of  activity  of  an 
institution  such  as  ours  is  indeed  growth.  "Ah  ha,"  the  gentle  reader 
will  say,  "truth  will  out.  We  always  suspected  the  worst"! 

It  is  true  that  museums  as  such  are  concerned  with  growth.  I 
often  think  that  today's  museums  are  the  only  legitimate  growth 
industry  left.  It  is  the  nature  of  a  museum  to  acquire  objects,  al- 
though today  the  acquisition  process  is  highly  refined.  As  I  noted 
earlier,  the  Club  of  Rome  study  intimated  that  certain  natural  re- 
sources, oil  or  copper  for  example,  are  finite  in  quantity  in  the 
world  and  may  run  out.  In  the  same  way,  museum  keepers  know 
that  the  supply  of  objects,  whether  made  by  man,  or  great  natural 
objects,  such  as  whales  or  pandas,  are  finite  in  number  and  will 
inevitably  run  out  in  due  course.  So  endangered  man-made  objects 
must  be  preserved  and  collected  with  the  same  zeal  and  care  needed 
for  endangered  living  species,  end-products  of  the  miracles  of 
evolution,  that  they  may  be  preserved  alive  in  some  manner  for 
the  future.  How  curious  that  a  museum  or  zoo  ends  up  being  both 
a  growth  industry  and  an  instrument  of  conservation?  What  a 
paradox  to  find  a  growth  industry  which  is  not  at  the  same  time  a 
consumer  of  resources? 

Equally,  for  better  or  worse,  the  Smithsonian  is  constantly  in- 
volved in  turning  down  potential  gifts.  Such  gifts  may  range  from 
buildings  to  vast  or  small  things.  Thus  we  recently  have  turned 
down  the  San  Francisco  Mint,  the  Saint  Louis  Post  Office,  and  the 
liner  S.S.  United  States.  Additionally  we  have  politely  rejected  the 
largest  collection  of  ceramics  from  Thailand  ever  offered  to  any 
museum  in  the  United  States  (because  we  could  not  prove  they 
were  legally  imported). 

But  of  course  the  Smithsonian  accepts  things  especially  where 
the  things  in  some  way  interdigitate  with  other  things  we  already 
have,  or  represent  lacks  in  closely  related  subjects.  For  example,  the 

Statement  by  the  Secretary  I  11 

Institution  possesses  a  good  deal  of  basic  railroading  material  and 
documentation  of  the  history  of  railroad  evolution  in  the  United 
States,  but  we  lack  a  "donkey,"  a  particular  small  shunting  engine 
of  a  type  long  since  dismantled  and  now  only  rarely  found  in  the 
Southern  States  used  as  a  power  take-off  for  temporary  logging  or 
lumber  mills  set  up  in  pine  forests.  But  how  to  find  one?  How  to 
seek  out  that  rarity,  that  sadly  unrecognized  relic,  beneath  whose 
dirt  and  greasy  squalor  lies  the  "impassioned  beauty  of  a  great 
machine."  Oh  Georgia-Pacific,  Oh  Weyerhauser,  where  is  thy 
benison?  Where  in  some  neglected  forest  glade  lies  maundering 
that  rusting  hulk? 

Another  area  in  which  our  collections  have  strength  is  in  the 
history  of  porcelain-making  in  Europe.  Oriental  hard-paste  por- 
celains were  greatly  admired  in  the  West,  but  it  was  not  until  the 
early  eighteenth  century,  under  the  aegis  of  Augustus  the  Strong, 
Elector  of  Saxony,  that  hard-paste  porcelain  was  successfully  pro- 
duced in  Europe  at  Augustus's  Meissen  factory.  Through  the 
benefactions  of  a  few  donors,  notably  Dr.  Hans  Syz,  our  Museum 
of  History  and  Technology  possesses  an  important  collection  of 
European  hard-paste  porcelains  as  well  as  a  fascinating  exhibit  of 
many  Oriental  prototypes  in  design  and  pattern. 

But  of  the  equally  significant  soft-paste  porcelains,  especially 
from  French  factories  of  the  late  seventeenth  and  the  early  eight- 
eenth centuries,  such  as  Rouen,  Saint  Cloud,  Mennecy,  Chantilly, 
and  Sevres,  we  are  woefully  deficient.  To  demonstrate  the  develop- 
ments in  ceramic  history  and  technology  in  Europe  and  the  United 
States,  gaps  such  as  this  must  be  filled.  And  so,  collectors,  know 
that  the  Smithsonian  would  indeed  welcome  gifts,  not  only  of 
French  soft-paste  porcelain,  but  of  many  other  types  of  European 
and  American  ceramics  dating  from  about  1700  to  the  present.  For 
this  is  only  prudence  on  our  part.  If  we  are  to  preserve  such  objects, 
they  must  be  en  suite,  to  make  the  collection  comprehensive  and 
historically  more  worthwhile  for  study.  In  this  pursuit  there  should 
be  no  impediment. 

But  the  question  of  collecting  is  fraught  with  complication.  As 
I  have  pointed  out,  the  objects  are  finite  in  number,  like  rare  natural 
resources.  They  may  be  fought  over  by  rival  directors  or  keepers 
with  ferocious  or  Machiavellian  zeal.  Or  again  they  may  be  already 
possessed  by  one  institution  or  other  and  unavailable  for  further 

12  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

acquisition.  This  is  all  right  if  the  objects  are  well  taken  care  of, 
docun\ented,  or  conserved.  It  is  also  all  right  if  they  are  available 
for  outside  study  or  loan.  Here  the  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art 
in  New  York  has  recently  been  pioneering  most  farsightedly  in 
loan  collections  exchange  so  that  objects  of  great  rarity,  not  other- 
wise available  for  collecting  nor  thus  for  viewing  or  studying, 
may  be  exchanged  temporarily  or  for  a  longer  term,  to  benefit 

In  such  cases  of  higher  need  or  high  policy,  the  broad  vision  of  a 
director  or  a  group  of  trustees  may  well  exceed  the  imagination  and 
vision  of  a  particular  curator.  Some  curators  are  objective  and  full 
of  vision,  ample  in  their  comprehension  of  the  needs  of  museums 
in  general  as  well  as  of  the  possibilities  of  education  for  the  public, 
but  others  may  still  have  a  long  way  to  go  in  the  area  of  posses- 
sions. Like  members  of  a  family  trying  to  divide  up  a  parent's 
possessions  after  the  funeral,  curators  sometimes  let  their  human- 
ness  show.  They  may  not  always  be  willing  to  lend,  exchange 
where  possible,  or  otherwise  make  objects  available  for  study. 

Perhaps  this  is  where  the  attic  image  for  museums  makes  its 
appearance.  People  are  possessive  but  not  for  scholarship.  They 
want  to  own  things  but  not  for  posterity.  They  are  proud  of  pos- 
sessions, but  not  careful  of  their  provenance  or  thoughtful  of  their 
future.  After  a  time  they  have  possessed,  as  they  have  loved,  and, 
the  embers  growing  cold,  they  could  not  care  less  what  happens  to 
the  objects.  So  send  them  up  to  the  attic  or  send  them  to  the  local 
historical  society  or  museum!  What's  left  anyway?  And  that's  how 
museums  often  inherit  their  collections.  No  wonder  then  that  the 
curator,  mindful  of  how  this  careless  largesse  has  been  acquired, 
becomes  jealous,  or  secretive  or  unsharing,  bound  that  his  superior 
knowledge  and  his  possessions  will  carry  their  secrets  with  them 
to  the  grave.  Such  is  the  very  antithesis  of  rational  curation,  con- 
servation, and  care  for  posterity.  Surely  no  curator  worth  his  salt 
can  fail  to  admit  that  some  of  these  unworthy  thoughts  have  passed 
through  his  own  head. 

Thus  museums  are  a  growth  industry  give  or  take  a  few  years. 
Selective  as  they  may  be,  "growth  is  the  only  evidence  of  life." 
But  such  growth  is  difficult  to  plan,  notwithstanding  established 
priorities.  Maybe  we  will  never  get  a  shunting  engine  or  a  perfect 
collection  of  "soft-paste"   china,  but  there  are  other  targets   of 

Statement  by  the  Secretary  I  13 

opportunity  along  the  trail.  If  an  opportunity  should  come  for  the 
Institution  to  acquire  a  collection  of  portraits  of  native  Americans 
similar  in  quality  to  those  secured  in  the  late  1870s  painted  by 
George  Catlin,  should  we  say  no  because  such  an  unexpected  event 
is  not  listed  among  our  priorities?  Fortunately,  museum  curators, 
knowing  that  no  one  really  cares  about  posterity  except  themselves 
and  librarians,  would  not  be  so  pedantic.  At  such  a  moment  a 
proper  curator  throws  caution  to  the  winds  and  acts  as  decisively 
and  coolly  as  James  Bond  with  one  minute  to  solve  the  fate  of  the 
world.  The  curator  knows  as  surely  as  "007"  that  in  acquiring 
certain  things  from  time  to  time,  there  is  no  priority.  There  is  only 
the  urgent  necessity.  Equipped  with  such  powers  of  discretion, 
sureness,  and  authority,  curators  may  act  as  coolly  and  shrewedly 
as  any  great  intelligence  operative,  knowing  that  what  they  are 
after  may  represent  one  of  the  world's  only  legacies  for  the  future. 

Thus  the  Smithsonian  will  continue  to  grow,  and  to  conserve 
prudently  and  to  refurbish  what  it  possesses,  mindful  of  the  keen- 
ness of  perception  and  judgment  required  along  the  way.  It  is  an 
honorable  task,  and  an  onerous  one,  not  easy,  for  the  world  finds 
such  skills  difficult  to  understand,  their  worth  hard  to  evaluate, 
and  there  is  no  school  in  which  to  learn  except  that  of  experience. 
And  yet  this  is  a  task  of  high  priority,  for  collectors  remain  one  of 
the  only  means  we  have  to  help  the  long  train  of  understanding, 
of  communication  between  generations  which  is  the  very  stuff  of 
history.  If  history  is  transmitted  in  an  institution  such  as  ours 
then  this  reinforces  and  instructs  the  present  and  casts  a  glimmer 
of  light  into  the  murky  shades  shrouding  the  future. 

I  have  referred  in  the  past  to  a  museum  as  a  social  planetarium 
where  past  may  be  delineated,  present  experienced,  and  future 
postulated,  the  latter  deriving  from  both  the  others.  We  hope  that 
an  additional  natural  development  for  the  Smithsonian  will  be  the 
creation  of  a  flexible  area  adjacent  to  the  National  Air  and  Space 
Museum,  where  some  presentiment  of  the  future  may  be  exhibited. 
We  would  show  some  of  the  results  of  our  known  technologies, 
both  newly  acquired,  as  well  as  re-use  of  old,  for  solar  energy, 
water  conservation,  food  resources — in  general,  all  that  we  know 
or  can  perceive  about  life  support  systems.  As  we  near  the  end  of 
our  Bicentennial  it  is  well  to  look  ahead  to  our  Tricentennial,  and 
in  the  process  demonstrate  to  our  citizens  some  of  the  implications 
contained  in  the  concept  limits  to  growth. 

14  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Limits  to  growth  in  this  sense  is  not  a  real  phrase.  It  is  merely 
symboUc  and  in  proposing  it  the  authors  of  the  Club  of  Rome 
study  were  suggesting  a  riddle.  Mankind  cannot  exist  without 
growth  but  we  would  be  wise  to  accustom  ourselves  to  an  outlook 
which  stresses  the  interdependence  of  our  existence  as  humans  on 
the  planet.  While  nationalism  and  independence  are  taken  for 
granted  today,  the  world  economy,  the  use  of  resources,  the  inter- 
locking systems  by  which  we  live  are  inevitably  becoming  supra- 

Paradoxically,  just  as  events  in  the  world  at  large  having  to  do 
with  available  resources,  food,  and  overpopulation  should  be  re- 
minding the  statesmen  of  the  world  of  our  interdependence,  our  in- 
ternational political  institutions  such  as  those  associated  with  the 
United  Nations  are  increasingly  threatened  by  neo-nationalism, 
tribal  and  ethnic  factionalism,  and  irrational  social  behavior.  Per- 
haps we  need  some  practical  demonstrations,  such  as  those  related 
to  how  we  are  going  to  have  to  share  in  the  future  in  order  to  exist 
at  all,  to  remind  us  that  we  should  impose  societal  discipline  upon 
ourselves  rather  than  have  it  superimposed  upon  us  by  events  be- 
yond our  control. 

As  the  Institution  looks  back  over  the  past  year  one  priority 
clearly  emerges.  Along  with  evaluation  of  our  procedures  and  our 
growth  should  come  an  examination  of  ways  to  make  ourselves 
more  self-reliant.  Only  in  this  fashion  can  we  carry  through  our 
objectives  in  a  businesslike  and  timely  fashion.  I  have  always  felt 
that  the  Congress  encourages  us  to  act  in  such  a  responsible  fashion 
and  indeed  they  have.  The  fact  that  we  are  filling  in  the  West  Court 
of  the  Museum  of  Natural  History  using  funds  that  the  Institution 
has  raised  privately  so  as  to  improve  the  facilities  for  our  visitors, 
school  classes,  tourists,  and  Associates  alike,  as  well  as  to  produce 
restaurant  accommodations  for  their  comfort,  has  reminded  our 
Congressional  committees  that  we  have  an  obligation  to  do  this. 
We  can  act  independently  and  prudently  as  we  are  chartered  to  do, 
using  private  support  to  achieve  goals  related  to  the  education  and 
convenience  of  our  visitors.  This  is  a  facility  which  would  have 
taken  far  longer  to  achieve  using  the  normal  budget  review  and 
Congressional  appropriations  procedures  and  would,  therefore, 
have  been  inevitably  far  more  expensive.  We  can  be  thankful  that 
our  charter  gives  us  such  flexibility. 

Statement  by  the  Secretary  I  15 

Such  a  development  could  not  have  come  about  without  the 
support  the  Associates  have  given  us.  At  every  level,  locally  and 
nationally,  there  is  a  new  awareness  of  the  Smithsonian  abroad. 
This  has  come  about  largely  because  of  Associates'  activities  which 
bring  them  a  new  understanding  of  our  work  and  concerns.  The 
local  programs  of  the  Associates  in  Washington  now  involve  some 
70,000  people.  Our  national  membership  now  stands  at  over 
900,000.  This  means  that  for  the  first  time  Americans  in  a  measur- 
able proportion  across  the  land  have  a  feeling  of  belonging  to  the 
Smithsonian  and  are  in  the  process  of  understanding  more  clearly 
their  own  heritage.  For  in  this  awareness  they  will  realize  that 
the  Smithsonian  belongs  to  them. 

This  past  year  has  seen  the  birth  of  two  additional  forms  of 
Institution  outreach,  one  popular  and  of  questionable  impact  from 
our  own  point  of  view,  the  other  of  more  immediate  educational 
interest  to  ourselves.  The  first  was  an  apparently  highly  successful 
series  of  three  television  hour  specials  on  prime  time,  on  the 
Columbia  Broadcasting  System  network,  produced  by  David 
Wolper,  the  celebrated  independent  producer,  and  sponsored  by 
du  Pont.  The  three  programs  were  light,  somewhat  frothy,  and 
varied  from  sensational  to  charming  and  nostalgic.  I  enjoyed  them 
as  entertainment,  as  nearly  fifty  million  Americans  seemed  to  do, 
and  I  hope  they  will  be  produced  again.  As  entertainment  they  can 
remind  the  public  that  the  Smithsonian  is  fun  and  not  merely  "good 
for  one,"  like  castor  oil  or  blackstrap  molasses.  Of  course  the  more 
we  can  remind  people  that  learning  is  fun,  and  that  the  Smith- 
sonian is  fun,  the  better. 

The  second  event  has  been  the  release  of  the  first  of  our  Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica  filmstrips  for  schools.  We  hope  these  will  spread 
across  the  land  and  increase  the  accessibility  of  our  collections  to 
everyone  in  the  same  way  that  we  hope  to  enlarge  our  Traveling 
Exhibition  Service  of  objects  ranging  from  prints  and  pictures  to 
decorative  objects  or  historic  objects  illustrating  crafts  and  tech- 

This  past  year  has  included  several  important  appointments.  Mr. 
Stephen  Weil  has  come  to  us  from  the  Whitney  Museum  of  Ameri- 
can Art  in  New  York  to  assume  the  post  of  Deputy  Director  of  the 
Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden.  Dr.  James  Billington  has 
become  Director  of  the  Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for 

16  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Scholars  after  a  trial  year's  leave  from  Princeton.  Dr.  Forrest  C. 
Pogue  was  appointed  Director  of  the  Eisenhower  Institute  for  His- 
torical Research  in  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Tech- 
nology. Mr.  Lawrence  Laybourne  has  joined  the  Smithsonian  as 
Coordinator,  Office  of  Membership  and  Development,  after  work- 
ing as  a  Vice  President  for  Government  Affairs  of  Time  Incorpor- 
ated for  a  number  of  years  in  Washington.  Mr.  Howard  Toy  has 
come  to  us  as  Director  of  Personnel  from  the  Office  of  Economic 
Opportunity.  We  are  honored  and  pleased  with  these  significant 
additions  to  our  staff,  and  honored  also  that  Francis  5.  L.  William- 
son, Director  of  the  Smithsonian's  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for 
Environmental  Studies,  has  taken  a  year's  leave  of  absence  to  serve 
as  Commissioner  of  Public  Health  and  Social  Services  in  the 
Cabinet  of  Governor  Jay  S.  Hammond  in  the  state  of  Alaska. 

Two  retirements  after  many  years'  service  of  particular  im- 
portance this  year  were  those  of  Dr.  George  S.  Switzer  and  Mr. 
Jeremiah  Collins.  Dr.  Switzer  was  in  the  Department  of  Geology 
from  1948,  and  in  the  Department  of  Mineral  Sciences  from  1963, 
and  Chairman  of  that  Department  from  1968  until  his  retirement. 
Mr.  Collins  has  retired  after  nineteen  years  of  service  with  the 
Smithsonian's  International  Exchange  Service  during  seventeen  of 
which  he  was  head  of  that  Service,  which  each  year  on  behalf  of 
the  Library  of  Congress  and  government  agencies  ships  many 
tons  of  published  works  from  the  United  States  to  libraries  abroad. 

Death  claimed  several  of  our  men  in  the  Smithsonian  service  in- 
cluding the  untimely  loss  of  Mr.  L.  Wardlaw  Hamilton  of  the  Gen- 
eral Counsel's  office  in  a  motor  accident  and  Mr.  Jesse  E.  Merida, 
a  museum  specialist  in  geology,  of  a  heart  attack.  Howard  I. 
Chapelle,  an  internationally  known  marine  historian  and  author, 
who  was  Historian  of  Marine  Architecture  on  the  staff  of  the  Na- 
tional Museum  of  History  and  Technology  until  1971,  died  on 
June  30,  1975.  He  had  been  a  prominent  member  of  the  Smith- 
sonian staff  since  1957. 

For  a  mere  nine  months  of  the  past  year,  our  visitors  to  the 
Smithsonian  buildings  in  Washington,  excluding  the  Zoo,  comprised 
13,128,000  people,  a  considerable  increase  over  the  preceding  year. 
However,  among  our  problems  with  this  continual  growth  of  visitor 
interest  has  been  the  limited  space  for  circulation,  as  well  as  our 
pitifully  limited  funds  for  renovation  of  the  space  we  possess. 

Statement  by  the  Secretary  I  17 

Among  the  six  major  museums  of  natural  history  in  the  United 
States  from  the  West  Coast  to  the  East,  the  Smithsonian's  Natural 
History  Museum  ranks  last  in  space  for  exhibits,  166,000  square 
feet,  close  to  a  third  in  size  of  the  largest  of  those  museums  (the 
Field  Museum  in  Chicago),  but  with  visitor  attendance  three  times 
as  large  as  that  of  the  larger  museums.  The  resulting  wear  and 
tear  makes  critical  our  need  for  renovation  funds  as  well  as  for  a 
new  support  facility  for  research,  conservation,  and  off-Mall 
curation  of  collections.  We  are  doing  our  best,  as  I  have  noted 
earlier  in  this  report,  to  match  federal  funds  with  private  support 
in  renovation  in  that  particular  museum,  but  the  obligation  to 
serve  the  public  subsumes  a  similar  obligation  for  help  from  the 
public  sources  that  support  our  museums  for  the  public  good. 

Our  labors  would  be  incomplete  without  the  many  gifts  which 
the  Institution  has  received  over  the  year  in  funds  or  in  kind.  The 
principal  acquisition  during  the  year  has  been  the  formal  decision 
by  Mr.  Bern  Dibner  to  transfer  to  us  his  extraordinary  library  and 
collection  of  artifacts  in  the  history  of  science.  This  collection  has 
been  referred  to  elsewhere  in  our  annual  report  of  this  year  and 
last,  but  it  helps  to  place  our  departmental  work  in  the  history  of 
science  and  technology  in  a  new  context.  I  could  say  with  some 
confidence,  primus  inter  pares. 

Gifts  to  the  Institution  are  also  listed  elsewhere,  but  among  them 
of  special  note  are  the  two  outstanding  Bicentennial  donations  of 
a  million  dollars  each  from  American  Airlines  and  General  Foods 
for  support  of  our  Festivals  of  American  Folklife  of  1975  and  1976, 
and  the  gift  of  the  Summa  Corporation  of  funds  for  the  Howard 
Hughes  "Racer"  plane  and  its  exhibit  in  the  National  Air  and  Space 
Museum.  We  are  most  grateful  to  the  Eppley  Foundation  for  sup- 
port of  fellowships  at  the  Radiation  Biology  Laboratory  and  its 
work  on  ozone  concentration.  Finally  we  should  not  overlook  the 
gift  from  eight  third-grade  boys  at  the  Ohate  Elementary  School 
in  Albuquerque,  New  Mexico,  who  set  up  a  research  project  on 
mythology  and  organized  a  classroom  museum  exhibit,  charging 
one  cent  in  admission.  From  this  they  donated  their  entire  pro- 
ceeds to  the  Smithsonian,  $6.08.  We  are  grateful  indeed  for  their 
wholehearted  enterprise. 

For  the  first  time  an  ad  hoc  committee  of  members  of  the 
National  Board  of  the  Smithsonian  Associates  worked  together  in 

18  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

the  review  of  a  Smithsonian  project.  The  Chancellor  appointed 
two  members  of  the  Board  of  Regents  and  two  members  of  the 
National  Board  whose  interest  in  oceanography  and  the  environ- 
ment were  germane  to  the  review  of  the  Fort  Pierce  Bureau.  It  is 
expected  that  in  the  future  similar  projects  will  be  reviewed  by 
such  ad  hoc  combined  efforts. 

Board  of  Regents 

The  board  of  regents  held  its  customary  three  meetings  in  fiscal 
year  1975. 

At  the  Fall  Meeting  of  September  24,  1974,  the  Board  welcomed 
Dr.  Gell-Mann  as  a  recently  appointed  Regent.  It  was  noted  with 
great  satisfaction  that  Mr.  Burden  and  Dr.  Haskins  had  been  re- 
appointed, by  acts  of  Congress. 

The  financial  report  was  summarized  for  the  Board  and  the 
Board  congratulated  the  Secretary  for  the  good  financial  position  of 
the  Institution.  In  the  Financial  Report  presented  in  this  report, 
there  will  be  found  a  full  discussion  of  the  finances  of  the  Institu- 
tion, including  comment  on  the  market  value  of  current  funds,  en- 
dowment funds,  and  plant  funds. 

The  Board  accepted  with  pleasure  the  gift  of  Mr.  Bern  Dibner 
consisting  of  the  major  resources  of  the  Dibner  Library  of  the  His- 
tory of  Science  and  Technology. 

The  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  was  discussed  at  some  length  and 
the  Board  resolved  to  continue  all  efforts  to  bring  the  Museum  into 
active  operation. 

Hillwood  Museum  was  found  to  continue  in  financial  distress, 
due  to  the  investment  market,  and  will  remain  in  a  holding  status. 
A  public  opening  will  depend  on  a  satisfactory  long-term  solution 
to  financing  of  operating  expenses. 

The  agreement  with  the  Marriott  Corporation  for  construction  of 
a  three-story  building  to  contain  a  restaurant,  office   space,   and 

Statement  by  the  Secretary  I  19 

public  education  areas  in  the  West  Court  of  the  National  History 
Building  was  ratified.  This  is  a  joint  venture  using  Marriott  funds 
and  Smithsonian  private  funds. 

The  Congress  reauthorized  the  National  Museum  Act  in  accord- 
ance with  the  recommendation  of  the  Regents.  It  was  noted  that 
the  construction  programs  for  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum 
and  the  National  Zoological  Park  were  progressing  satisfactorily. 
It  was  further  noted  that  additional  steps  should  be  taken  by  the 
National  Park  Service  and  the  D.C.  Department  of  Highways  and 
Traffic  to  provide  automobile  parking  for  traffic,  especially  during 
the  Bicentennial  year. 

The  Regents  were  assured  that  the  Comptroller  General  had 
examined  a  number  of  legal  questions  raised  by  a  Senator  and  had 
found  no  evidence  that  the  Hirshhorn  matter  had  been  illegally 
consumated  in  any  particular. 

The  Regents  complimented  the  Secretary  on  being  appointed  as 
an  Officer  of  the  Ordre  Francais  des  Arts  et  des  Lettres.  The  meet- 
ing was  followed  by  a  pre-opening  tour  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum 
and  Sculpture  Garden. 

The  traditional  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Board  was  held  on  January 
24,  1975. 

The  financial  report  was  summarized  and  presented.  The  new 
federal  fiscal  year  beginning  on  October  1  and  ending  on  Sep- 
tember 30  was  adopted  by  the  Board. 

After  hearing  an  explanation  by  the  Treasurer  of  the  need  for 
additional  costs  for  the  projected  three-story  building  for  the  West 
Court  of  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  together  with 
an  urgent  plea  from  Director  Porter  Kier  for  the  improvement,  the 
Regents  approved  proceeding  with  the  project. 

On  the  basis  of  an  historical  review  of  some  six  years  of  ocean- 
ographic  research  based  at  Fort  Pierce,  Florida,  the  Secretary  pro- 
posed and  the  Regents  agreed  to  a  review  for  future  guidance  of 
the  corporate  and  program  relationship  with  the  donors,  J.  Seward 
Johnson  and  Edwin  A.  Link.  A  Smithsonian  ad  hoc  committee  com- 
prising several  Regents  and  members  of  the  Smithsonian's  Board 
of  National  Associates  was  proposed.  Mr.  Johnson  and  Mr.  Link 

Mr.  John  Nicholas  Brown,  Chairman  of  the  National  Armed 
Forces  Museum  Advisory  Board,  reviewed  for  the  Regents  the  long 

20  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

history  of  the  unsuccessful  actions  taken  to  establish  an  outdoor 
niilitary  museum.  The  combined  difficulties  of  acquiring  a  riparian 
site  to  accommodate  naval  as  well  as  land-based  exhibits  and  the 
acquisition  of  a  site  with  automobile  access  without  disrupting  the 
adjoining  residential  subdivisions  had  defeated  our  numerous 
efforts.  The  Regents  recognized  these  barriers  to  an  outdoor 
museum  in  the  environs  of  Washington.  They  received  with  favor 
the  description  of  the  potential  of  the  Eisenhower  Institute  in  the 
National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  to  develop  future 
programs  to  portray  the  historic  contributions  of  the  Armed 
Forces  of  the  United  States.  The  Regents  then  directed  that  the 
report  of  the  Advisory  Board  be  transmitted  to  the  Congress 
pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  Public  Law  87-186. 

The  Regents  considered  the  six-year  history  of  efforts  to  obtain 
Congressional  authorization  of  a  museum  support  facility  to 
relieve  the  crowding  of  objects  of  historical,  scientific,  and  artistic 
significance  into  corridors  and  exhibition  space.  The  Regents  re- 
solved to  request  the  Congressional  Members  to  reintroduce  legisla- 
tion to  authorize  planning  of  the  support  facilities,  to  be  located  off 
the  Mall  but  in  a  location  as  near  as  possible. 

The  Regents  considered  favorably  a  proposal  for  legislation  to 
reserve  for  the  Smithsonian's  public  service  purposes  the  last  re- 
maining building  site  on  the  Mall,  between  Third  and  Fourth 
Streets,  Maryland  and  Independence  Avenues,  and  Jefferson  Drive. 

The  Board  considered  and  approved  the  actions  taken  by  the 
National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  Commission,  primarily  the  ac- 
ceptance of  works  presented  for  accessions. 

To  assist  the  National  Portrait  Gallery  in  carrying  out  its  basic 
functions,  the  Board  authorized  the  Secretary  to  request  the  Con- 
gress to  amend  the  founding  act  of  April  27, 1962,  so  as  to  add  to  its 
programs  the  collection  and  display  of  prints  and  photographs. 
The  Regents  approved  the  actions  of  the  National  Portrait  Gallery 
Commission  at  its  meetings  on  May  8  and  November  11,  1974, 
primarily  relating  to  accessions. 

The  Regents  were  given  further  status  reports  on  construction 
projects  at  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum,  the  National  Zoo- 
logical Park,  and  the  Arts  and  Industries  Building,  and  accepted  with 
great  pleasure  the  gift  of  Mr.  William  A.  M.  Burden  of  ballooning 
artifacts,  including  books  and  furniture  with  a  ballooning  motif. 

Statement  by  the  Secretary  I  21 

A  motion  was  adopted  to  designate  the  education  building  at  the 
Chesapeake  Bay  Center  as  the  Jean  C.  Schmidt  Environmental 
Education  Building  in  honor  of  Miss  Schmidt's  development  of  an 
environmental  awareness  program  before  her  untimely  death. 

The  Spring  Meeting  of  the  Board  was  held  on  May  14,  1975. 

The  Chancellor  warmly  welcomed  Vice  President  Rockefeller  and 
Senator  Frank  E.  Moss,  who  were  attending  their  first  meeting  of 
the  Board.  Senator  Moss  of  Utah  succeeds  Senator  J.  William  Ful- 
bright.  It  was  noted  that  on  January  28,  1975,  the  Speaker  of  the 
House  of  Representatives  had  reappointed  Congressman  George 
H.  Mahon  as  a  member  of  the  Board,  and  had  appointed  Repre- 
sentative Elford  A.  Cederberg  and  Representative  Sidney  R.  Yates, 
each  for  a  term  of  two  years. 

The  Regents  were  presented  a  summary  of  the  Federal  Budget  of 
$79,408,000  for  operations  and  $17,892,000  for  other  special 
projects  including  construction,  and  the  reconstruction  of  the 
Egyptian  Temple  at  Philae.  The  status  of  the  nonfederal  funds  of 
the  Institution  were  presented  in  detail.  The  Board  approved  the 
budget  of  the  private  funds  for  fiscal  year  1976. 

The  Investment  Policy  Committee  Report  was  presented  on  be- 
half of  the  Chairman,  Mr.  Burden. 

In  accordance  with  the  governing  statute,  the  Board  submitted 
recommendations  to  the  President  for  appointment  to  the  National 
Armed  Forces  Museum  Advisory  Board. 

The  Regents  received  the  report  from  the  ad  hoc  committee  on 
Fort  Pierce,  Florida.  The  study  included  a  tour  of  the  facilities  and 
talks  by  members  of  the  scientific  staff.  The  principal  programs 
are  the  Indian  River  Study,  the  Life  Histories  Studies,  and  the 
Submarine  Exploration  of  the  East  Florida  Continental  Shelf.  These 
and  other  research  programs  were  considered  by  the  Smithsonian 
staff  to  be  worthwhile  and  should  be  continued.  Dr.  Murray  Gell- 
Mann  of  the  review  committee  concluded  in  its  report  that  the 
present  arrangements  for  accomplishing  the  scientific  objectives  at 
Fort  Pierce  should  be  continued  on  substantially  the  same  lines, 
with  a  yearly  review  of  objectives.  The  Regents  approved. 

Several  bills  introduced  by  Congressional  Regents  had  been 
favorably  reported  by  the  Subcommittee  on  Library  and  Memorials 
of  the  Committee  on  House  Administration.  Included  were  a  bill  to 
authorize    planning    of    a    museum    support    facility    in    Suitland, 

22  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 



From  left  to  right:  Mrs.  John  Nicholas  Brown,  Secretary  and  Mrs.  S.  Dillon 
Ripley,  and  the  Honorable  John  Nicholas  Brown,  Regent  and  Chairman  of  the 
National  Armed  Forces  Museum  Advisory  Board,  Smithsonian  Institution,  in 
the  Great  Hall,  Smithsonian  Institution  Building,  evening  of  May  14,  1975,  at 
the  conclusion  of  a  reception  and  dinner  given  by  the  Board  of  Regents  and  the 
NAFMAB  in  Mr.  Brown's  honor,  on  the  occasion  of  the  dedication  of  the 
Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  Institute  for  Historical  Research.  The  Board  of  Regents 
bestowed  the  Henry  Medal  on  Mr.  Brown  on  this  occasion. 

Maryland;  a  bill  to  reserve  the  last  remaining  building  site  on  the 
Mall  for  the  Institution's  use;  and  bills  for  the  reappointment  of 
Regents  Brown  and  Watson. 

The  Board  expressed  its  continued  support  for  the  position  that 
automobile  parking  at  R.  F.  K.  Stadium  is  not  an  adequate  alterna- 
tive to  the  present  parking  on  the  Mall  and  the  additional  visitor 
parking  expected  in  1976.  The  Smithsonian  has  proposed  parking 
at  the  Jefferson  Memorial,  Tidal  Basin,  West  Independence  Avenue, 
and  the  old  Polo  Grounds.  No  action  has  been  taken  by  the  National 
Park  Service. 

The  current  status  of  various  construction  projects  was  given; 
details  will  be  found  in  Appendix  4  of  this  report. 

After  discussion  with  several  art  curators  and  architects,  artists 
Richard  Lippold  and  Charles  Perry  were  given  study  contracts  to 
develop  scale  models  for  the  entrance  to  the  National  Air  and  Space 
Museum.  Outside  financial  support  would  be  most  welcome. 

The  agreement  with  the  Summa  Corporation  regarding  the  giant 
aircraft  "HK-1"  was  reviewed  by  the  Secretary  for  the  information 
of  the  Regents.  Because  of  the  substantial  costs  involved  in  provid- 
ing a  suitable  building,  transporting  the  aircraft,  and  maintaining 
so  exceptionally  large  a  museum  display,  it  has  been  agreed  that 
Summa  will  continue  to  maintain  the  craft  for  one  year.  If  it  is 
decided  to  dismantle  the  plane  rather  than  to  attempt  to  donate  the 
craft  for  display,  the  Smithsonian  will  have  the  right  to  take  por- 
tions of  the  plane. 

The  Secretary  called  attention  to  the  comprehensive  appraisal 
by  Dr.  Crawford  Greenewalt  of  the  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research 
Institute  (stri)  in  Panama,  circulated  to  the  Board. 

Mr.  Goheen  stated  that  he  would  like  to  know  periodically  the 
progress  of  the  Institution  in  equal  employment  opportunity.  The 
Secretary  referred  to  a  report  which  was  given  to  the  Regents  on 
the  Civil  Service  Commission's  survey  of  1973. 

The  Regents  then  joined  their  wives  and  guests  for  a  reception 
and  dinner  honoring  Dr.  John  Nicholas  Brown  on  the  occasion  of 
the  dedication  of  the  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  Institute  for  Historical 
Research,  at  which  Dr.  Caryl  Haskins  presented  the  Henry  Medal 
to  Regent  John  Nicholas  Brown  for  his  devoted  service  to  the  In- 
stitution and  the  Nation. 

The  Board  of  Regents  have  encouragingly  expressed  their  in- 

24  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

terest  and  concern  for  our  measured  growth,  our  assessment  of 
priorities  consonant  with  that,  and  at  the  same  time  the  growth 
of  our  own  awareness  of  staff  and  personnel  problems.  They 
realize  our  concern  for  equal  employment  opportunity,  for  upward 
progress  in  jobs,  for  the  consensus  of  opinion  on  ratios  in  employ- 
ment, minority  representation,  and  equal  employment  opportunities 
for  women. 

With  this  we  welcome  their  support  of  the  appropriate  training 
help  to  nourish  our  resolve  to  make  museum  careers  attractive  to 
people  in  this  country  who  before  might  have  been  quite  unaware 
of  such  opportunities.  If  we  can  raise  the  consciousness  of  people 
in  general  about  museum  work,  and  its  opportunities  for  self-en- 
lightenment, for  jobs,  and  for  the  fascination  and  fun  involved,  we 
will  have  justified  many  times  over  the  conviction  that  here  is 
indeed  a  legitimate  growth  industry. 

Statement  by  the  Secretary  I  15 

The  Commons  Restaurant  in  the  Smithsonian  "Castle"  serves  a  buffet  luncheon 
to  visiting  Smithsonian  Associates  and  to  the  Smithsonian  staff. 

Smithsonian  Year  '1975 


Smithsonian's  fiscal  year  1975  may  be  summarized  as  one  of  con- 
tinued sound  financial  progress,  even  though  financial  needs  con- 
tinued to  increase.  In  part,  this  need  was  to  meet  further  large 
inflation-bred  increases  in  salaries  and  wages,  utilities,  and  other 
operating  costs.  In  addition,  new  activities,  including  the  opening  on 
October  1,  1974,  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 
and  the  continued  step-up  in  preparations  for  the  1976  Bicentennial 
and  next  year's  scheduled  opening  of  the  new  National  Air  and 
Space  Museum,  required  further  substantial  support.  Fortunately, 
the  Smithsonian  received  federally  appropriated  funds  to  cover  a 
large  part  of  these  added  needs.  Federal  appropriations  also  pro- 
vided a  major  increase  in  funding  for  construction  at  the  National 
Zoological  Park  at  a  rate  designed  to  achieve  completion  of  its 
master  plan  renovation  over  a  ten-year  period.  Despite  the  generous 
increase  in  appropriations,  however,  tight  budgeting  of  these  funds 
and  curtailment  or  postponement  of  a  number  of  worthwhile 
projects  was  necessary.  Formal  management  reviews  of  the  In- 
stitution's priorities  have  been  beneficial  in  directing  our  efforts 
toward  the  best  uses  of  these  available  resources. 

At  the  same  time,  our  private  trust  funds  were  strengthened 
further  during  the  year,  despite  the  need  to  meet  from  our  own 
resources  the  same  types  of  inflationary  cost  increases  as  affected 
federally  funded  expenses.  Private  fund  income  derived  from  in- 
vestments, gifts,  the  Smithsonian  Associates  programs,  museum 
shops,  concession  fees,  and  other  revenue-producing  activities  in- 
creased substantially  in  fiscal  year  1975.  Gifts,  largely  for  specific 


projects,  such  as  Air  and  Space  exhibits  and  the  Bicentennial 
Festival  of  American  Folklife,  more  than  doubled  those  of  the 
previous  year. 

These  private  trust  funds  have  normally  been  used  principally 
to  take  care  of  administrative  expenses,  to  fund  programs  specified 
by  donors,  and  to  assist  in  a  modest  way  a  variety  of  our  Bureaux' 
endeavors,  such  as  small  research  efforts,  publications,  or  the 
acquisition  of  collection  items  for  which  federal  funds  have  not 
been  available.  In  fiscal  year  1975,  larger  private  revenues  made  it 
possible  to  initiate  a  long-sought  program  of  adding  to  the  In- 
stitution's present  meager  unrestricted-purpose  endowment  funds. 
Increased  private  fund  resources  also  made  it  possible  to  finance 
improvements  to  our  Museum  Shops  and,  assisted  by  foundation 
grants  and  other  donations,  construct  a  new  training  building  for 
the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies  and  start  the 
renovation  of  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum's  new  quarters  (toward 
which  we  are  still  seeking  another  $1,000,000  of  outside  support). 
Continued  success  of  the  Institution's  self-help  efforts,  which 
also  play  a  major  role  in  bringing  the  Institution's  educational 
values  to  a  wider  audience  throughout  the  Nation,  will  enable  us 
to  continue  the  strengthening  of  our  endowment  funds,  the  alloca- 
tion of  additional  support  to  our  bureaux  in  areas  not  covered  by 
federal  funding,  and  the  construction  of  improved  facilities  for  our 
visiting  public  and  Smithsonian  Associates  already  underway  in 
the  West  Court  of  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Overall  Sources  and  Application  of  Funds 

In  Table  1  there  is  shown  a  comparative  listing  of  all  of  the  In- 
stitution's sources  of  financial  support  for  the  past  four  years. 
Federal  appropriations  totaling  $74,511,000  provided  76.3  percent 
of  the  $97,623,000  of  overall  operating  funds  in  fiscal  year  1975. 
Grants  and  contracts  at  $12,292,000  equaled  12.6  percent,  and 
nonfederal  (private  trust  funds)  sources  accounted  for  11.1  per- 
cent of  the  total;  the  proportions  provided  by  both  of  these  sources 
rose  in  the  past  year,  gains  which  are  in  line  with  the  Institution's 

28  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 










Table  1.  Overall  Sources  of  Financial  Support 

Sources  FY  1972       FY  1973       FY  1974       FY  1975 


Federal  appropriation: 

Salaries  and  expenses   $44,701 

Smithsonian  Science 

Information  Exchange  ....  1,600 

Special  Foreign  Currency 

Program    3,500 

Subtotal    $49,801  $56,733  $65,063  $74,511 

Research  grants  and  contracts  .  .  8,088  8,996  9,996  12,292 

Nonfederal  funds: 

Gifts  (excluding  gifts  to 


Restricted  purpose   1,598 

Unrestricted  purpose 26* 

Income  from  endowment  and 

current  funds  investment 

Restricted  purpose   1,573 

Unrestricted  purpose 334 

Revenue -producing   activities 

(net)     (141) 

Miscellaneous    482 

Total  nonfederal  funds  .  .  3,872 

Total  Operating  Support     $61,761 


Federal  Construction  Funds: 

National  Zoological  Park   ...      $      200 
National  Air  &  Space  Museum         1,900 

Hirshhorn  Museum   3,697 

Restoration  &  Renovation  of 

Buildings    ,  550 

Total  Federal  Construction 

Funds    $  6,347 

Private  Plant  &  Land  Acquisition 
Cooper-Hewitt  Museum   ....      $      700 

Hirshhorn  Museum   - 

Chesapeake  Bay  Center   ....  386 

Anacostia  Neighborhood 

Museum    - 

Total   Private   Plant   and 
Acquisition  Funds    $  1,086 

























$   675 

$  3,790 

$  9,420 













$   106 

$   262 

$   162 










$   255 

$  1,332 

$   187 

*  Excluding  gifts  to  Associates  (included  under  Revenue- Producing  Activities). 
**  Includes   $225,000   of   fiscal   year   1973   income   transferred   from   Endowment    Fund 
No.  3  for  this  purpose  in  fiscal  year  1972. 

Financial  Report  I  29 

Table  2.  Source  and  Application  of  Operating  Funds  for 

Year  Ended  June  30,  1975 

(Excludes  Special  Foreign  Currency  Funds,  Plant  Funds,  and  Endowments) 

[In  $l,000's] 

Nonfederal  funds 




















Cen-      con- 






eral       tracts 


1  July  1974  $   -0-  $  6,792  $3,477  $   -0-  $  460  $2,802  $    53 


Federal  Appropriations   .  .  .  $72,511 

Investment    Income $  2,677  $  950  $  -  $        3  $1,724  $ 

Grants  and  Contracts   12,344  -  _  _  -     12,344 

Gifts    4,577  46  147  207     4,177 

Sales  and  Revenue 18,866  -     18,655  211 

Other 1,194  228  -  330        636 

Total  Provided    $72,511  $39,658  $1,224  $18,802  $    751  $6,537  $12,344 

Total  Available $72,511  $46,450  $4,701  $18,802  $1,211  $9,339  $12,397 



Environmental  Science    ...      $  1,277  $      371  $      30  $  -  $        5  $      46  $      290 

Natl.  Museum  of  Nat. 

History    9,260       1,338  84  -  44        216  994 

Natl.  Zoological  Park    5,429  87  39  -  1  40  7 

Fort  Pierce  Bureau   -  648  -  -  1        647 

Science  Info.  Exchange*   .  .  1,805  11  -  -  -  - 

Smithsonian    Astrophysical 

Observatory 3,501        7,918  65  -  28         119       7,706 

Radiation  Biology  Lab 1,727  87  -  -  3  7  77 

Smithsonian  Tropical 

Research  Institute 1,205  110  1  -  87  22 

Interdisciplinary  Communi- 
cations Program    -       1,244  23  -  -  15        1,206 

Natl.  Air  and  Space 

Museum    3,947  366  4  -  88         142  132 

Other  Science    1,272       1,079  8  -  15        110  946 

Total    29,423     13,249         255  -         272     1,364      11,358 

History  and  Art: 

Natl.  Portrait  Gallery    ....  1,499  244  10  -  16         180  38 

Natl.  Collection  of 

Fine  Arts    2,046  66  10  -  43  11  2 

Freer  Gallery 380       1,088  _  _  _     i,088 

Natl.    Museum    of    History 

and  Technology 4,992  660  50  -  82        467  61 

Cooper-Hewitt  Museum    .  .  209  482  2  -  -        298  182 

Table  2.  Source  and  Application  of  Operating  funds  for 

Year  Ended  June  30,  1975 — continued 

[In  $l,000's] 


Nonfederal  funds 



















Gen-      con- 






eral       tracts 


17,507         164      16,494 

Archives  of  American 

Art     279           214 

Bicentennial  of  the 

American  Revolution  .  .  .  3,855 

Millwood - 

Hirshhorn  Museum    1,541 

Other  History  and  Art   .  .  .  363 

Total    15,164 

Public  Service: 

Revenue-Producing  Activities 

Smithsonian  Press    586           361 

Performing  Arts    482       1,205 

Other     -     15,600 

Anacostia   Museum    403            42 

Other  Public  Service 862           299 

Total    2,333 

Museu^n  Programs: 

Libraries    1,564 

Exhibits 936 

Natl.  Museum  Act  Pgms.  .  .  802 

Other  Museum  Programs  .  .  1,867 

Total    5,169 

Buildings  Management  and 

Protection  Services 15,840 

Administration    4,582 

Overhead  Recovered  ...  - 
Transfers  for  Designated 

Purposes — Out  or  (In)  .  .  - 

Total  Funds  Applied  $72,511 


30  June  1975 $      -0-  $  9,317  $3,767  $ 












































































$18,802   $ 




$37,133  $ 


$1,071   $4,374   $       105 

*  Figures  do  not  include  revenues  to  SSIE  from  other  sources  of  approximately  $800,000. 

Table  3.  Application  of  Federal  Appropriations 

Fiscal  Year  1972  through  Fiscal  Year  1975 

(Excluding  Special  Foreign  Currency  Program) 

[In  $l,000's] 

Area  FY  1972       FY  1973       FY  1974       FY  1975 

Science    $18,365  $20,329  $24,884  $29,423 

History  and  Art 6,285  8,022  12,130  15,164 

Public  Service   2,093  2,253  2,696  2,333 

Museum  Programs 5,881  6,660  4,321  5,169 

Administration    3,235  3,987  4,693  4,582 

Building  Maintenance  and 

Protection     10,442  11,982  11,839  15,840 

Total    $46,301  $53,233  $60,563         $72,511 

goal  of  restoring  a  better  balance  between  federal  and  nonfederal 
support.  Construction  funds  totaling  just  over  $18,000,000  in  fiscal 
year  1975  continue  to  be  provided  almost  exclusively  by  federal 

The  application  in  fiscal  year  1975  of  all  of  these  funds  (exclud- 
ing Special  Foreign  Currency  funds.  Plant  funds  and  Endowment 
funds)  to  Smithsonian's  diverse  activities  is  set  forth  in  Table  2. 
Detailed  discussion  of  the  various  types  of  income  and  their  uses 

For  fiscal  year  1975,  Congress  provided  $70,706,000  of  appropriated 
funds  for  the  Smithsonian's  normal  operating  purposes  ("salaries 
and  expenses"),  a  generous  increase  of  $11,838,000  over  the  pre- 
ceding year. 

Of  this  increase,  $6,500,000  was  devoted  primarily  to  furthering 
the  three  high-priority  program  objectives  followed  in  fiscal  year 
1974,  namely:  (1)  continued  preparation  for  opening  of  the  new 
National  Air  and  Space  Museum  in  July  1976;  (2)  development  of 
Bicentennial  activities;  and  (3)  further  strengthening  of  the  many 
services  needed  for  the  protection,  care,  and  cataloguing  of  col- 
lections and  support  for  related  research.  The  remaining  45  percent. 

32  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Table  4.  Special  Foreign  Currency  Program 

Fiscal  Year  1975  Obligations 

[In  $i,ooo's] 


atic & 


&  Earth 



Country  ology  Biology  Sciences  Programs  tration  Total 

India     $    196,206  $  69,740  $  34,900  $  48,472  $  96,631  $    445,949 

Egypt    1,322,685  16,796  10,125  17,900  1,800  1,369,306 

Pakistan     101,901  94,390  -  3,948  435  200,674 

Poland    4,826  68,497  165,449  185,728  -  424,500 

Tunisia 326,175  459,231  2,431  622  1,473  789,932 

Burma     -  -  -  36  -  36 

Total     $1,951,793  $708,654  $212,905  $256,706  $100,339  $3,230,397 

or  about  $5,300,000,  plus  an  estimated  $2,000,000  more  used  for 
other  purposes  last  year,  was  required  to  meet  the  costs  of 
legislated  and  other  uncontrollable  increases  in  federal  salaries, 
severe  increases  in  utility  and  rental  rates,  and  the  inflationary  rise 
in  prices  of  other  materials  and  services.  An  additional  $1,805,000 
was  provided  for  the  work  of  the  Smithsonian  Science  Information 
Exchange,  a  separately  incorporated  organization,  engaged  in  re- 
cording, classifying  and  furnishing  information  on  a  wide  variety 
of  on-going  research  projects  in  such  fields  as  water  resources  and 
medical  and  environmental  studies.  Its  scope  and  usefulness  has 
been  expanding  rapidly  in  recent  years.  The  allocation  of  these 
federal  operating  funds  among  major  categories  of  Institutional 
endeavor  may  be  found  in  Table  3. 

Additional  appropriated  funds  for  Smithsonian's  Foreign  Cur- 
rency Program  were  greatly  reduced  in  fiscal  year  1975  to 
$2,000,000,  of  which  $1,000,000  was  reserved  for  the  second  of 
four  equal  payments  to  cover  the  United  States'  participation  in 
UNESCO's  international  campaign  to  preserve  archeological  monu- 
ments on  the  Island  of  Philae  in  Egypt.  Remaining  amounts  of  these 
blocked  foreign  currencies  allocated  to  the  Smithsonian  are  awarded 
to  universities  and  similar  United  States  organizations  to  conduct 
research  studies  in  a  number  of  foreign  countries  (see  Table  4). 

Financial  Report  I  33 

Federal  appropriations  for  construction  purposes  in  fiscal  year  1975 
amounted  to  $10,910,000  plus  $7,000,000  more  toward  continued 
payments  for  the  new  National  Air  and  Space  Museum  under  con- 
tract authority  provided  in  fiscal  year  1973.  The  advisability  of 
completing,  over  about  a  ten-year  period,  the  phased  renovation  of 
the  National  Zoo  in  accordance  with  its  approved  master  plan  was 
given  strong  recognition  in  the  boost  to  $9.4  million  in  funds  for 
this  purpose.  This  fiscal  year  1975  allotment  will  go  toward  con- 
struction of  the  new  elephant  and  bird  house  environs  and  an 
education  and  administration  building.  The  $1.5  million  granted 
toward  restoration  and  renovation  of  buildings  will,  among  other 
things,  provide  for  installation  of  fire  control  systems,  repairs  to 
the  old  Arts  and  Industries  Building,  and  improvements  to  the 
unsightly  grounds  south  of  the  "Old  Castle"  Building. 


In  recent  years  a  major  portion  of  the  research  projects  of  the  In- 
stitution have  been  funded  by  grants  and  contracts  from  federal 
agencies,  and  in  fiscal  year  1975  this  contribution  increased  signif- 
icantly to  more  than  $12  million.  As  detailed  in  Table  2,  the  sci- 
ence programs  of  the  Institution  benefited  in  largest  measure;  the 
Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory  accounted  for  more  than 
one-half  of  these  funds,  receiving  support  from  the  National 
Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration  for  such  projects  as  a  Dop- 
pler  tracking  experiment  for  the  ApoUo-Soyuz  project,  meteor 
studies,  and  the  satellite  tracking  program.  Other  awards  to  the 
Smithsonian  covered  such  diverse  programs  as  investigations  on 
endangered  plant  species  and  a  study  of  international  oil  spills  to 
research  on  the  ethnic  origins  of  man  in  America  and  abroad,  and 
a  compilation  of  the  papers  of  the  artist  Charles  Willson  Peale.  A 
breakdown  of  the  major  granting  agencies  to  the  Smithsonian, 
together  with  the  funds  expended  over  the  past  four  years,  is  shown 
in  Table  5. 


From  1846,  the  year  in  which  Congress  passed  legislation  establish- 
ing the  Smithsonian  Institution,  until  1858,  when  the  first  federal 

34  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Table  5.  Grants  and  Contracts 
[In  $l,000's] 

Federal  Agencies                         FY  1972  FY  1973     FY  1974      FY  1975 

Atomic  Energy  Commission   $      73  $      76         $      71         $        84 

Department  of  Commerce 392  203 

Department  of  Defense 916  969 

Department  of  Health,  Education 

and  Welfare    411  306 

Department  of  Interior 247  230 

Department  of  Labor    11  51 

Department   of   State    195  593 

National  Aeronautics  and  Space 

Administration     4,605  4,923 

National  Endowments  for  the  Arts 

and  Humanities   35  58 

National  Science  Foundation 560  957 

Other    643  630 





















Total     $8,088  $8,996  $9,996  $12,292 

operating  funds  were  appropriated  for  the  use  of  the  Institution 
($4,000),  the  current  needs  of  the  Smithsonian  were  met  from  the 
investment  income  of  James  Smithson's  bequest  to  the  American 
people.  As  Congress  entrusted  additional  responsibilities  to  the 
Smithsonian,  however,  together  with  the  annual  appropriations  to 
fulfill  them,  the  federal  portion  of  the  Institution's  budget  grew, 
exceeding  $1,000,000  in  1927  and  $10,000,000  in  1963.  While  the 
private  resources  have  also  grown  substantially  since  these  early 
days,  the  maintenance  of  the  uniquely  federal-private  nature  of  the 
Smithsonian  requires  constant  efforts  to  increase  our  private 
sources  of  income. 

In  fiscal  year  1975,  these  efforts  again  met  with  success,  and  the 
total  private  funds  income  to  the  Institution  from  gifts,  investment 
income,  revenue-producing  activities,  fees,  and  other  revenues 
totaled  $11,007,000  compared  to  the  prior  year's  level  of 
$8,954,000.  The  private  trust  funds  provided  11  percent  of  the 
total  operating  support  of  the  Institution,  up  from  9  percent  last 
year.  In  addition,  gifts  and  fund-raising  efforts  provided  $187,000 
for  plant  improvements,  principally  for  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum 
(see  Table  6). 

financial  Report  I  35 

Table  6.  Total  Private  Funds  Income  Fiscal  Year  1975 
[In  $l,000's] 

Unrestricted  Purposes 

General  & 

Revenue-  Special  Restricted 

Revenue  Sources                       producing  purposes*  purposes 


Investments    $    950  $     3  $1,724 

Gifts     46**  207  4,177 

Revenue-Producing  Activities    2,308  -  - 

Concessions  and  Miscellaneous    228  541  636 

Total  Operating  Funds    $3,532  $751  $6,537 



Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum   .  .      $        -  $     -  $      10 

Chesapeake  Bay  Center -  -  15 

Cooper-Hewitt  Museum    -  -  51 

Total  Gifts   $        -  $     -  $      76 

Miscellaneous — 

Cooper-Hewitt  Museum    $        -  $-  $    HI 

Total   Plant    $        -  $     -  $    187 

Grand  Total    $3,532  $751  $6,724 


$  2,677 




$  111 
$  187 

*  Represents  unrestricted   income  designated  by  management   to  be  used   only   for   specific 
**  Excluding  $145,000  gifts  to  Associates  and  $2,000  gifts  to  Press  (included  under  Revenue- 
Producing  Activities). 

Unrestricted  Private  Funds 

In  fiscal  year  1975  the  Institution  was  able  to  continue  last  year's 
pattern  of  generating  unrestricted  income  excess  to  its  immediate 
operating  needs.  While  administrative  expenses  grew,  along  with 
the  number  of  research  and  museum  projects  dependent  on  these 
unrestricted  funds,  it  was  nevertheless  possible  to  take  a  major  step 
toward  our  goal  of  building  the  Institution's  endowments  by  a 
transfer  of  $1,442,000  from  current  into  unrestricted  endowment 
funds.  It  is  our  intention  to  make  similar  transfers  annually  to  the 

36  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

extent  compatible  with  current  needs,  in  order  to  strengthen  the 
Institution's  private  resources  for  the  future. 

As  shown  in  Table  7 ,  total  unrestricted  income  rose  20  percent 
this  past  year  to  a  record  level  of  $3,532,000.  Despite  a  propor- 
tionately large   rise  in  administrative   expense   due   to   salary   in- 

Table  7.  Unrestricted.  Private  Funds 

General  and  Revenue-Producing  Activities 

(Excluding  Special  Purpose  Funds  and  Gifts  to  Endowment) 

[In  $l,000's] 

Item                              FY  1972  FY  1973  FY  1974     FY  1975 


General  Income: 

Investments   $    334  $    436  $    744  $    950 

Gifts    26  33  151  46 

Concessions  and  Miscellaneous .  .           197  374  284  228 

Total  General  Income 557  843  1,179  1,224 

Revenue-Producing  Activities : 

Associates    76  287  1,590  1,968 

Shops    19  47  226  417 

Press    (Ill)  (109)  (89)  (96) 

Performing  Arts    (50)  (65)  104  (79) 

Product  Development    -  69  37  218 

Other  Activities    (75)  (59)  (98)  (120) 

Total  Activities (141)  170  1,770  2,308 

Total  Income 416  1,013  2,949  3,532 


Administrative  Expense    2,956  3,097  3,957  4,780 

Less  Administrative  Recovery 2,639  2,772  3,345  3,644 

Net  Administrative  Expense    ....           317  325  612  1,136 

Net  Gain  (Loss)  Before  Transfers  .  .             99  688  2,337  2,396 

Less  Transfers: 

To  Plant -  -  1,134  97 

To    Endowment    21  21  121  1,463 

Other  (Net)    17  124  307  546 

Net  Gain  (Loss)  After  Transfers  ...             61  543  775  290 

Ending    Balance    $1,781  $2,292*-  $3,477*  $3,767 

Adjusted  to  reflect  reclassification  to  Plant  Funds  of  $32,000  net  investment  in 
capitalized  equipment  in  fiscal  year  1974  and  $410,000  reclassification  from  Plant 
Funds  to  Current  Funds  in  fiscal  year  1975. 

Financial  Report  I  37 

creases,  other  inflationary  pressures,  and  a  greater  number  of 
allotments  to  Smithsonian  bureaux  for  special  needs,  the  net  gain 
before  transfers  for  special  purposes  was  nevertheless  higher  than 
last  year.  These  transfers,  described  below,  also  exceeded  those  of 
the  prior  year,  but  left  some  $290,000  to  be  added  to  the  un- 
restricted fund  balance  at  year's  end,  raising  it  to  $3,767,000,  a 
level  more  compatible  with  the  Institution's  working  capital  needs. 

Investment  income,  partly  from  unrestricted  endowment  and 
partly  from  short-term  investment  of  current  funds,  increased  to 
$950,000  this  past  year;  of  this  income,  however,  approximately 
$190,000  was  transferred  to  Smithsonian  bureaux  as  interest  on 
their  restricted-purpose  fund  balances.  Unrestricted  gift  income 
decreased,  indicating  once  again  the  difficulty  of  obtaining  support 
for  general  purposes.  As  has  been  the  case  in  the  prior  two  years, 
the  major  contributors  to  the  Institution's  unrestricted  budget  were 
the  educational  and  revenue-producing  activities,  which  have 
proven  able,  not  only  to  cover  their  costs  in  extending  Smithsonian 
programs  beyond  the  geographical  limits  of  Washington,  but  also 
to  generate  funds  to  supplement  other  research  and  museum  pro- 
grams of  the  Institution. 

The  Associates  program,  now  ten  years  old,  offers  its  various 
categories  of  members  such  benefits  as  tours,  lectures,  exhibit 
openings,  special  restaurant  facilities,  courses  of  study,  discounts 
on  Museum  Shop  merchandise,  and,  of  course,  the  Smithsonian 
magazine.  This  program,  with  a  membership  in  excess  of  900,000 
at  year's  end,  is  enabling  the  Smithsonian  to  subsidize  important 
research  projects  for  which  funds  would  not  otherwise  be  available, 
as  well  as  to  improve  our  educational  services  to  the  public.  Due 
in  large  measure  to  the  success  of  this  program,  the  Institution  will 
be  able  to  construct  special  facilities  in  Washington  during  the 
Bicentennial  year  to  welcome  the  ever-increasing  number  of  visitors 
to  our  museums. 

Substantial  investments  of  time  and  money  in  the  Museum 
Shops,  to  improve  the  quality  and  relevance  of  the  merchandise  as 
well  as  the  physical  design  of  the  shops  themselves,  has  resulted 
in  a  further  gain  in  net  income,  to  a  level  of  $417,000.  One-third  of 
these  gains  ($139,000)  was  transferred  directly  back  to  the  in- 
dividual museums  in  which  the  shops  are  located  for  public  educa- 
tion  programs    and    purchases    for    the    collections.    The    Product 

38  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Development  Program  received  net  royalties  of  $218,000  from  the 
sale  by  outside  manufacturers  of  licensed  products  developed  in 
concert  with  Smithsonian  staff  and  related  to  the  national  collec- 
tions. As  with  Museum  Shops'  gains,  distributions  were  made  to 
participating  bureaux  totaling  $83,000.  Detail  on  these  and  other 
activities  is  shown  in  Table  8. 

From  the  net  gain  of  $2,396,000,  transfers  were  made  as  noted 
above  to  Endowment  ($1,442,000  to  Unrestricted,  and  $21,000  to 
Restricted  Endowment),  and  to  the  Bureaux  from  Revenue-Pro- 
ducing Activities  ($222,000).  In  addition,  transfers  were  made  for 
land  acquisition  at  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  ($97,000),  operation 
of  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  ($34,000),  special  research  grants 
to  Smithsonian  scientists  ($102,000),  payment  of  interest  to  bureaux 
on  their  restricted  and  special  purpose  funds  ($194,000),  and 
miscellaneous  incoming  transfers  of  $6,000. 

Table  8.  Revenue-Producing  Activities  for  Fiscal  Year  1975 

[In  $l,000's] 


Mu-      Smith-      sonian  Per-  Product 

seum      sonian       Asso-  forming  Devel- 

Item                      Total     Shops     Press*       dates  Arts  opment  Other** 

Sales  and  Revenues  .  .  $18,459  $3,211       $189       $13,524  $436  $302         $797 

Less  Cost  of  Sales  .  .  .        8,310     1,802          169            5,977  68  -            294 

Gross  Income  .     10,149     1,409            20            7,547  368  302            503 

Gifts    147             -              2               145  -  -                - 

Other  Income    196           10            74                 41  43  -              28 

Total  Income    .     10,492     1,419            96            7,733  411  302            531 

Expenses 7,563         902          180            5,352  442  79            608 

Administrative    Costs          621        100           12              413  48  5             43 

Income   (Loss)   Before 

Transfers    2,308         417          (96)           1,968  (79)  218           (120) 

Less  Transfers 219         139***        -                   -  -  83***        (3) 

Net  Income  (Loss)    .  .    $   2,089      $278        $(96)       $  1,968  $(79)  $135        $(117) 

*  The  privately  funded  activities  of  the  Press  as  opposed  to  the  federally  supported  publica- 
tion of  research  papers. 

**  Includes   Traveling   Exhibitions,   Belmont   Conference    Center,    Photo  Sales,   "Commons" 

Restaurant,    Center    for    Short-Lived    Phenomena,    Special  Publications    and    Television 
***  Allocations  to  the  Smithsonian  bureaux  participating  in  this  program. 

Financial  Report  I  39 

Special  Purpose  funds  are  set  out  separately  in  Table  6  as  well 
as  in  Table  2.  These  moneys  include  unrestricted  gifts  to  particular 
bureaux  ($207,000)  and  receipts  from  various  bureau  enterprises 
($541,000),  such  as  parking  at  the  National  Zoological  Park  or  sale 
of  commemorative  envelopes  at  the  National  Air  and  Space 
Museum,  which  are  then  reserved  for  improvement  of  facilities  or 
exhibits.  The  balance  of  these  funds  at  June  30,  1975,  was 
$1,071,000,  compared  with  $460,000  in  1974.  This  substantial  in- 
crease, despite  the  use  of  more  than  $500,000  of  such  funds  for 
numerous  bureaux  as  shown  in  Table  2,  reflects  both  the  income 
noted  above  as  well  as  the  transfers  from  Revenue-Producing 
Activities  and  the  payment  of  interest  on  fund  balances. 

Restricted  Private  Funds 

The  Institution  also  received  $6,537,000  in  fiscal  year  1975  for  a 
wide  variety  of  specified,  or  "restricted,"  operating  purposes,  as 
compared  to  $4,266,000  in  fiscal  year  1974.  This  total  includes 
gifts  and  grants  of  $4,177,000,  endowment  income  of  $1,724,000, 
and  miscellaneous  revenues  of  $636,000;  a  partial  breakdown  show- 
ing the  principal  recipients  appears  in  Table  9. 

Endowment  income  provided  the  major  operating  support  for 
the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  and  the  Fort  Pierce  Bureau,  with  the  re- 
mainder of  the  endowment  funds  (outlined  below)  benefiting 
projects  throughout  the  Institution.  The  gifts  and  grants  to  the 
Institution  are  far  too  numerous  to  describe  fully,  although  a 
partial  listing  of  donors  follows  this  report.  Their  support  to  the 
restricted  funds,  however,  provided  the  greater  portion  of  the 
operating  budgets  of  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of  Decorative 
Arts  and  Design  and  Hillwood,  the  former  estate  of  Mrs.  Marjorie 
Merriweather  Post.  Major  support  was  provided  to  the  National 
Air  and  Space  Museum  by  gifts  from  the  Summa  Corporation  for 
general  exhibits  purposes  and  from  the  German  Federal  Republic 
for  construction  and  equipping  of  its  new  Spacearium;  these  gifts 
are  of  immense  value  to  the  Institution  in  its  commitment  to  open 
this  museum  on  July  4,  1976.  Another  Bicentennial  project  which 
received  important  funding  was  the  Division  of  Performing  Arts 

40  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Table  9.  Restricted  Operating  Private  Funds,*  Fiscal  Year  1975 

[In  $i,ooo's] 



Archives  of  American  Art  .  . . . 
National  Museum  of  History 

and  Technology: 

American  Banking  Exhibit   .  . 

American  Maritime  Hall  .  .  .  . 
Cooper-Hewitt  Museum: 


Funds  for  Collections 

and  other 

Special  Purpose  Funds 

Division  of  Performing  Arts   .  . 

Fort    Pierce   Bureau    

Freer  Gallery   


National  Air  &  Space  Museum 
Woodrow  Wilson  Center**  . . . 

Total  Restricted  Funds    . 

Net  in-       Fund 
Trans-  crease      balance 
Miscel-  Total    Deduc-  fers  in     (de-         end  of 


ment      Gifts   laneous  income    tions      (out)    crease) 

4     $      22     $263     $    289    $    212     $39       $    116       $    321 




























































































■  Excluding  Grants  and  Contracts  shown  in  Table  5  and  also  Restricted  Plant  Funds  included  in  Table  6. 
Included  herein  even  though  federal  funds  of  the  Center   are  not  a  part  of  this  report,  since   the  Smith- 
sonian is  by  legislative  act  the  official  recipient  and  custodian. 

which  plans  an  extended  Festival  of  American  Folklife  in  the 
summer  of  1976;  grants  from  General  Foods  Corporation  and 
American  Airlines  are  reflected  in  Table  9,  with  further  payments 
from  these  corporations  expected  in  fiscal  year  1976.  Generous 
support  received  from  inland  waterways  transportation  firms  is 
making  possible  further  progress  toward  the  building  of  an 
exciting  new  American  Maritime  Hall  in  the  National  Museum  of 
History  and  Technology. 

The  Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars  re- 
ceived substantial  grants  both  for  on-going  projects  as  well  as  for 
the  establishment  of  the  new  Institute  for  Advanced  Russian 
Studies,  announced  during  this  past  year. 

Miscellaneous  receipts  from  the  Freer  Gallery  sales  desk  and 

Financial  Report  I  41 

special  fund-raising  activities  of   the   Archives   of   American   Art 
gave  significant  assistance  to  those  programs. 

As  mentioned  on  page  35,  another  $187,000  of  restricted  funds 
was  also  received  for  plant  construction  purposes,  principally  for 
renovation  of  the  Carnegie  Mansion,  new  home  of  the  Cooper- 
Hewitt  Museum.  An  additional  $1,000,000  for  this  purpose  is  still 
being  sought. 

Endowment  Funds 

The  Smithsonian  endowment  funds  had  a  market  value  on  June 
30,  1975,  of  $41,939,000.  They  consist  of  the  Freer  Fund,  whose 
income  is  used  solely  by  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art;  Endowment 
Fund  No.  3,  which  supports  oceanographic  research  at  the  Fort 
Pierce  Bureau  in  Florida;  other  restricted  funds,  maintaining  a 
large  number  of  research  projects;  and  unrestricted  funds.  As  of 
July  1,  1974,  all  Smithsonian  endowment  funds,  exclusive  of 
$1,000,000  held  in  perpetuity  in  the  U.  S.  Treasury,  and  some 
$72,700  of  miscellaneous  securities,  were  pooled  into  the  Con- 
solidated Endowment  Fund  in  order  to  facilitate  investment  man- 
agement; separate  accounting  and  administration  continues,  how- 
ever, to  be  maintained  on  each  fund  in  this  pool.  Table  10  shows 
the  market  values  of  these  funds  since  1971,  reflecting  additions 
from  donations  and  reinvestment  of  income,  limited  withdrawals, 
and  changes  in  securities  valuations. 

The  investment  of  the  endowment  funds  of  the  Institution  is 
managed  by   three   professional   advisory   firms,   under   the   close 

Table  10.  Market  Value  of  Endowment  Funds 
[In  $l,000's] 

Fund  6/30/71  6/30/72  6/30/73  6/30/74  6/30/75 

Freer     $18,805  $21,973  $18,279  $14,250  $15,744 

Endowment  No.  3 12,331  14,641  13,196  11,128  12,321 

Unrestricted  funds    4,404  5,102  4,759  3,906  5,654 

Restricted   funds    7,066  8,185  7,634  6,266  7,148 

Total     $42,606  $49,901  $43,868  $35,550  $40,867 

42  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

surveillance  of  the  Investment  Policy  Committee  and  the  Treasurer, 
and  subject  to  policy  guidelines  set  by  the  Smithsonian's  Board  of 
Regents.  In  1972  the  Board  of  Regents  adopted  the  total  return 
policy,  under  which  the  income  paid  to  each  endowment  fund  in 
the  subsequent  fiscal  year  is  determined  each  March  31  by  com- 
puting 4V2  percent  of  the  running  five-year  average  of  market 
values,  adjusted  for  additions  or  withdrawals  of  capital.  By  select- 
ing a  fixed  rate  of  return,  regardless  of  what  the  actual  yield  may 
be,  the  investment  advisors  may  select  securities  for  growth  as 
well  as  present  yield,  without  being  limited  by  the  need  to  achieve 
a  specified  dividend  and  interest  income  level. 

One  of  the  goals  of  the  Smithsonian  administration  has  been  to 
increase  our  endowment  funds,  particularly  those  for  unrestricted 
uses,  which  are  still  minimal  in  relation  to  the  size  of  the  Institu- 
tion, providing  only  a  small  fraction  of  one  percent  of  the  total 
operating  income.  Due  to  the  unrestricted  current  funds  surplus 
achieved  for  fiscal  year  1975,  it  was  possible,  as  described  above,  to 
transfer  $1,422,000  into  the  unrestricted  endowment  funds,  and 
further  such  transfers  will  be  a  major  priority  in  future  years. 
Table  11  reflects  the  changes  in  the  endowment  funds  this  past 
year  due  to  this  transfer,  reinvestment  of  income  in  certain  re- 
stricted funds,  donations,  and  stock  market  action.  The  substantial 
increase  in  market  values  over  the  year  of  $3,930,000  is  attribu- 

Table  11.  Changes  in  Endowment  Funds  for  Fiscal  Year  1975 

[In  $l,000's] 

Gifts  Interest  Increase 

Market         and         and  Income                         in         Market 

value         trans-       divi-  paid  Sub-       market     value 

Fund                        6/30/74         fers  dends*  out  total        value     6/30/75 

Freer  Fund    $14,250       $        -     $    663     $    839     $14,074     $1,670     $15,744 


No.    3     11,128  68  539  525        11,210        1,111        12,321 


funds      3,906  1,442  186  203  5,331  323  5,654 


funds      6,266  84  316  344  6,322  826  7,148 

Total     $35,550**   $1,594      $1,704      $1,911      $36,937     $3,930     $40,867** 

*  Income  earned  less  managers'  fees. 
**  Not  including  Endowment  Funds  of  $1,000,000  held  in  U.S.  Treasury,  carrying  6  percent 
interest,  nor  minor  amount  of  miscellaneous  securities  treated  separately. 

Financial  Report  I  43 

Table  12.  Consolidated  Endowment  Funds 
June  30,  1975 




Funds  participating  in  pool               Book  value  value 

FREER     $15,324,967     $15,743,612 

ENDOWMENT  NO.   3    12,249,146  12,320,695 

UNRESTRICTED   FUNDS    5,848,197  5,654,142 


Abbott,  William   L 201,567  207,532 

Archives   of  American  Art*    

Armstrong,  Edwin  James    4,129  3,678 

Arthur,  James    58,605  77,876 

Bacon,  Virginia   Purdy    176,767  161,967 

Baird,   Spencer   Fullerton    53,885  69,613 

Barney,   Alice   Pike    42,032  55,806 

Barstow,  Frederic  D 1,932  1,987 

Batchelor,  Emma  E 64,533  57,725 

Beauregard,  Catherine 

Memorial  Fund 73,964  77,552 

Becker,  George  F 303,620  280,334 

Brown,    Roland   W 48,642  53,224 

Canfield,  Frederick  A 55,035  85,801 

Casey,  Thomas  Lincoln 24,241  25,001 

Chamberlain,  Frances  Lea    41,269  54,794 

Cooper,  G.  Arthur,  Curator's  Fund  3,144  3,003 

Cooper-Hewitt    Museum    152,251  134,564 

Desautels,    Paul    E 11,645  12,627 

Div.  of  Mammals  Curator  Fund.  .  .  3,205  3,182 

Div.  of  Reptiles  Curator  Fund   .  .  .  959  941 

Drake,   Carl   J 277,202  262,355 

Dykes,  Charles    83,258  85,827 

Eickemeyer,  Florence  Brevoort    .  .  .  15,930  21,142 

Guggenheim,  David  and  Florence  .  .  228,910  199,823 
Hanson,  Martin  Gustav  and 

Caroline    Runice     17,192  17,722 

Henderson,  Edward  P., 

Meteorite    Fund    590  692 

Hillyer,    Virgil     12,711  13,111 

Hitchcock,  Albert  S 2,308  3,119 

Hrdlicka,  Ales  and  Marie   90,934  96,952 

Hughes,   Bruce    28,046  37,288 

Johnson,  E.  R.  Fenimore 15,706  13,121 

Kellogg,  Remington,  Memorial   .  .  .  46,668  38,189 

Lindsey,  Jessie  H 560  548 

Loeb,  Morris    168,848  175,769 

Long,  Annette  E.  and  Edith  C.   .  .  .  794  1,085 

Lyons,  Marcus   Ward    8,424  7,084 

Maxwell,  Mary  E 28,741  38,205 

Myer,  Catherine  Walden   39,074  40,283 




Net  income 


$  839,354 


















































































44  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Table  12.  Consolidated  Endowment  Funds 
June  30,  1975 — continued 




Market  1975  pended 

Funds  participating  in  pool  Book  value  value          Net  income  balance 

Nelson,  Edward  William    35,153  43,264  2,089  2,089 

Noyes,    Frank    B 1,874  2,030  98  1,335 

Pell,  Cornelia  Livingston    14,349  14,871  718  3,067 

Petrocelli,  Joseph,  Memorial    10,858  14,491  700  7,883 

Ramsey,  Admiral  and  Mrs. 

DeVVitt    Clinton    507,359  430,685  20,759  26,237 

Rathbun,  Richard,  Memorial 20,584  21,308  1,029  11,785 

Reid,  Addison  T 34,396  35,456  1,712  2,323 

Roebling  Collection   176,974  233,713  11,284 

Roebling  Solar  Research    47,677  45,813  2,212 

Rollins,  Miriam  and  William    ....  290,173  337,235  16,078  956 

Ruef,    Bertha    M 61,253  51,136  2,469  3,599 

Smithsonian  Agency  Account   ....  200,933  173,087  7,891  - 

Sprague,  Joseph  White    2,128,377  2,028,893  96,734  25,405 

Springer,  Frank 26,282  34,875  1,684  21,810 

Stevenson,  John  A 9,052  9,475  458  458 

Strong,  Julia  D 19,348  20,023  967  4,726 

T.F.H.  Publications,  Inc 16,793  16,213  715  7,894 

Walcott,  Charles  D 185,976  210,940  10,057  5,149 

Walcott,  Charles  D.  and 

Mary   Vaux    674,384  894,812  43,205  11,417 

Walcott  Botanical  Publications    .  .  .  85,193  108,546  5,241  2,643 

Zerbee,  Francis  Brinckle 1,392  1,833  89  1,807 

Total  Restricted  Funds    $  6,935,901  $  7,148,221     $    343,437  $312,296 

Total  Consolidated 

Endowment  Funds    $40,358,211  $40,866,670     $1,911,278  $435,927 

*  Transferred  to  Current  Funds  6/30/75;  Book  Value  $20,925,  Market  Value  $21,106. 

table  primarily  to  the  sharp  upswing  in  the  stock  market,  and  the 
Smithsonian  funds  performed  somewhat  better  during  this  period 
than  the  generally  accepted  market  indexes. 

Income  of  $1,911,000,  net  of  managers  and  custodial  fees,  was 
paid  out  during  the  year  under  the  total  return  policy,  which  was 
$207,000  in  excess  of  actual  dividend  and  interest  yield.  A  break- 
down of  the  income  to  the  various  funds  participating  in  the  Con- 
solidated Endowment  Funds  is  shown  in  Table  12,  together  with 

Financial  Report  I  45 

the  book  and  market  values  of  those  funds.  Table  13  provides 
detail  on  the  types  of  securities  held  by  the  Institution.  A  listing 
of  the  individual  investraents  held  in  the  Consolidated  Endowment 
Funds  at  June  30,  1975,  may  be  obtained  upon  request  to  the 
Treasurer  of  the  Institution. 

Table  13.  Endowment  and  Similar  Funds  Summary  of  Investments 

Book  value  Market  value 

Accounts  6/30/75  6/30/75 


Consolidated  Endowment  Funds: 

Cash  and  Equivalents   $  1,108,888  $  1,108,888 

Bonds    8,072,361  7,717,817 

Convertible  Bonds    2,579,706  2,446,265 

Stocks      28,597,256  29,593,700 

Total   $40,358,211  $40,866,670 

Miscellaneous : 

Cash    $              731  $              731 

Bonds    9,769  9,600 

Common  Stocks   3,572  13,987 

Total      $        14,072  $         24,318 

Total  Investments  Accounts    $40,372,283  $40,890,988 

Other  Accounts: 

Notes  Receivable    $        48,354  $         48,354 

Loan  to  U.  S.  Treasury  in  Perpetuity 1,000,000  1,000,000 

Total  Other  Accounts   $  1,048,354  $  1,048,354 

Total  Endowment  and  Similar  Fund  Balances $41,420,637  $41,939,342 

Accounting  and  Auditing 

The  Private  Trust  Funds  of  the  Institution,  as  well  as  the  accounts 
of  Smithsonian  Science  Information  Exchange,  Inc.,  the  Smith- 
sonian Research  Foundation,  and  Reading  Is  Fundamental,  Inc.,  are 
audited  annually  by  independent  public  accountants.  Their  report 
for  fiscal  year  1975  on  the  Smithsonian  is  contained  in  the  fol- 
lowing pages,  including  a  comparative  balance  sheet  and  a  state- 
ment of  changes  in  the  various  fund  balances. 

46  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

The  Defense  Contract  Audit  Agency  annually  performs  an  audit 
on  grant  and  contract  moneys  received  from  federal  agencies.  In 
addition,  the  federally  appropriated  funds  of  the  Institution  are 
subject  to  audit  by  the  General  Accounting  Office.  The  internal 
audit  staff  continues  to  conduct  audits  throughout  the  wide  range 
of  Smithsonian  activities  and  contributes  greatly  to  smooth  ad- 
ministrative and  financial  management. 

Gifts  and  Bequests  to  the  Smithsonian 

The    Smithsonian    Institution    gratefully    acknowledges    gifts    and 
bequests  received  during  fiscal  year  1975  from  the  following: 

$100,000  or  more: 

American  Bankers  Association 

American  Airlines,  Incorporated 


Federal  Republic  of  Germany 

General  Foods  Corporation 

Millwood  Trust 

S.  C.  Johnson  &  Son,  Inc. 

Mobil  Foundation,  Inc. 

The  Marjorie  Merriweather  Post 

Foundation  of  D.  C. 
Summa  Corporation 

$10,000  or  more: 

American  Commercial  Barge  Line 

American  Telephone  and  Telegraph 

The  Arcadia  Foundation 
Atlantic  Richfield  Foundation 
The  Brown  Foundation 
The  Morris  &  Gwendolyn  Cafritz 

CBS  Foundation,  Inc. 
Charron  Foundation 
Continental  Grain  Company 
Mrs.  David  Craven 
Crowley  Maritime  Corporation 
Doubleday  &  Company,  Inc. 
The  Henry  L.  and  Grace  Doherty 

Charitable  Foundation,  Inc. 
The  Charles  Engelhard  Foundation 
The  Eppley  Foundation  for  Research 
The  T.  M.  Evans  Foundation 

Exxon  Corporation 

Firestone  Foundation 

The  Ford  Foundation 

The  General  Electric  Foundation 

Mary  L.  Griggs  and  Mary  G.  Burke 

The  Hillman  Foundation,  Inc. 
Interdisciplinary  Communication 

Associates,  Inc. 
The  J.  M.  Kaplan  Fund,  Inc. 
Lake  Carriers'  Associations 
The  Robert  Lehman  Foundation 
Howard  and  Jean  Lipman 

Foundation,  Inc. 
Mr.  Vasco  McCoy,  Jr. 
State  of  Mississippi 
Mobil  Oil  Corporation 
National  Geographic  Society 
New  York  State  Council  on  the  Arts 
Edward  John  Noble  Foundation 

Financial  Report  I  47 

$10,000  or  more — continued 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  David  Packard 
Pepsi  Cola  Company  Foundation,  Inc. 
Phelps-Dodge  Corporation 
Marjorie  Merriweather  Post 

Foundation  u/a  dated  July  20,  1956 
The  Relm  Foundation 
Rockefeller  Brothers  Fund 
Estate  of  Gertrude  Sampson 
Sears,  Roebuck  and  Company 
St.  Lawrence  Seaway  Commission 

Surdna  Foundation,  Inc. 

The  Allie  L.  Sylvester  Fund,  Inc. 

The  Tobacco  Institute,  Inc. 

United  Seamen's  Service 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Jeremy  P.  Waletsky 

Matilda  R.  Wilson  Fund 

The  Women's  Committee  of  the 

Smithsonian  Associates 
World  Wildlife  Fund 
Xerox  Corporation 

$1,000  or  more: 

The  Ahmanson  Foundation 
Alcoa  Foundation 

American  Can  Company  Foundation 
Allied  Chemical  Foundation 
American  Express  Foundation 
American  College  of  Dentistry 
American  Institute  of  Marine 

American  Institute  of  Merchant 

American  Law  Institute 
American  Metal  Climax 

Foundation,  Inc. 
American  National  Standard  Institute 
American  Studies  Association 
Amoco  Foundation,  Inc. 
The  Annenberg  School  of 


Miss  Amelia  E.  Anthony 
Arthur-Smith  Corporation 
Ashland  Oil,  Inc. 
AVCO  Corporation 
The  Barra  Foundation,  Inc. 
Mrs.  Frederic  C.  Bartlett 
The  Bass  Foundation 
Bath  Iron  Works  Corporation 
Battelle  Laboratories 
The  Bedminster  Fund,  Inc. 
Beneficial  Foundation 
Bethlehem  Steel  Corporation 
Miss  Helen  Bissell 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  Bloom 
Mrs.  Beulah  Boyd 
Mr.  Daniel  J.  Boorstin 
The  Boswell  Oil  Company 

The  Bundy  Foundation 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  I.  F.  Burton 

Canal  Barge  Company,  Inc. 

Cargo  Carriers,  Inc. 

Carter  Hawley  Hale  Stores,  Inc. 

Caterpillar  Tractor  Company 

Mrs.  David  Challinor 

Chase  Manhattan  Bank 

Mr.  Peter  B.  Clark 

The  Coca  Cola  Company 

Community  Funds,  Inc. 

Continental  Oil  Company 

Mrs.  Adolph  Coors  III 

Copernicus  Society 

Corning  Glass  Works 

Dr.  William  H.  Crocker 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Burrill  Crohn 

Dana  Corporation  Foundation 

Mr.  Paul  L.  Davies 

Deere  &  Company 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Henry  H.  Dewar 

Dow  Chemical  U.S.A. 

Elsie  DeWolfe  Foundation 

Dixie  Carriers,  Inc. 

Mr.  Joseph  W.  Donner 

Ms.  Ann  Dreyfuss 

Mr.  John  A.  Dreyfuss 

Earhart  Foundation 

The  Ferdinand  Eberstadt  Foundation 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joel  S.  Ehrenkranz 

Miss  Edith  Ehrman 

El  Paso  Natural  Gas  Company 

Mr.  Alfred  U.  Elser,  Jr. 

Milton  5.  Erlanger,  Trust 

Esso  Middle  East 

Farrell  Lines,  Inc. 

48  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

$1,000  or  more — continued 

Fieldcrest  Mills,  Inc. 

First  National  Bank  in  Palm  Beach 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Benson  Ford 

Mrs.  Edsel  Ford 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Walter  B.  Ford  II 

Ford  Motor  Company  Fund 

General  Telephone  &  Electronics 

Sumner  Gerard  Foundation 
The  Gilman  Foundation 
Gladders  Barge  Line,  Inc. 
Mr.  Alfred  C.  J.  Glassell,  Jr. 
Josephine  Graf  Foundation 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Rudolph  F.  Greiser 
Mr.  Chaim  Gross 
Mr.  M.  D.  Guiness 
Hallmark  Educational  Foundation 
Mrs.  Anne  B.  Harrison 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Davis  Hatch 
Mrs.  Enid  A.  Haupt 
The  Hecht  Company 
Mr.  Henry  J.  Heinz  II 
Mr.  C.  Heurich,  Jr. 
Mr.  Louis  W.  Hill,  Jr. 
Hiram  Walker  &  Sons,  Inc. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  Stewart  Hooker 
Imperial  Embassy  of  Iran 
The  Institute  for  Intercultural 

Studies,  Inc. 
Institute  of  Psychiatry  &  Foreign 

Interstate  Oil  Transport  Company 
International  Association  of  Plant 

International  Council  for  Bird 

Preservation  Pan  American  Section 
Mr.  James  E.  Jarnagin 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  S.  Justman 
Edgar  J.  Kaufmann  Charitable 

Mrs.  Harold  J.  Kersten 
Samuel  H.  Kress  Foundation 
Mrs.  Morris  A.  Levy 
Mr.  Harold  F.  Linder 
The  Link  Foundation 
Mrs.  Kathleen  S.  Louchheim 
S.  C.  Loveland,  Co.,  Inc. 
Mrs.  Percy  C.  Madeira,  Jr. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edward  P.  Maffitt 

Maritime  Overseas  Corporation 
Mr.  Lawrence  K.  Marshall 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  A.  Marsteller 
Chauncey  and  Marion  Deering 

McCormick  Foundation 
Honorable  and  Mrs.  George  McGhee 
McGraw  Hill,  Inc. 
Mrs.  Nancy  M.  McNeil 
Mr.  Robert  L.  McNeil,  Jr. 
Merck  &  Company 
Mrs.  Margaret  Carnegie  Miller 
Mrs.  Irene  Morden 
National  Bank  of  Detroit 
National  Steel  &  Shipbuilding 

Newport  News  Shipbuilding 
Olin  Corporation  Charitable  Trust 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Dan  Oppenheimer 
Optimus  Productions  Ltd. 
PACCAR  Foundation 
J.  C.  Penney  Company,  Inc. 
James  C.  Penney  Foundation,  Inc. 
Philip  Morris  Incorporated 
The  Pioneer  Foundation,  Inc. 
Propeller  Club,  Port  of  New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  L.  Richards 
Anne  S.  Richardson  Fund 
Josephine  C.  Robinson  Foundation 
Estate  of  Berenice  Schwieder 
Security  Storage  Company  of 

Misses  Elsie  and  Dorothy  Shaver 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alger  Shelden 
Shipbuilders  Council  of  America 
The  Sidney  Printing  and  Publishing 

Mr.  Charles  Simons 
Mrs.  Frances  F.  Smith 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  K.  Smith 
Standard  Oil  Company  of  California 
Mrs.  Shirley  Watkins  Stein 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Mark  Stevens 
The  Symonds  Foundation 
Tauber  Oil  Company 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bertrand  L.  Taylor  III 
Time  Incorporated 
Trust  Company  of  Georgia 

T.R.W.  Foundation,  Inc. 

Financial  Report  I  49 

$1,000  or  more — continued 


Union  Mechling  Corporation 
University  of  Michigan 
University  of  Washington 
Walco  National  Corporation 
Mr.  Richard  W.  Weatherhead 
Ellen  Bayard  Weedon  Foundation 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  Weinstein 
Mr.  Royce  S.  Weisenberger,  Jr. 
Westinghouse  Electric  Corporation 

WGBH  Public  Broadcasting,  Boston 
Ms.  Gail  D.  Wilson 
Woodward  and  Lothrop,  Inc. 
Woolworth  and  Woolco  Stores 
Worthington  Sales  Company 
Charles  W.  Wright  Foundation  of 

Badger  Meter,  Inc. 
Young  Men's  Christian  Association 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Zell 

$500  or  more: 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Philip  W.  Amram 

Mr.  Thomas  D.  Anderson 


Arizona  Historical  Society 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  C.  Barbour 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bernhard  G.  Bechhoefer 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Roger  K.  Becker 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  M.  Begg 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Spencer  M.  Berger 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  Pierre  Bernard 

Mr.  Frank  E.  Bevens,  Jr. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  William  Bliss 

Bloomingdale  Brothers 

Mrs.  Neville  J.  Booker 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  E.  Brown 

Dr.  Erika  Bruck 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Curt  F.  Buhler 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edward  P.  Bullock 

Mr.  Hugh  Bullock 

Campbell  Barge  Line,  Inc. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  F.  Cassidy 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Blair  Childs 

Copley  Newspapers 

Mr.  Julien  Cornell 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  F.  W.  Corwin 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  L.  Craig 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  B.  W.  Grain,  Jr. 

Mrs.  Allerton  Cushman 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ray  H.  Davies 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  B.  N.  Desenberg 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lowell  R.  Ditzen 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Leonard  G.  Doak 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edward  Edgar 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Herbert  R.  Elsas 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  W.  Farr 

First  National  Bank  of  Boston 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sebastian  Gaeta 
General  Agents  and  Managers 

Conference  of  N.A.L.V. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  W.  T.  Gillham 
Mr.  Herbert  R.  Glaser 
Reverend  and  Mrs.  C.  Leslie  Glenn 
Mr.  Frederick  R.  Goff 
The  B.  F.  Goodrich  Company 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  A.  Gordon 
Mr.  Gilbert  Greenway 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  T.  R.  Grosvenor 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  A.  Henry 
Mrs.  Maxine  Harrison 
Estate  of  Calvin  Hathaway 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Curtis  L.  Hillyer 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Albert  G.  Hoffman 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hugh  H.  Honnen 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Samuel  G.  Houghton 
Miss  Dora  Ide 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frank  N.  Ikard 
Irving  One  Wall  Street 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  D.  Isaacson 
Mr.  William  Jamison 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  B.  F.  Jones 
Atwater  Kent  Foundation,  Inc. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Morris  Ketchum 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edward  F.  Knight 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Peter  Knowles 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul  Laurenson 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Owen  S.  Lindsay 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Martin  L.  Loftus 
James  A.  MacDonald  Foundation 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  P.  Mackinnon 
Mrs.  Frances  D.  Martyn 
Maxon  Marine  Industries,  Inc. 
Mr.  Donald  Mayer 

50  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

$500  or  more — continued 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Mayer 

Mr.  D.  F.  McClathey 

Mr.  James  R.  McCredie 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Leo  A.  McNalley 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harold  W.  Metz 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  J.  Milton 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  Morgan 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  H.  Morgan 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  D.  Munro 

Ogden  Marine  Inc. 

Mr.  Robert  S.  Pace 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Pierre  Palmentier 

Miss  Blanche  Parseghian 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Chester  R.  Paulson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  H.  M.  Peterson 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  F.  Porter 

Presentation  Studios 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  Probst 

Miss  Elsie  H.  Quinby 

Miss  Margaret  Rathbone 

Miss  Caroline  S.  Reed 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  5.  Reese 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sargent  Reynolds 

Miss  Esther  M.  Ridder 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Eugene  Roberts 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Daniel  Rogers 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  L.  Rogers 

Saks  Fifth  Avenue,  Chevy  Chase 

Miss  Frances  Van  Schaich 

Mrs.  Alice  S.  Schwabe 

The  Schiff  Foundation 

Seamen's  Bank  of  Savings 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  H.  L.  Selinsky 

Mr.  Sidney  N.  Shure 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  L.  T.  Sloane 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Page  W.  Smith 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  D.  Snyder 

Sons  of  the  Revolution 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harry  Stevens 

Stroheim  &  Romann 

Dr.  Walter  A.  Stryker 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alfred  E.  Tarr 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bela  C.  Tifft 

Mrs.  Arthur  M.  Tode 

Mr.  John  B.  Trevor,  Jr. 

Dr.  Herman  J.  Viola 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Albert  C.  Wall 

The  Raymond  John  Wean  Foundation 

We  also  gratefully  acknowledge  other  contributions  in  excess  of 
$400,000  received  from  more  than  5,000  contributors  in  fiscal 
year  1975. 

Financial  Report  I  51 

The  1975  Smithsonian  Catalogue  (foreground)  offers  a  wide  variety 
of  Smithsonian  Museum  Shop  merchandise  by  mail. 



1025    CONNECTICUT    AVENUE,    N.    W. 

WASHINGTON,    D.C.     20036 

The  Board  of  Regents 
Smithsonian  Institution: 

We  have  examined  the  balance  sheet  of  the  Private  Funds  of  Smith- 
sonian Institution  as  of  June  30,  1975  and  the  related  statement  of 
changes  in  fund  balances  for  the  year  then  ended.  Such  statements 
do  not  include  the  accounts  of  the  National  Gallery  of  Art,  the  John 
F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts,  nor  other  departments, 
bureaus  and  operations  administered  by  the  Institution  under 
Federal  appropriations  as  detailed  in  note  2  to  the  financial  state- 
ments. Our  examination  was  made  in  accordance  with  generally 
accepted  auditing  standards,  and  accordingly  included  such  tests 
of  the  accounting  records  and  such  other  auditing  procedures  as  we 
considered  necessary  in  the  circumstances. 

In  our  opinion,  the  aforementioned  financial  statements  present 
fairly  the  financial  position  of  the  Private  Funds  of  Smithsonian 
Institution  at  June  30,  1975  and  the  changes  in  its  fund  balances 
for  the  year  then  ended,  in  conformity  with  generally  accepted 
accounting  principles  applied  on  a  basis  consistent  with  that  of  the 
preceding  year. 

September  5,  1975 

Financial  Report  I  53 

Balance  Sheet 

June  30,  1975 
(with  comparative  figures  for  1974) 

Assets  1975  (note  lb) 



In  U.  S.  Treasury $      543,741  139,352 

In  banks  and  on  hand 234,479  651,485 

Total  cash    778,220  790,837 

Investments  (note  3)    10,149,875  8,298,318 


Accounts,  less  allowance  for  doubtful  accounts 

of  $340,000  ($200,000  in  1974) 1,882,057  1,247,671 

Advances — travel  and  other    454,775  203,705 

Reimbursement — grants  and  contracts,  net 2,271,060  2,261,103 

Due  from  agency  funds   246,032  136,151 

Total  receivables 4,853,924         3,848,630 

Inventories 1,118,688  780,054 

Prepaid  expenses    462,278  420,272 

Deferred  expenses    1,749,229         1,208,561 

Capitalized  improvements  and  equipment,  used  in 

income  producing  activities,  net  of  accumulated 

depreciation  and  amortization  of  $537,538 

($409,830  in  1974)    597,610  293,974 

Total  current  funds   $19,709,824       15,640,646 


Cash,  net  of  receivables  and  payables  on  securities 

transactions   41,063  506,035 

Notes    receivable    48,354  49,966 

Due  from  current  funds   316,043  239,967 

Investments  (note  3)    40,015,177  40,043,593 

Loan  to  U.  S.  Treasury  in  perpetuity  at  6%   1,000,000  1,000,000 

Total  endowment  and  similar  funds   $41,420,637       41,839,561 


Due  from  current  funds    461,266         1,626,468 

Real  estate  (note  5)   6,230,034         4,790,921 

Total   plant   funds    $  6,691,300  6,417,389 


Investments   10,000  10,000 

Due  from  current  funds   386,507  213,100 

Total  agency  funds $      396,507  223,100 

See  accompanying  notes  to  financial  statements. 

Balance  Sheet 

June  30,  1975 
(with  comparative  figures  for  1974) 


Liabilities  and  Fund  Balances  1975             (note  lb) 


Note  payable — secured  (note  4)    $        95,920            191,843 

Accounts  payable  and  accrued  liabilities   3,261,791         2,596,331 

Due  to  plant  funds    461,266          1,626,468 

Due  to  agency  funds 386,507            213,100 

Due  to  endowment  and  similar  funds 316,043            239,967 

Deferred  income: 

Magazine  subscriptions 5,215,531         3,645,757 

Other    655,955             334,955 

Total  liabilities   10,393,013         8,848,421 

Fund  balances: 

General    purpose    3,767,375          3,476,776 

Special  purpose 1,071,155             460,544 

Total   unrestricted    4,838,530         3,937,320 

Restricted 4,478,281         2,854,905 

Total  fund  balances    9,316,811         6,792,225 

Total  current  funds   $19,709,824       15,640,646 


Fund  balances: 

Endowment    33,354,530       34,999,970 

Quasi-endowment : 

Restricted 2,224,323  2,286,057 

Unrestricted     5,841,784  4,553,534 

Total  quasi-endowment    8,066,107         6,839,591 

Total  endowment  and  similar  funds   $41,420,637       41,839,561 


Mortgage  notes  payable  (note  5)   269,718  349,617 

Accrued  liabilities 10,120  36,832 

Fund  balances: 
Acquisition  fund: 

Unrestricted 379,827  625,610 

Restricted 71,319  964,026 

451,146  1,589,636 

Investment  in  plant 5,960,316  4,441,304 

Total  plant  funds $  6,691,300  6,417,389 


Due  to  current  funds 246,032  136,151 

Deposits  held  in  custody  for  others 150,475  86,949 

Total  agency  funds $      396,507  223,100 


Statement  of  Changes  in  Fund  Balances 

Year  ended  June  30, 1975 

Total  Total 

current       unrestricted 
funds  funds 


Auxiliary  enterprises  revenue $18,866,324  18,866,324 

Federal  grants  and  contracts   12,344,540 

Investment  income  (net  of  $91,886  management  and 

custodian  fees) 2,396,696  951,143 

Gains  (losses)  on  sale  of  securities   (14,909)  (14,909) 

Gifts,  bequests,  and  foundation  grants   4,576,523  399,725 

Additions  to  equity  in  real  estate  -  - 

Rentals,  fees,  and  commissions   745,708  745,708 

Other— net   881,228  244,626 

Total  revenue  and  other  additions 39,796,110  21,192,617 


Research  and  educational  expenditures    15,617,194  1,003,767 

Administrative  expenditures    4,099,594  1,528,091 

Auxiliary  enterprises  expenditures   16,035,738  16,035,738 

Expended  for  real  estate  and  equipment   123,000  - 

Retirement  of  indebtedness   -  - 

Interest  on  indebtedness  -  - 

Total  expenditures  and  other  deductions 35,875,526  18,567,596 


Mandatory — principal  and  interest  on  notes   (96,894)  (96,894) 

Portion  of  investment  gain  appropriated   295,084  17,078 

Income  added  to  endowment  principal (141,677)  - 

Appropriated  as   quasi-endowment    (1,473,436)  (1,463,151) 

For  designated  purposes   -  (180,844) 

Endowment  released    20,925  - 

Net  increase  in  activities -  - 

Total  transfers  among  funds — additions  (deductions)   .  .  .  (1,395,998)  (1,723,811) 

Net  increase  (decrease)  for  the  year 2,524,586  901,210 

Fund  balances  at  June  30,  1974,  as  restated  (note  lb) 6,792,225  3,937,320 

Fund  balances  at  June  30,  1975  $  9,316,811  4,838,530 

See  accompanying  notes  to  financial  statements. 

56  I  Smithsonian  year  1975 

Current  funds 

and  similar 













in  plant 


















































































































































































Financial  Report  I  57 

Newly  renovated  Museum  Shop  in  the  National  Museum  of 
History  and  Technology  opened  to  the  public  in  March  1975. 


Notes  to  Financial  Statements 

June  30,  1975 

1.  Summary  of  Significant  Accounting  Policies 

a.  Accrual  Basis — The  financial  statements  of  Smithsonian  Institution — Private 
Funds  (note  2)  have  been  prepared  on  the  accrual  basis,  except  for 
depreciation  of  plant  fund  assets  as  explained  in  note  1(h)  below,  and  are 
in  conformity  with  generally  accepted  accounting  principles  included  in 
the  American  Institute  of  Certified  Public  Accountants  Audit  Guide  "Audits 
of  Colleges  and  Universities." 

b.  Current  funds  include  capitalized  improvements  and  equipment  used  in 
income  producing  activities  having  a  net  carrying  value  of  $597,610  and 
$293,974  at  June  30,  1975  and  1974,  respectively.  Such  assets  together  with 
funds  held  for  additions  and  liabilities  on  acquisitions,  which  were  pre- 
viously included  in  plant  funds,  were  reclassified  to  current  unrestricted 
funds  at  the  beginning  of  the  1975  year  to  better  reflect  assets  and  liabilities 
used  in  current  operations.  Figures  for  1974  have  been  reclassified  in  the 
accompanying  balance  sheet  at  June  30,  1974  to  put  them  on  a  comparable 
basis  with  1975,  resulting  in  an  increase  in  the  current  unrestricted  fund 
balance  and  a  decrease  in  the  plant  funds  balance  of  $410,182  at  June  30, 

Current  funds  used  to  finance  the  acquisition  of  plant  assets  and  for 
provisions  for  debt  amortization  and  interest  are  accounted  for  as  transfers 
to  the  plant  fund. 

c.  Fund  Accounting — In  order  to  ensure  observance  of  limitations  and  re- 
strictions placed  on  the  use  of  the  resources  available  to  the  Institution, 
the  accounts  of  the  Institution  are  maintained  in  accordance  with  the 
principles  of  "fund  accounting."  This  is  the  procedure  by  which  resources 
for  various  purposes  are  classified  for  accounting  and  reporting  purposes 
into  funds  that  are  in  accordance  with  activities  or  objectives  specified. 
Separate  accounts  are  maintained  for  each  fund;  however,  in  the  accom- 
panying financial  statements,  funds  that  have  similar  characteristics  have 
been  combined  into  fund  groups.  Accordingly,  all  financial  transactions 
have  been  recorded  and  reported  by  fund  group. 

Within  each  fund  group,  fund  balances  restricted  by  outside  sources  are  so 
indicated  and  are  distinguished  from  unrestricted  funds  allocated  to  specific 
purposes  by  action  of  the  governing  board.  Externally  restricted  funds  may 
only  be  utilized  in  accordance  with  the  purposes  established  by  the  source 
of  such  funds  and  are  in  contrast  with  unrestricted  funds  over  which 
the  governing  board  retains  full  control  to  use  in  achieving  any  of  its 
institutional  purposes. 

Endowment  funds  are  subject  to  the  restrictions  of  gift  instruments  re- 
quiring in  perpetuity  that  the  principal  be  invested  and  the  income  only  be 
utilized.  Also  classified  as  endowment  funds  are  gifts  which  will  allow  the 
expenditure  of  principal  but  only  under  certain  specified  conditions. 

Financial  Report  I  59 

While  quasi-endowment  funds  have  been  established  by  the  governing 
board  for  the  same  purposes  as  endowment  funds,  any  portion  of  such 
funds  may  be  expended.  Restricted  quasi-endowment  funds  represent  gifts 
for  restricted  purposes  where  there  is  no  stipulation  that  the  principal  be 
maintained  in  perpetuity  or  for  a  period  of  time,  but  the  governing  board 
has  elected  to  invest  the  principal  and  expend  only  the  income  for  the 
purpose  stipulated  by  the  donor. 

All  gains  and  losses  arising  from  the  sale,  collection,  or  other  disposition 
of  investments  and  other  noncash  assets  are  accounted  for  in  the  fund 
which  owned  such  assets.  Ordinary  income  derived  from  investments, 
receivables,  and  the  like,  is  accounted  for  in  the  fund  owning  such  assets, 
except  for  income  derived  from  investments  of  endowment  and  similar 
funds,  which  income  is  accounted  for  in  the  fund  to  which  it  is  restricted 
or,  if  unrestricted,  as  revenues  in  unrestricted  current  funds. 

All  other  unrestricted  revenue  is  accounted  for  in  the  unrestricted  current 
fund.  Restricted  gifts,  grants,  endowment  income,  and  other  restricted 
resources  are  accounted  for  in  the  appropriate  restricted  funds. 

d.  Investments  are  recorded  at  cost  or  fair  market  value  at  date  of  acquisition 
when  acquired  by  gift. 

e.  Inventories  are  carried  at  lower  of  average  cost  or  net  realizable  value. 

f.  Income  and  expenses  in  respect  to  the  Institution's  magazine  and  asso- 
ciates' activities  are  deferred  and  taken  into  income  and  expense  over  the 
applicable  periods  and  are  reported  in  the  activities  section  of  the  current 
unrestricted  funds. 

g.  The  Institution  utilizes  the  "total  return"  approach  to  investment  manage- 
ment of  endowment  funds  and  quasi-endowment  funds.  Under  this  ap- 
proach, the  total  investment  return  is  considered  to  include  realized  and 
unrealized  gains  and  losses  in  addition  to  interest  and  dividends.  In  ap- 
plying this  approach,  it  is  the  Institution's  policy  to  provide  4V2%  of  the 
five  year  average  of  the  market  value  of  each  fund  (adjusted  for  gifts  and 
transfers  during  this  period)  as  being  available  for  current  expenditures; 
however,  where  the  market  value  of  the  assets  of  any  endowment  fund  is 
less  than  110%  of  the  historic  dollar  value  (value  of  gifts  at  date  of 
donation)  the  amount  provided  is  limited  to  only  interest  and  dividends 

h.  Capitalized  improvements  and  equipment  used  in  income-producing  activ- 
ities purchased  with  Private  Funds  are  capitalized  in  the  current  unre- 
stricted fund  at  cost  (see  note  1(b)),  and  are  depreciated  on  a  straight-line 
basis  over  their  estimated  useful  lives  of  five  to  ten  years.  Depreciation 
expense  of  $130,525  for  1975  is  reflected  in  the  expenditures  of  the  current 

Real  estate  (land  and  buildings)  are  recorded  in  the  plant  fund  at  cost,  to 
the  extent  that  restricted  or  unrestricted  funds  were  expended  therefor,  or 
appraised   value   at   date   of   gift,   except   for   gifts    of   certain    islands    in 

60  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Chesapeake  Bay,  Carnegie  Mansion,  and  Hillwood  Estate  which  have  been 
recorded  at  nominal  values.  Depreciation  on  buildings  is  not  recorded. 

All  the  other  land,  buildings,  fixtures  and  equipment  (principally  acquired 
with  Federal  funds),  works  of  art,  living  or  other  specimens  are  not 
reflected  in  the  accompanying  financial  statements. 

i.  The  agency  funds  group  consists  of  funds  held  by  the  Institution  as 
custodian  or  fiscal  agent  for  others. 

j.     Pension  Costs — All  pension  costs  are  funded  as  accrued. 

k.  The  Institution  has  a  number  of  contracts  with  the  U.  S.  Government, 
which  primarily  provide  for  cost  reimbursement  without  fee  to  the 
Institution.  Contract  revenues  are  recognized  as  expenditures  are  incurred. 

2.  Related  Activities 

The  Private  Funds  reflect  the  receipt  and  expenditure  of  funds  obtained 
from  private  sources,  from  Federal  grants  and  contracts  and  from  certain 
business  activities  related  to  the  operation  of  the  Institution. 

Federal  appropriations,  which  are  not  reflected  in  the  accompanying 
financial  statements,  provide  major  support  for  the  operations  and  ad- 
ministration of  the  educational  and  research  programs  of  the  Institution's 
many  museums,  art  galleries  and  other  bureaus,  as  well  as  for  the  main- 
tenance and  construction  of  related  buildings  and  facilities.  In  addition, 
land,  buildings  and  other  assets  acquired  with  Federal  funds  are  not 
reflected  in  the  accompanying  financial  statements. 

The  following  Federal  appropriations  were  received  by  the  Institution  for 
the  fiscal  years  ended  June  30,  1975  and  1974: 

1975  1974 

Operating    funds    $72,511,000  60,562,900 

Special  foreign  currency  program    2,000,000  4,500,000 

Construction   funds    17,910,000  21,860,000 

$92,421,000     86,922,900 

3.  Investments 

Quoted  market  values  and  carrying  values  of  investments  (all  marketable 
securities)  of  the  funds  indicated  were  as  follows: 

June  30,  1975  June  30,  1974 

Carrying        Market  Carrying  Market 

value            value  value  value 

Current  funds $10,149,875  10,083,444  8,298,318  7,971,088 

Endowment  and 

similar  funds 40,015,177  40,532,249  40,043,593  34,822,438 

Total  investments   .  .      $50,165,052  50,615,693     48,341,911  42,793,526 

Financial  Report  I  61 

Total  investment  performance  is  summarized  below: 

Net  gains  (losses) 

Current    and  similar 
funds  funds  Total 

Unrealized  gains  (losses) : 

June  30,  1975    $    (66,431)  517,072  450,641 

June  30,  1974    (327,230)     (5,221,155)     (5,548,385) 

Unrealized  net   gains   for   year         260,799       5,738,227       5,999,026 
Realized  net  losses  for  year (14,909)    (1,718,330)    (1,733,239) 

Total  net  gains  for  year $  245,890       4,019,897       4,265,787 

Substantially  all  of  the  investments  of  the  endowment  and  similar  funds 
are  pooled  on  a  market  value  basis  (consolidated  fund)  with  each  individual 
fund  subscribing  to  or  disposing  of  units  on  the  basis  of  the  value  per  unit 
at  market  value  at  the  beginning  of  the  calendar  quarter  within  which  the 
transaction  takes  place.  Of  the  total  units  each  having  a  market  value  of 
$102.61  ($84.60  in  1974),  333,155  units  were  owned  by  endowment,  and 
62,239  units  by  quasi-endowment  at  June  30,  1975. 

The  following  tabulation  summarizes  the  changes  in  the  pooled  investments 
during  the  year  ended  June  30,  1975 : 

Carrying  Market  value 

value  Market  per  unit 

June  30,  1975   $40,063,092  40,569,918  102.61 

June  30,  1974 11,845,384  10,195,872  84.60 

Increase     $28,217,708  30,374,046  18.01 

The  increase  in  pooled  investments  during  the  year  ended  June  30,  1975 
resulted  primarily  from  the  addition  of  certain  endowment  funds  to  the 
pooled  investments. 

Note  Payable 

The  note  payable  in  the  principal  amount  of  $95,920  ($191,843  in  1974), 
which  is  noninterest  bearing,  is  secured  by  computer  equipment  and  is 
payable  in  monthly  installments  of  $7,993  to  June  30,  1976. 

Mortgage  Notes  Payable 

The  mortgage  notes  payable  are  secured  by  first  deeds  of  trust  on  property 
acquired  in  connection  with  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center.  The  details  of  the 
mortgage  notes  payable  are  as  follows: 

1975  1974 

Mortgage  note,  payable  in  semiannual  installments 
of  $13,300,  plus  interest  at  the  prevailing  prime 
rate  at  the  due  date  of  the  installment  payment 
but  not  less  than  8%,  due  July  1,  1980 $146,300     172,900 

6%  mortgage  note  payable,  due  in  monthly  install- 
ments of  $451  including  interest,  due  November  1, 
1989     33,418        36,717 

62  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

6%  mortgage  note,  payable  in  semiannual  install- 
ments of  $10,000,  plus  interest,  due  November  7, 
1979     90,000     110,000 

7%  mortgage  note,  payable  in  annual  installments  of 

$30,000,  plus  interest,  due  November  1,  1974 -       30,000 

$269,718     349,617 

Pension  Plan 

The  Institution  has  a  contributory  pension  plan  providing  for  the  purchase 
of  retirement  annuity  contracts  for  those  employees  meeting  certain  age 
and  length  of  service  requirements  who  elect  to  be  covered  under  the  plan. 
Under  terms  of  the  plan,  the  Institution  contributes  the  amount  necessary 
to  bring  the  total  contribution  to  12%  of  the  participants'  compensation 
subject  to  social  security  taxes  and  to  17%  of  the  participants'  compensa- 
tion in  excess  of  that  amount.  The  total  pension  expense  for  the  year  was 
$815,304  ($729,068  in  1974). 

Management  Fees 

The  Institution  provides  financial  and  management  services  to  certain 
affiliated  organizations.  In  1975  the  Institution  charged  fees  for  such 
services  as  follows: 

Smithsonian  Research  Foundation    $125,000 

Smithsonian  Science  Information  Exchange   130,000 

Reading  Is  Fundamental,  Inc 38,000 

Center   for  Natural  Areas    24,000 

Income  Taxes 

The  Institution  has  been  recognized  as  exempt  from  income  taxes  as  a 
nonprofit  organization  described  in  Section  501(c)(3)  of  the  Internal 
Revenue  Code.  It  is  the  opinion  of  the  Institution  that  it  is  also  exempt 
from  taxation  as  an  instrumentality  of  the  United  States  as  described  in 
Section  501(c)(1)  of  the  Code.  Formal  recognition  of  this  dual  status  will 
be  sought  from  the  Internal  Revenue  Service.  Should  the  Institution's 
position  not  prevail,  income  taxes  might  be  imposed  on  certain  income 
of  the  Institution,  under  provision  of  the  Internal  Revenue  Code  dealing 
with  unrelated  business  income  as  defined  therein. 


The  Institution  has  entered  into  a  contract  for  construction  of  a  West  Court 

facility  within  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  at  a  total  estimated 

cost  of  $3,000,000  which  is  to  be  financed  by  a  $1,100,000  construction  loan 

with   the   remainder   being   financed    from   the    unrestricted   general    fund 


Financial  Report  I  63 

Visitors  to  the  annual  Mount  Hopkins  Observatory  Open  Day  take  a  daytime  look 
at  the  planet  Venus  through  one  of  the  many  telescopes  at  the  mountain-top  facility. 
Photo:  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory. 

Smithsonian  Year  •  7975 


The  QUALITY  OF  SCIENCE  at  the  Smithsonian  and  its  diversity  were 
closely  examined  this  past  year.  Some  new  ways  were  used  to  assess 
the  progress  and  promise  of  science  at  the  Institution — most  nota- 
bly a  seminar  held  at  Front  Royal  in  February. 

At  the  Front  Royal  Seminar  scientists  from  each  of  the  bureaus 
had  an  opportunity  to  describe  their  research  to  each  other  and  to 
discuss  the  future  direction  of  science  in  general.  This  gathering 
enabled  the  assembled  researchers  to  learn  about  the  work  being 
undertaken  in  the  various  bureaus  and  to  consider  the  relationship 
which  that  work  might  have  to  their  own  endeavors.  A  number  of 
recommendations  made  at  this  meeting  addressed  concerns  already 
on  the  minds  of  administrators  while  other  recommendations 
pointed  to  potential  areas  of  investigation. 

Maintenance  and  improvement  of  the  quality  of  research  were 
pinpointed  as  the  major  priority  of  Smithsonian  science  by  those 
present.  The  maintenance  of  the  highest  standards  of  research 
coupled  with  increased  resources  is  the  desired  goal.  It  was  clear 
from  the  remarks  of  the  participants  that  size  is  a  major  concern 
to  all,  and  the  uppermost  question  was  how  or  to  what  degree  can 
or  should  growth  be  limited.  The  Smithsonian's  current  size  allows 
flexibility  and  the  concomitant  ability  to  respond  quickly.  This 
characteristic  reflects  the  unique  quality  of  our  Institution's  opera- 
tion and  is  one  that  separates  us  from  many  of  the  federally  funded 
research  institutions.  Freedom  from  the  ephemeral  nature  of  efforts 
to  overcome  specialization  and  its  trappings  sets  us  apart  from  most 
universities.  This  approach  allowed  us  to  convene  the  seminar  at 


Front  Royal  in  the  form  of  an  interdisciplinary  dialogue,  an  achieve- 
ment which  would  not  have  been  possible  in  a  bureaucratic  environ- 

Once  again  the  threat  of  nascent  anti-intellectualism  appeared 
this  year  with  challenges  to  the  type  of  basic  research  which  the 
Smithsonian  performs  or  sponsors.  While  this  kind  of  basic  research 
will  always  be  subject  to  ridicule  because  of  esoteric  titles,  the 
scientist-administrators  must  continue  to  defend  and  promote  basic 
research  as  perhaps  the  most  important  part  of  their  job. 

When  quantum  leaps  are  made  in  the  space  sciences  or  medicine, 
no  one  pauses  to  realize  that  these  advances  have  come  about  only 
through  years  of  unspectacular  basic  research.  The  Smithsonian  is 
unique  in  the  federal  structure  for  its  concentration  on  basic 
research,  indeed  it  is  one  of  our  most  fundamental  premises.  The 
knowledge  and  information  gained  from  such  work  has  furnished 
the  base  from  which  the  mission  agencies  produce  practical  results. 

We  shall  continue  to  seek  preeminence  in  our  research  areas  by 
better  utilizing  our  resources,  by  retaining  the  process  of  peer 
review,  and  by  exploiting  our  unique  flexibility  to  respond  to  the 
significant  challenges  of  the  future,  while  always  maintaining  our 
existing  strengths. 

Center  for  the  Study  of  Man 

The  Center  for  the  Study  of  Man  has  continued  research  activities 
in  the  human  sciences  throughout  fiscal  year  1975.  Following  its 
successful  conferences  at  the  International  Congress  of  Anthropo- 
logical and  Ethnological  Sciences  in  1973,  the  Center  administered 
and  edited  the  publications  which  resulted  from  those  meetings. 
Forthcoming  and  in  press  are  the  following: 

1.  Volumes  in  the  World  Anthropology  Series,  published  by 
Mouton.  The  Anthropological  Study  of  Education,  edited  by  Craig 
J.  Calhoun;  Toward  a  General  Theory  of  Education,  edited  by 
Frederick  Gearing  and  Lucinda  Sangree;  Population  and  Social 
Organization,  edited  by  Moni  Nag;  Population,  Ecology  and  Social 
Evolution,  edited  by  Steven  Polgar;  Cross-Cultural  Perspectives  on 
Cannabis,  edited  by  Vera  Rubin;  Cross-Cultural  Approaches  to  the 
Study  of  Alcohol,  edited  by  J.  Waddell,  M.  Everett,  and  D.  Heath. 

66  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

2.  Conference  Reports:  The  Cultural  Consequences  of  Population 
Change,  report  on  a  Seminar  held  in  Bucharest,  Romania,  August 
14-17,  1974.  (Edited  by  the  Center,  includes  edited  versions  of 
papers  prepared  for  the  Seminar.) 

From  August  14  to  August  17,  1974,  the  Center,  in  conjunction 
with  the  Romanian  Academy  of  Sciences  and  the  Population  Com- 
mission of  the  International  Congress  of  Anthropological  and 
Ethnological  Sciences,  hosted  a  meeting  on  the  cultural  implications 
of  population  change  at  Bucharest,  Romania.  The  meetings  were 
held  prior  to  and  in  conjunction  with  the  World  Population  Confer- 
ence. In  addition  to  the  sixteen  third  world  persons  representing 
the  Philippines,  Indonesia,  Bangladesh,  India,  Sri  Lanka,  Nigeria, 
Kenya,  Ghana,  Mexico,  and  Venezuela,  there  were  Margaret  Mead, 
Sol  Tax,  Steve  Polgar,  and  Moni  Nag  from  the  United  States,  and 
Sam  Stanley  and  William  Douglass  representing  the  Smithsonian 

The  meetings  accomplished  a  number  of  related  objectives.  Rep- 
resentatives from  third  world  countries  had  an  excellent  oppor- 
tunity to  exchange  views  about  the  present  condition  of  the  human 
sciences  with  nonthird  world  colleagues.  The  members  of  the 
Seminar  had  an  opportunity  to  review  each  other's  papers  and  also 
the  documents  put  out  by  the  World  Conference  on  Population  of 
the  United  Nations,  1974.  Most  importantly,  they  were  able  to 
advance  their  own  views  on  the  draft  World  Plan  of  Action  for  the 
World  Population  Year.  As  a  result  there  was  specific  input  from 
the  Seminar  to  the  World  Plan  of  Action.  They  pointed  out  that 
the  document  ought  to  recognize  that  all  humans  are  members  of 
social  groups  which  are  smaller  than  nations.  They  also  urged  the 
United  Nations  to  begin  to  develop  a  global  ethic  on  population 
with  which  any  nation-state  may  evaluate  its  own  performance. 

The  Urgent  Anthropology  Small  Grants  Program  continued  to 
function  during  the  fiscal  year.  Grants  were  made  for  urgent 
research  in  North  America  and  Africa. 

During  the  past  fiscal  year  the  Center  began  research  on  sur- 
viving American  Indian  groups  in  the  Eastern  and  Southern  parts 
of  the  United  States.  This  modest  program  has  yielded  some  inter- 
esting results.  From  preliminary  investigation  it  would  appear  that 
more  Indian  groups  have  survived  than  previously  estimated, 
though  much  additional  work  remains  to  be  done. 

Science  I  67 

From  the  Study  of  Child  Behavior  and  Human  Development  in  Cultural  Iso- 
lates of  the  National  Anthropological  Film  Center,  visual  data  on  typical 
child-handling  practices  has  been  abstracted  for  a  number  of  studies :  Among 
the  Fore  people  of  New  Guinea,  infants  and  toddlers  must  take  some  of  the 
responsibility  for  remaining  safely  on  the  backs  of  those  carrying  them.  Al- 
though the  carrier  often  holds  the  hands  of  a  carried  infant  and  sometimes 
shuffles  a  sagging  child  back  to  a  more  secure  position,  the  responsibility 
for  staying  on  falls  to  a  significant  degree  to  the  infant,  who  must  manage 
for  himself  while  his  carrier  negotiates  difficult  trails  or  darts  and  cavorts  in 
play.  Facing  page-,  in  contrast,  Cora  Indian  infants  and  toddlers  can  remain 
relaxed  and  passive  tied  to  the  backs  of  their  older  siblings. 

Another  part  of  the  American  Indian  Program  is  concerned  with 
learning  more  about  the  transition  period  between  what  is  gathered 
from  ethnology  and  from  archeology.  This  work  is  also  valuable 
for  the  forthcoming  encyclopedic  Handbook  of  North  American 
Indians.  It  is  anticipated  that  several  volumes  of  the  Handbook, 
under  the  general  editorship  of  WiUiam  C.  Sturtevant,  will  begin 
appearing  in  1976. 

68  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 


The  work  of  the  Research  Institute  on  Immigration  and  Ethnic 
Studies  for  the  fiscal  year  1975  involved  a  wide-range  of  activi- 
ties: special  lectures  and  participation  in  professional  meetings  on 
ethnicity  and  immigration;  publications  in  professional  journals; 
supervision  of  graduate  fellows  in  ethnic  studies;  and  rendering 
consultation  services  to  other  sectors  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution. 
Under  the  directorship  of  Roy  S.  Bryce-Laporte,  a  comparative 
sociologist,  RiiES  obtained  internal  support  for  a  bicentennial  project 
on  new  immigration  to  the  United  States.  The  project  being  coordi- 
nated by  Ms.  Dolores  Mortimer  takes  the  form  of  a  series  of 
seminars  on  various  aspects  of  the  new  immigration  which  will 
culminate  in  a  national  conference  and  publication.  Various  con- 
sultation visits  and  advisory  seminars  in  Washington,  D.C.,  Cali- 
fornia, Florida,  and  the  Virgin  Islands,  have  been  carried  out  by 
RUES  staff  and  it  has  contracted  for  data  surveys  on  special  immi- 
grant populations.  Lecture  presentations  by  the  Director  of  rues 
were  made  at  Howard  University,  the  Caribbean  Studies  Associa- 
tion, and  the  International  Studies  Association. 

Science  I  69 


The  National  Anthropological  Film  Center  was  established  this  year 
to  take  fuller  advantage  of  the  scholarly  potential  of  film  as  a  tool 
of  inquiry  into  the  vanishing  and  changing  ways  of  life  and  cul- 
tures of  the  world.  Like  its  parent  discipline,  anthropology,  the 
Center  will  bridge  both  science  and  the  humanities,  dealing  with 
the  full  range  of  the  human  condition.  Strictly  scientific  studies 
will  be  balanced  by  more  humanistic  interests  dealing  with  the  arts, 
historical  process,  and  cultural  values. 

Physically,  the  Center  will  serve  as  a  research  facility  and  reposi- 
tory for  visual  studies  in  much  the  way  that  museums  obtain  and 
preserve  important  objects  and  materials  for  continued  study  and 
to  support  findings.  The  Center  will  also  provide  cultural  informa- 
tion to  peoples  who  have  little  written  history,  thereby  helping 
fulfill  their  need  for  information  related  to  their  own  development. 

Projects  have  been  started  which  involve  filming  a  number  of 
cultural  survivals.  The  Center  is  giving  special  attention  to  the  few 
remaining  small,  isolated  cultural  groups  of  the  world  which  have 
evolved  independently  over  thousands  of  years,  and  to  other  small 
social  enclaves  which  represent  vanishing  unique  expressions  of 
human  organization  and  behavior.  It  also  collaborates  with  docu- 
mentary film  projects  sampling  the  range  of  better  known,  more 
stable  cultural  variation,  including  traditional  folk  cultures,  as  well 
as  selected  aspects  of  our  changing  modern  society. 

Presently  being  planned  is  a  research  film  library  in  which  film 
prints  will  permit  review,  study,  and  scholarly  assembly,  leaving 
original  films  undamaged  to  take  advantage  of  future  advances  in 
the  copying  technology.  The  basic  collection  is  being  developed  so 
that  access  will  ultimately  be  possible  via  cable  connecting  a  cen- 
tral automated  videotape  library  with  study  centers  and  museum 

The  Center  has  been  able  to  develop  collaborative  projects  with 
scholars  in  various  parts  of  the  world;  and  it  has  been  able  in  a 
few  crucial  areas  to  provide  raw  film  stock,  film  processing,  equip- 
ment, and  guidelines  to  anthropologist-filmmakers  interested  in 
preparing  scholarly  visual  documents  as  a  permanent  research 
resource.  Experimental  field  studies  are  also  underway  in  an  effort 
to  develop  and  improve  visual  sampling  methods  and  equipment. 

70  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Affectionate  play  among  children  of  different  ages  is  characteristic  among 
the  Fore  of  New  Guinea.  Knives  or  other  potentially  dangerous  objects  are 
also  part  of  the  play  environment  experienced  by  young  children.  One  of  the 
findings  coming  from  the  Study  of  Child  Behavior  and  Human  Development 
in  Cultural  Isolates  is  that  such  aspects  of  child  handling  have  a  direct  in- 
fluence on  the  behavior  patterns  developed  as  children  grow  older. 

With  Mr.  John  Marshall,  world-famous  anthropological  filmer 
of  the  Kalahari  Bushmen,  the  Center  has  begun  assembling  and 
annotating  his  film  record,  the  most  extensive  ever  made  of  a  tradi- 
tional hunting-gathering  society,  and  preparing  research  films  for 
deposit  in  the  National  Anthropological  Film  Center. 

Although  facilities  to  store  film  have  not  yet  been  completed,  the 
Center  has  begun  its  search  for  existing  anthropological  film  foot- 
age of  research  value  which  may  be  in  danger  of  deterioration  or 
loss.  Film  historian  Emilie  de  Brigard  has  agreed  to  join  the  staff 

Science  I  71 

for  a  short  period  to  apply  her  extensive  knowledge  of  work  already 
done  in  anthropological  film. 

With  the  cooperation  of  Dr.  Norman  Miller,  Director  of  the 
American  Universities  Field  Staff  Film  Project,  the  Center  has  now 
accessioned  126,800  feet  of  research  filmed  material  of  human 
adaptation  in  three  modernizing  cultures:  a  Tadjik-Pashtoon-Uzbek 
agricultural  village  in  northern  Afghanistan,  a  highlands  Aymara 
subsistence  agricultural  community  in  Bolivia,  and  a  cattle-herding 
Boran  nomadic  group  in  Kenya.  The  Afghanistan  footage  has 
already  been  annotated  by  anthropologist  Dr.  Louis  Dupree.  The 
others  are  now  being  prepared  for  annotation.  The  Center  cele- 
brated its  formal  opening  with  premier  showings  of  several  educa- 
tional films  prepared  by  the  American  Universities  Field  Staff  from 
this  research  filmed  material. 

With  anthropological  filmmakers  Asen  Balikci  of  the  University 
of  Montreal  and  Timothy  Asch  of  Harvard  University,  and  the 
collaboration  of  Professor  Bayazid  Atsak  of  Kabul  University,  the 
Center  has  begun  a  research  film  study  of  the  Pashtoon  Nomads  of 
Afghanistan,  whose  way  of  life  is  now  rapidly  disappearing. 

At  the  invitation  of  the  Premier  of  the  Cook  Islands,  Sir  Albert 
Henry,  and  with  a  grant  obtained  from  the  National  Geographic 
Society,  the  Center  is  preparing  to  document  representative  tradi- 
tional dances  from  each  of  the  three  major  Polynesian  culture  areas 
comprised  by  the  Cook  Islands. 

As  part  of  the  Study  of  Child  Behavior  and  Human  Development 
in  Cultural  Isolates  and  with  the  support  of  the  Instituto  Nacional 
Indigenista  of  Mexico,  the  Center  is  proceeding  with  a  long-term 
film  study  of  traditional  Huichol  Indian  life  in  the  San  Andres 
region  of  Mexico.  Dr.  Kalman  Muller,  an  anthropological  filmmaker 
now  resident  in  this  region,  has  been  participating  as  chief  ethno- 

With  Dr.  William  Crocker  of  the  Department  of  Anthropology, 
the  Center  is  collaborating  in  a  research  film  study  of  child  behavior 
and  human  development  among  the  relatively  unacculturated 
Canela  Indians  of  Brazil. 

In  collaboration  with  Dr.  Kalman  Muller,  the  research  film  study 
of  remaining  surviving  traditional  Melanesian  cultural  groups  in 
the  New  Hebrides  Islands  is  continuing.  This  footage  is  now  being 
prepared  as  annotated  research  films  at  the  Center. 

72  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Research  film  studies  of  naturally  occurring  human  behavior  in  different 
parts  of  the  world  not  only  make  possible  comparative  studies  of  play  and 
child  interaction  but  also  of  such  culturally  variable  characteristics   as  gait. 

In  an  effort  to  devise  methods  by  which  film  footage  shot  by 
educational  filmmakers  may  also  be  prepared  as  a  research  resource, 
the  Center  is  exploring  a  variety  of  strategies  with  filmmakers  from 
the  American  Universities  Field  Staff,  the  University  of  Montreal, 
Harvard  University,  the  University  of  Illinois,  Bellevue  Community 
College,  the  University  of  CaUfornia,  Indiana  University,  the  Uni- 
versity of  Pennsylvania,  Delhi  University  (India),  and  the  Anthro- 
pology Film  Center  (Santa  Fe). 

Science  I  73 

Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies 

In  January  1975,  Dr.  Francis  S.  L.  Williamson,  after  six  years  as 
Director  of  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies, 
resigned  to  accept  an  appointment  as  Commissioner  of  Health  and 
Social  Service  for  the  state  of  Alaska.  Dr.  J.  Kevin  Sullivan  assumed 
the  position  of  Acting  Director. 

Dr.  Williamson  and  his  colleagues  conceived  of  the  Rhode  River 
Program,  which  is  the  core  of  the  Center's  research  effort.  This 
project  is  a  study  of  the  interaction  of  the  Rhode  River  estuary 
with  its  watershed  and  man's  impact  on  this  system.  The  comple- 
tion during  fiscal  year  1975  of  a  full  year  of  monitoring  material 
entering  the  estuary  from  land  runoff  and  other  non-point  sources 
and  the  initiation  of  a  Forest  Ecology  Program  are  steps  toward 
understanding  how  man's  use  of  land  affects  this  ecosystem.  The 
Forest  Ecology  Program  is  part  of  the  Smithsonian's  Environmental 
Sciences  Program  (esp). 

The  watershed  of  the  Rhode  River  is  composed  of  many  small 
basins,  some  of  which  drain  into  discrete  creeks.  As  part  of  the  non- 
point  sources  study,  the  Center  constructed  instrumented  weirs 
(notched  dams)  to  monitor  the  runoff  from  eight  of  these  basins. 
The  weirs  record  the  volume  of  water  discharged  while  taking 
volume-integrated  samples.  These  samples  are  analyzed  for  sedi- 
ment and  nutrient  concentrations. 

Each  drainage  basin  contains  a  different  proportion  of  five  land- 
use  types:  cultivated  cropland;  wet  areas  such  as  ponds,  swamps, 
and  marshes;  pasturelands;  natural  areas  such  as  forest  and  brush- 
land;  and  residential  areas  including  dwellings  and  roads.  The  total 
area  being  monitored  is  2100  acres. 

Data  gathered  have  been  used  to  determine  mathematically  the 
area  loading  rates  to  the  Rhode  River  from  each  of  the  five  land-use 
categories  at  different  times  of  the  year.  These  rates  are  applicable 
to  predicting  the  effects  of  land-use  changes  upon  the  turbidity  and 
nutrient  loading  of  an  estuary  on  a  seasonal  basis. 

Stream  samples  were  also  taken  at  times  of  known  water  dis- 
charge and  analyzed  for  total  and  fecal  coliform  bacteria  as  indi- 
cators of  pollution  with  human  pathogens.  Analyses  revealed  high 
correlations  between  fecal  coliform  levels  and  water  runoff  rates 
for  each  watershed.  At  times  of  heavy  runoff,  contamination  of  the 

74  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Rhode  River  estuary  with  bacteria  of  fecal  origin  was  a  serious 
problem.  As  the  volume  of  the  Rhode  River  increased  toward  the 
mouth,  fecal  coliform  bacteria  were  diluted  and  the  higher  salinity 
levels  further  contributed  to  their  decline  in  numbers. 

The  non-point  sources  study  is  funded  by  nsf-rann  (National 
Science  Foundation-Research  Applied  to  National  Needs)  through 
the  Chesapeake  Research  Consortium.  It  is  the  most  extensive  study 
of  its  kind  currently  underway  on  an  estuarine  system  in  the  United 
States.  Investigators  from  the  University  of  Maryland  and  the 
Johns  Hopkins  University  are  working  with  Smithsonian  scientists 
on  this  project.  Dr.  David  Correll  is  coordinating  the  Rhode  River 
Research  Program. 

In  addition  to  the  land  runoff  studies,  scientists  at  cbces  partici- 
pated in  the  development  of  a  Forest  Ecology  Program.  This  Pro- 
gram has  as  its  objective  the  monitoring  of  species  succession 
among  primary  producers  at  sites  which  have  been  subjected  to 
various  land  uses.  Studies  of  small  mammals,  birds,  insects,  soils, 
and  minerals  are  coordinated  with  the  studies  of  vegetational 

Eight  forest  ecology  study  sites  have  been  identified  in  the  Java 
Farm  area.  They  include  sites  which  have  been  undisturbed  for 
several  hundreds  of  years  (Hog  Island)  and  others  intensively  culti- 
vated until  abandonment  in  the  1940s.  A  wide  disparity  exists 
between  plant  communities  at  these  sites,  even  in  those  which  have 
had  the  same  land  use.  cbces  scientists  hope  to  determine  the  fac- 
tors controlling  species  succession  in  the  forest  community.  Base- 
line data  collected  in  this  study  will  also  be  used  to  predict  the 
impact  of  man's  perturbations  on  the  forest  ecosystem. 


With  the  addition  of  a  full-time  Program  Director  this  past  year, 
education  activities  were  restructured  and  several  new  starts  were 
made.  A  large-scale  model  field  trip  program  in  outdoor  education 
at  the  CBCES  was  initiated.  These  teacher-led  experimental  tours, 
which  occur  daily  during  the  spring  and  fall,  are  designed  to  satisfy 
specific  curriculum  requirements  in  science  education  in  Anne 
Arundel  and  other  nearby  counties. 

Efforts  were  also  made  to  develop  a  model  Outdoor  Environ- 
mental Education  Program  for  Adults.  The  cbces  played  an  active 

Science  I  75 

Facing  page,  above:  In  order  to  measure  land  runoff  and  other  non-point 
sources  of  pollution,  cbces  investigators  have  instrumented  the  Rhode  River 
watershed's  key  tributary  streams  with  a  system  of  wiers — notched  dams 
that  permit  water  to  flow  through.  The  wiers  record  volume  and  velocity  of 
flow  while  automatically  collecting  samples  at  intervals  determined  by  flow 
rates.  The  samples  are  collected  weekly  and  analyzed  for  nitrogen,  phos- 
phorus, particulate  load,  total  and  fecal  bacteria  and  pathogens. 

Facing  page,  below:  With  the  aid  of  sweepnets  and  plastic  bags,  students 
are  exploring  the  variety  of  insects  and  spiders  that  live  in  a  forest  com- 
munity. This  field  activity  was  developed  by  Dr.  John  Falk,  cbces  Education 
Director,  as  part  of  the  obis  (Outdoor  Biology  Instructional  Strategies)  Pro- 
gram. It  is  one  of  many  obis  activities  which  are  designed  to  promote  the 
understanding  of  ecological  relationships  by  youngsters  from  eleven  to  fifteen 
years  of  age. 

Below:  A  major  new  facility — the  Jean  C.  Schmidt  Environmental  Education 
Building — was  completed  at  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental 
Studies  in  March  1975.  This  building  is  divided  into  two  sections:  a  visitors' 
area  which  contains  an  auditorium  seating  200  people  and  a  dormitory  area 
which  houses  twelve  and  includes  a  kitchen,  a  study  room,  and  a  lounge.  The 
visitors'  area  will  serve  as  a  center  for  workshops  on  environmental  educa- 
tion, for  meetings  of  citizen  groups,  and  for  conferences  on  environmental 
research.  The  dormitory  will  be  quarters  for  college  students  on  work/study 
projects  and  visiting  scientists. 





^.."  ;X 

leadership  role  in  the  formation  of  a  coaUtion  for  Adult  Environ- 
mental Education  in  cooperation  with  the  National  Park  Service 
and  the  National  Audubon  Society  and  several  adult  groups  partici- 
pated in  trial  programs  during  the  fall  and  spring. 

The  CBCES  was  the  recipient  of  a  National  Science  Foundation 
(nsf)  grant  designed  to  implement  obis  (Outdoor  Biology  Instruc- 
tional Strategies)  within  out-of-school  community  institutions.  In 
addition,  cbces  was  designed  as  an  obis  National  Field  Center. 

OBIS  is  an  outdoor  biology  program  that  gives  young  people 
between  the  ages  of  eleven  and  fifteen  years  the  experience  of 
observing  and  investigating  organisms  and  events  in  the  out-of- 
doors.  Under  the  nsf  grant,  the  Center  is  conducting  instructional 
workshops  on  obis  activities  for  elementary  and  junior  high  school 
teachers,  summer  day  camp  directors,  and  high  school  students. 

For  the  second  year,  a  Summer  Ecology  Program  for  children  in 
grades  three  through  twelve  was  operated  at  cbces.  The  objective 
of  this  program  is  to  train  college  students  in  outdoor  education 
techniques  and  is  aimed  at  future  elementary  and  secondary  school 
teachers.  In  addition,  the  Center  continued  its  successful  Speakers 
Bureau  Program  in  which  Center  staff  present  talks  on  environ- 
mental subjects  to  a  variety  of  local  and  regional  groups. 


Funded  with  a  grant  from  the  Edward  John  Noble  Foundation,  the 
Information  Transfer  Program  has  as  its  goal  the  translation  of 
scientific  results  into  forms  which  can  be  used  by  planners,  govern- 
ment officials,  and  resource  managers  who  make  decisions  which 
affect  the  Bay.  In  addition,  the  program  makes  environmental 
information  available  to  organizations  and  individuals. 

Projects  undertaken  this  year  include  a  study  on  the  opportuni- 
ties for  citizen  participation  in  the  water  quality  planning  process. 
An  information  specialist  identified  and  evaluated  these  major  areas 
for  citizen  participation  in  the  state  of  Maryland:  Public  Advisory 
Councils  on  river  basin  planning,  public  informational  meetings 
and  hearings  on  basin  plans,  and  hearings  on  discharge  permits 
and  the  state's  Priority  List  for  construction  of  sewage  treatment 
plants.  The  study  resulted  in  recommendations  for  improving  citi- 
zen participation  in  the  planning  process  and  many  of  the  recom- 
mendations were  adopted. 

78  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Over  the  past  year,  the  Center  greatly  expanded  its  informa- 
tional services  to  management  agencies,  citizen  organizations,  and 
the  general  public.  News  releases  summarizing  on-going  research 
activities  at  cbces  were  distributed  to  resource  managers,  environ- 
mental leaders,  and  other  interested  groups  and  individuals,  cbces 
staff  also  developed  information  on  specific  environmental  issues 
such  as  land  use,  solid  waste  disposal,  and  off-shore  energy  tech- 
nology for  citizen  groups  and  government  officials. 

The  Center  provided  support  in  the  form  of  staff  time  and  exper- 
tise to  a  number  of  local  citizen  organizations.  Support  activities  for 
these  groups  included  organizing  workshops  and  conferences, 
researching  environmental  issues  and  planning  public  programs, 

CBCES  helped  organize  two  workshops  on  Maryland's  Coastal 
Zone  Management  Program  (czmp).  The  first  workshop  focused  on 
major  environmental  problems  affecting  Maryland's  coastal  zone; 
the  second  explored  citizen  participation  alternatives  in  Maryland's 



The  Jean  C.  Schmidt  Environmental  Education  Building  was  com- 
pleted in  March  1975.  The  brick  building  is  divided  into  two  sec- 
tions. The  visitor  area  contains  an  auditorium  seating  200  people. 
Movable  storage  dividers  convert  it  into  smaller  rooms.  This  area 
will  be  used  for  meetings  and  workshops  and  as  a  reception  center 
for  visiting  groups  and  individuals. 

The  dormitory  area  houses  twelve  and  includes  a  kitchen,  a  study 
room,  and  a  lounge.  It  will  be  quarters  for  college  students  on 
work/study  projects  and  visiting  scientists. 


The  Center's  full-time  staff  numbered  approximately  forty-five  at 
the  close  of  the  fiscal  year.  Over  one-half  of  these  employees  are 
private  employees.  Additions  to  the  permanent  federal  staff  in- 
cluded Dr.  James  Lynch,  zoologist,  and  Mr.  Gary  Chirlen,  bio- 
logical systems  analyst. 

Some  thirty  additional  researchers  are  actively  engaged  in  proj- 
ects at  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center,  including  principal  investigators 
for  the  Rhode  River  Research  Program  from  the  Johns  Hopkins 
University,  the  University  of  Maryland,  and  the  United  States 
Geological  Survey. 

Science  I  79 


Aerial  view  of  Link  Port,  location  of  the  Smithsonian's  Fort  Pierce  Bureau  in  Florida. 

Fort  Pierce  Bureau 

The  scientific  objectives  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution's  Fort  Pierce 
Bureau  for  the  next  five  to  ten  years  was  approved  on  a  year-to-year 
basis  in  a  Resolution  by  the  Board  of  Regents  during  its  meeting  in 
May.  The  Fort  Pierce  Bureau  has  three  long-range  and  interrelated 
programs  which  are  designed  to  understand  the  estuarine  and 
marine  environments  along  the  east  coast  of  Florida  and  adjacent 
continental  shelf  and  to  establish  baseline  information  for  measur- 
ing natural  and  man-caused  stresses  and  changes.  These  are  the 
Indian  River  Study,  Life  Histories  Studies,  and  Submarine  Explora- 
tion of  the  East  Florida  Continental  Shelf. 

The  Indian  River  Study  is  a  ten-year  joint  program  with  the 
Harbor  Branch  Foundation,  Inc.,  to  obtain  baseline  information  on 
the  biota  in  the  Indian  River  lagoon,  environmental  quality  and 
sources  of  pollution,  and  a  predictive  capability  of  natural  and  man- 
induced  changes.  Quantitative  benthic  sampling  at  seagrass  {Halo- 
dule  wrightii)  stations  has  resulted  in  almost  50,000  specimens, 
which  will  provide  information  on  community  structure.  Effects  of 
predation  on  the  seagrass-associated  benthos  have  been  studied  by 
using  field  enclosures  (cages).  A  checklist  of  over  500  fishes  from 
the  Indian  River  region  has  been  completed,  based  on  100  con- 
tinental-shelf trawling  stations  and  1000  estuarine  seine  collec- 
tions, along  with  a  literature  survey.  Fifteen  percent  of  the  fishes 
sampled  have  not  been  recorded  previously.  Twelve  cruises  of  the 
houseboat  research  laboratory  have  measured  chemical  parameters 
of  the  water  column  along  the  estuary  for  fluctuations  of  major 
nutrients,  heavy  metals,  phytoplankton  composition,  and  standing 
crop.  Indian  River  Study  data  from  1383  biological  stations,  521 
chemical  stations,  and  75  physical  oceanographic  stations  have  been 
stored  in  the  Smithsonian's  selgem  data  management  system  in 
Washington,  D.C.,  from  the  remote  computer  terminal  on  the 
laboratory  barge  at  Fort  Pierce. 

Objectives  of  the  Life  Histories  Studies  are  to  obtain  baseline 
information  on  reproduction,  developmental  patterns,  and  larval 
development  of  common  marine  organisms  in  the  Indian  River  and 
offshore  oceanic  waters  in  the  vicinity  of  Fort  Pierce.  The  knowledge 
of  these  critical  phases  of  development,  essential  to  survival  and 
dispersal  of  species,  is  to  be  utilized  as  part  of  the  consortium  effort 

Science  I  81 

in  the  understanding  of  marine  ecosystems  and  the  assessment  of 
environmental  stresses.  During  the  past  year  studies  have  con- 
centrated on  two  groups  of  benthic  invertebrates,  which  form 
prominent  communities  in  the  Fort  Pierce  area,  sipunculans  and 
sabellariids.  Twenty-four  sipunculans  have  been  collected  in  the 
Indian  River  and  adjacent  continental  shelf,  five  of  which  appear 
to  be  previously  undescribed  species.  Observations  have  been  made 
on  the  spawning  and  breeding  seasons  of  nine  species  of  sipuncu- 
lans, including  the  unusual  self-fertilizing  hermaphrodite,  Themiste 
lageniformis,  which  occurs  in  densities  as  great  as  500  per  square 
meter  in  the  Fort  Pierce  Inlet.  Developmental  patterns  of  local  spe- 
cies vary  from  direct  development  with  no  larval  stage,  through 
those  with  short-lived  swimming  larval  stages  to  sipunculans  with 
long-lived  planktonic  larval  stages.  Electron  microscopy  of  larval 
cuticle  has  revealed  distinguishing  patterns  of  structure  which  can 
serve  to  identify  planktonic  larvae  to  species.  An  investigation  is 
also  underway  on  the  role  of  various  substrates  in  inducing  meta- 
morphosis of  sipunculan  larvae. 

The  Submarine  Exploration  of  the  East  Florida  Continental  Shelf 
is  intended  to  build  an  inventory  bank  of  continental-shelf  orga- 
nisms correlated  with  environmental  and  ecological  information 
with  a  precision  heretofore  unavailable  by  conventional  sampling 
methods.  It  is  being  carried  out  by  the  Harbor  Branch  Foundation. 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum 

The  grand  event  of  fiscal  year  1975  for  the  National  Air  and  Space 
Museum  was  the  move  of  the  staff  from  the  Arts  and  Industries 
Building  to  the  new  museum  on  Independence  Avenue,  between 
Fourth  and  Seventh  Streets.  Construction  of  the  building  is  com- 
plete, and  it  has  been  transferred  from  the  General  Services  Admin- 
istration to  the  Smithsonian.  The  first  aircraft,  the  Douglas  World 
Cruiser  "Chicago"  was  moved  into  the  museum  in  April.  The  task 
is  now  to  fill  the  museum  with  educational  and  interesting  exhibits 
and  artifacts.  This  assignment,  though  formidable,  will  be  possible 
as  a  result  of  a  successful  Arts  and  Industries  Building  exhibits  trial 
program,  which  marked  the  beginning  of  a  most  ambitious  design 
and  fabrication  program.  The  program,  to  provide  approximately 

82  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 


j»     r 


Smithsonian's  floating  laboratory  barge  which  currently  is  the  headquarters  for  the 
Indian  River  study.  Below:  A  portion  of  the  Indian  River  study  reference  collections 
on  the  floating  laboratory  barge  which  now  houses  about  1000  lots  of  fishes,  2400  lots 
of  decapods,  and  1000  lots  of  other  miscellaneous  invertebrates. 

^   \4 

200,000  square  feet  of  exhibit  space  in  two  calendar  years,  was 
undertaken  for  a  building  not  to  be  completed  until  midway  through 
the  program.  To  date,  the  program  is  on  schedule.  The  July  4,  1976, 
targets  are:  to  have  all  major  galleries  open  and  to  have  between 
40  and  50  percent  of  this  space  filled  with  long-term  or  "core" 
exhibit  units. 

The  major  exhibits  program  tasks  completed  during  fiscal  year 
1975  were: 

1.  Conclusion  of  a  successful  Arts  and  Industries  Building  ex- 
hibits research  and  development  program  toward  exhibitions  for 
the  new  nasm.  This  included  review  and  subsequent  revision  of  the 
exhibit  "Air  Traffic  Control"  to  strengthen  and  to  improve  its 
understandability  by  unification  of  design  elements  and  rewriting 
of  the  labeling.  The  completion  of  an  outside  evaluation  of  the 
exhibit  "Life  in  the  Universe"  resulted  in  a  report  which  indicates 
a  high  degree  of  success  in  terms  of  public  acceptance  and  under- 
standing of  the  material  presented. 

2.  Exhibits  Division  design  for  twenty  projects  (twelve  gallery 
exhibit  designs  and  eight  exhibits-related  designs).  Establishment  of 
standard  specifications  for  contract  design  of  exhibits  and  for  sepa- 
rate contracts  for  fabrication  and  installation. 

3.  Evaluation  and  resulting  award  of  twelve  contracts  for  exhibit 
design  and  four  contracts  for  exhibit  fabrication  and  installation. 

4.  Research  and  resulting  concept  design  for  the  world's  first 
museum  automatic  central  control  system  which  led  to  the  award 
of  a  contract  to  install  the  highly  innovative  five  megabit  multi- 
plexing system  currently  being  produced  on  schedule. 

5.  Initiation  of  two  functions  vital  to  the  long-range  exhibits 
program  and  the  Bicentennial  opening  of  the  new  nasm: 

a.  Provision  for  basic  label  production  and  photoprocessing 
of  silk  screen  materials  for  the  Exhibits  Division  Production  Unit, 
located  at  Silver  Hill. 

b.  Establishment  of  a  Media  Unit  in  the  Exhibits  Division 
responsible  for  presentation  of  the  "message"  for  overall  exhibits. 
The  tasks  include  creative  writing,  film  storyboarding,  and  accom- 
panying narratives,  film  production,  all  exhibits  editorial  functions, 
and  illustration  required  in  all  facets  of  museum  exhibits.  This  Unit 
will  bridge  the  gap  between  the  curatorial  research  and  information 
input  and  the  design  of  environmental  aspects  of  exhibits. 

84  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Douglas  A-lE  Skyraider  being  moved  from  Dahlgren,  Virginia,  Naval  Weap- 
ons Test  Center,  to  nasm's  Silver  Hill  Facility  in  Suitland,  Maryland. 

The  first  artifact  to  be  moved  into  nasm's  new   museum  was   the   Douglas 
World  Cruiser,  "Chicago,"  in  April  1975. 


The  research  performed  by  the  staff  during  the  year  was  directed, 
for  the  most  part,  toward  the  planning  and  preparation  of  exhibits. 
The  Department  of  Science  and  Technology  completed  scripts  for 
numerous  exhibits  including: 

"Benefits  from  Flight" — this  major  exhibit  portrays  the  complex 
and  diverse  ways  in  which  air  and  space  flight  have  affected  our 
civilization,  from  important  technological  developments  to  broad 
cultural  changes. 

The  Department  of  Aeronautics  completed  scripts  for: 

"Air  Transportation" — this  exhibit  covers  the  development  and 
growth  of  air  transportation,  both  United  States  and  foreign. 

"General  Aviation" — the  various  facets  of  general  aviation  in- 
cluding the  many  types  of  aircraft  and  the  vast  airport  network 
are  featured  here. 

"Sea-Air  Operations" — the  hangar  deck  and  other  areas  of  an 
aircraft  carrier  will  be  recreated  in  this  gallery. 

"Balloons  and  Airships" — the  history  of  lighter-than-air  craft, 
including  both  balloons  and  airships,  is  told  in  this  gallery.  One 
feature  is  a  30-foot  model  of  the  dirigible  "Hindenburg." 

"Exhibition  Flight" — the  glamour  and  excitement  of  barnstorm- 
ing, aerobatics,  and  air  racing  are  featured  in  this  gallery. 

The  Department  of  Astronautics  completed  scripts  for: 

"Apollo  to  the  Moon" — this  exhibit  depicts  United  States  manned 
space  flight  and  lunar  exploration;  Mercury,  Gemini,  and  Apollo 

"Life  in  the  Universe" — this  exhibit  considers  the  possibility  that 
life  exists  beyond  the  Earth. 

"Rocketry  and  Space  Flight" — this  is  an  exhibit  of  the  history 
and  evolution  of  rocket  propulsion,  rocket  engines,  and  space  suits. 


During  fiscal  year  1975  the  Silver  Hill  Shops  restored  nine  major 
aeronautical  artifacts  and  two  major  space  artifacts — the  Jupiter  C 
and  Vanguard  Launch  Vehicles.  In  addition,  175  other  space  arti- 
facts were  removed  from  storage,  and  inspected  for  exhibit.  Twenty 
were  selected  and  the  necessary  restoration  was  performed. 

Over  twenty  volunteers  worked  with  the  regular  staff  in  the 
restoration  process. 

86  /  Sfnithsonian  Year  1975 

During  the  year  the  division  acquired  three  additional  staff  mem- 
bers, two  of  them  in  the  Education  Unit  and  the  third  in  the  Space- 
arium  Unit.  Activities  centered  on  planning  for  the  new  building  in 
all  of  the  areas  of  responsibility:  Education,  Theater,  and  Space- 

Education  Unit 
Two  NASM-subject-matter  guided  school  activities  were  developed 
and  used  to  gain  experience  for  the  future.  One  of  these  titled 
"The  History  of  Flight,"  a  study  of  the  evolution  of  flight,  was 
presented  to  103  groups.  The  other,  "Space  Age,"  combined  a 
planetarium  lesson  and  examination  of  selected  space  artifacts.  The 
planetarium  lesson,  "The  Lunar  Experience,"  was  written  and  pro- 
duced by  the  division  and  presented  in  the  Experimentarium  located 
in  the  Air  and  Space  Building.  This  combination  of  planetarium 
lesson  and  specimen  examination  proved  to  be  very  popular  and 
received  excellent  response  by  the  415  groups  involved,  verifying 
the  model  of  combinations  of  Spacearium,  Theater,  and  gallery 
activities  planned  for  the  new  museum.  In  all,  approximately  9000 
students  participated  in  the  guided  events. 

The  Education  Unit  staff  also  gained  experience  in  going  out  to 
school  classrooms  in  conjunction  with  studies  related  to  nasm.  They 
also  provided  special  programs  of  activities  at  nasm  for  Fairfax 
County  high  school  students  participating  in  a  summer  space  science 
institute,  for  Civil  Air  Patrol  Cadets,  and  for  150  elementary  school 
teachers  from  California. 

nasm's  first  Holiday  Lecture  Series  was  presented  at  the  Car- 
michael  Auditorium  on  December  26,  27,  and  28,  with  about  250 
high  school  students  attending  each  session.  The  general  topic  of 
the  series  was  "Life  in  the  Universe,"  and  the  speakers  were  Von 
Del  Chamberlain  of  nasm,  Cyril  Ponnamperuma  of  the  University 
of  Maryland,  and  Richard  Berendzen  of  The  American  University. 
The  lecture  series  received  enthusiastic  response,  encouraging  its 

NASM  Theater 
As  the  year  draws  to  a  close,  the  nasm  Theater  nears  completion. 
The  50-foot  by  75-foot  screen  has  been  installed,  485  seats  have 
been  attached  to  the  risers,  an  imax  projector  has  been  ordered  and 

Science  I  87 

scheduled  for  installation  in  early  1976,  and  the  sound  system  is 
being  described  for  contract  purposes.  In  addition,  the  first  imax 
'film  for  showing  to  nasm  visitors  is  under  production  by  Francis 
Thompson,  Inc.,  of  New  York  City  with  funding  by  the  Continental 
Oil  Company.  The  facility  promises  to  become  one  of  the  major 
features  of  public  interest  on  the  Mall.  It  will  be  used  to  help  tell 
the  aerospace  story  to  millions  of  people  who  visit  the  Smithsonian. 

Spacearium  Unit 

Public  use  of  the  Experimentarium  in  the  Air  and  Space  Building 
has  ended.  Attendance  for  the  year  was  about  43,000.  The  facility 
will  be  used  for  the  next  few  months  in  developing  the  first  Space- 
arium show.  The  planetarium  projector  and  projection  dome  will  be 
removed  and  used  in  an  exhibit  in  the  new  building.  Other  Experi- 
mentarium equipment  will  be  used  in  the  Spacearium. 

In  June  1975,  the  Government  of  the  Federal  Republic  of  Ger- 
many announced  the  gift  to  the  American  people  of  a  Zeiss  Model 
VI  planetarium  projector  and  funds  for  an  associated  automation 
system.  This  equipment  is  given  in  honor  of  the  Bicentennial  of 
the  American  Revolution,  and  will  reside  in  the  Spacearium  of  the 
National  Air  and  Space  Museum.  It  will  help  millions  of  Americans 
and  visitors  from  many  other  countries  begin  to  comprehend  the 
significance  of  what  they  see  above  the  landscape  and  to  judge  for 
themselves  their  own  relationship  to  the  universe. 

The  Spacearium  theater  is  rapidly  taking  form.  The  seventy-foot- 
diameter  projection  dome  is  being  erected,  the  lift  for  the  plane- 
tarium projector  is  being  completed,  and  the  sound  system  is  being 
designed  as  fiscal  year  1975  ends. 

Plans  are  proceeding  for  the  first  Spacearium  show  to  be  pre- 
sented for  general  visitors.  Additional  programs  are  being  written 
for  visiting  school  classes. 


During  its  second  year  of  operation,  nasm's  Center  for  Earth  and 
Planetary  Studies  has  engaged  in  several  space  research  projects. 
The  basic  research  material  is  a  complete  collection  of  photographs 
of  the  Moon  taken  both  by  unmanned  probes  and  by  Apollo  astro- 
nauts. This  photographic  library  was  increased  by  the  addition  of 
a  large  library  of  photographs  of  the  Earth  taken  from  orbit.  The 

88  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Center  is  also  acquiring  photographs  of  Mars  and  Mercury.  Its 
research  collection  will  be  one  of  the  most  complete  for  compara- 
tive planetology  in  the  world. 

The  major  research  project  of  the  year  was  related  to  the  ApoUo- 
Soyuz  Test  Project  (astp).  Dr.  Farouk  El-Baz,  Research  Director  of 
the  Center  for  Earth  and  Planetary  Studies,  is  Principal  Investigator 
for  "Earth  Observations  and  Photography"  on  this  mission.  His 
research  team  is  comprised  of  thirty-four  experts  in  the  fields  of 
geology,  oceanography,  desert  study,  hydrology,  meteorology,  and 
environmental  studies.  The  purpose  of  the  experiment  is  to  use  the 
capabilities  of  the  trained  astronauts  in  obtaining  scientific  data 
while  in  Earth  orbit. 

The  lunar  photographic  collection  of  the  Center  for  Earth  and 
Planetary  Studies  was  used  in  the  selection  of  photographs  for  an 
Atlas  of  the  Moon  to  be  published  by  the  National  Aeronautics 
and  Space  Administration.  As  material  for  scientific  research,  the 
collection  was  used  in  global  studies  of  the  Moon  as  well  as  detailed 
investigations  of  some  surface  features.  The  global  studies  included 
mapping  of  all  occurrences  of  the  relatively  dark  volcanic  rock 
(basalt)  on  the  Moon  to  study  its  distribution  and  reasons  of  local- 
ization. Also  a  synthesis  was  performed  of  geochemical  and  geo- 
physical data  on  the  east  side  of  the  Moon  to  correlate  those  with 
photogeologic  interpretations.  A  detailed  study  of  sinuous  rilles 
near  the  crater  Prinz  was  performed  using  topographic  data.  This 
study  concluded  that  these  rilles  emanate  from  circular  depressions 
on  top  of  a  dome  and  meander  in  lower  terrain,  supporting  the  idea 
that  they  originated  as  lava  channels. 

In  cooperation  with  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Admin- 
istration the  lunar  topographic  collection  was  used  in  connection 
with  the  lunar  mapping  program  to:  (1)  select  areas  to  be  topo- 
graphically mapped;  (2)  select  photographs  to  be  used  in  the  mak- 
ing of  the  maps;  (3)  assign  the  production  priorities  based  on  scien- 
tific value  and  interest;  and  (4)  define  the  exact  borders  of  map 
sheets.  The  maps  which  are  being  produced  by  the  Defense  Map- 
ping Agency,  Topographic  Center,  are  important  in  both  global 
studies  of  the  Moon  (1:250,000  scale  maps)  and  detailed  studies  of 
particular  surface  features  (1:50,000  and  1:10,000  scale  maps). 

As  a  member  of  the  Task  Group  on  Lunar  Nomenclature  of  the 
International  Astronomical  Union,  Dr.   El-Baz   is   responsible   for 

Science  I  89 

the  selection  of  features  to  be  named  on  the  Moon.  Much  of  the 
work  necessary  for  the  revision  of  the  lunar  nomenclature  system 
is  being  made  at  the  Center  for  Earth  and  Planetary  Studies.  The 
Research  Director  was  also  appointed  by  the  Secretary  of  the 
Interior  to  membership  on  the  Advisory  Committee  on  Extraterres- 
trial Features  of  the  United  States  Board  of  Geographic  Names. 

Dr.  Farouk  El-Baz  made  a  trip  to  India  and  the  Middle  East  to 
lecture  on  "Scientific  Findings  of  the  Apollo  Missions"  and  "Earth 
Observations  and  Photography  on  ASTP." 

While  in  Egypt,  he  conferred  with  officials  of  the  Academy  of 
Scientific  Research  and  the  Ministry  of  Higher  Education  and  Scien- 
tific Research  concerning  a  joint  project  with  the  Smithsonian.  This 
project  will  deal  with  the  "Geological  Characteristics  of  the  Deserts 
of  Egypt"  and  will  be  based  at  the  Geology  Department  of  the 
University  of  Ain  Shams  in  Cairo.  During  the  ten-day  visit.  Dr. 
El-Baz  was  received  by  President  Anwar  Sadat,  who  encouraged 
the  project  and  emphasized  the  importance  of  scientific  research  in 



During  fiscal  year  1975  a  Curator  of  Art  was  appointed.  Steps  were 
taken  to  commission  two  major  pieces  of  sculpture  to  be  shown 
outside  the  new  nasm  building  at  both  the  Mall  and  Independence 
Avenue  entrances.  The  sculptors,  Richard  Lippold  and  Charles 
Perry,  were  selected  after  an  extensive  search,  which  involved  rep- 
resentatives of  the  National  Gallery  of  Art  and  the  National  Col- 
lection of  Fine  Arts,  as  well  as  the  Architect  and  the  General 
Services  Administration. 

Arrangements  have  been  made  with  artists  Robert  McCall,  Eric 
Sloane,  and  Keith  Ferris  to  paint  large  murals  in  the  nasm.  Robert 
McCall  will  depict  the  Space  Flight  Environment,  Eric  Sloane  the 
Earth  Flight  Environment  and  Keith  Ferris  will  render  in  nearly 
full  size  a  portrait  of  a  B-17  Bomber  in  flight  as  part  of  the  World 
War  II  exhibition. 

During  this  reporting  period,  nasm  was  offered  and  accepted  the 
NASA  collection  of  art  which  documents  many  space  program  activi- 
ties. Delivery  of  hundreds  of  sketches,  drawings,  watercolors, 
paintings,  and  sculpture  was  made  and  the  cataloguing  process 
started.  A  selection  of  pieces  from  this  collection,  as  well  as  pieces 

90  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

President  Anwar  Sadat  of  Egypt  examines  the  feature  named  Al-Qahira 
Vallis  (Cairo  Valley)  on  a  globe  of  Mars  presented  him  by  Dr.  Farouk  El-Baz 
during  a  recent  visit.  The  name  Al-Qahira  Vallis  was  recommended  by  El-Baz 
to  the  International  Astronomical  Union  because  the  city  of  Cairo  was 
originally  named  after  the  planet  Mars. 

from  other  sources,  will  be  exhibited  in  the  art  gallery  of  the  nasm. 
This  documentary  art,  along  with  many  other  drawings  and  paint- 
ings commissioned  by  the  military  services  and  spanning  several 
decades,  provides  a  unique  record  of  man's  activities  in  developing 
his  ability  to  fly  through  air  and  space.  The  art  work  displayed  on 
opening  day  will  provide  a  record  for  the  future  of  some  of  the 
greatest  moments  of  the  present  through  a  medium  that  is  as  old 
as  our  recorded  past — this  intimate,  human  medium  of  the  artist's 
eye  and  hand. 

Science  I  91 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History 

The  National  Museum  of  Natural  History's  service  to  the  public 
is  a  continual  commitment  that  goes  back  to  its  founding.  The 
Museum  is  proud  of  its  efforts  during  the  past  year  to  keep  this 
tradition  strong  and  vital.  Major  projects  are  underway  that  will 
bring  the  Museum  closer  to  the  people  by  making  its  exhibits  more 
stimulating  and  informative  and  by  creating  a  friendly  and  com- 
fortable atmosphere  in  which  the  three  and  a  half  million  visitors 
who  walk  through  the  Museum  every  year  can  find  the  answers 
to  their  questions  about  the  natural  world  and  their  relationship 
to  it. 

With  this  end  in  mind,  the  Museum's  Exhibits  Committee  in 
February  1975  finished  drawing  up  a  long-range  plan  for  the  recon- 
struction and  refurbishment  of  virtually  all  of  the  present  halls  of 
the  Museum  over  the  next  twenty  years.  The  schedule  is  for  at  least 
one  or  two  major  openings  every  year.  The  first  of  these  new  halls. 
Ice  Age  Mammals  and  the  Emergence  of  Man,  opened  in  October 
1974.  This  exhibit's  thematic  rigor,  cool  esthetic  ambiance,  rich 
cross-disciplinary  scientific  content,  and  logical  positioning  of  ob- 
jects, sets  a  standard  for  exhibits  that  will  follow.  It  is  not  a  hall 
dominated  by  audiovisual  techniques  or  long  textual  labels;  its 
message  and  excitement  are  in  the  realism  of  its  objects:  the  huge 
reconstruction  of  the  woolly  mammoth  that  once  roamed  the 
Alaskan  tundra,  the  saber-toothed  tiger  depicted  attacking  a  giant 
ground  sloth  at  the  LaBrea  tar  pits,  and  the  archeological  sites 
where  we  see  evidence  of  man's  biological  and  cultural  evolution 
during  the  Ice  Age — from  a  crude  circle  of  rocks  constructed  almost 
two  million  years  ago  at  Olduvai  Gorge  in  East  Africa  to  the  flutes 
and  ceramic  art  created  30,000  years  ago  at  Dolni  Vestonice  in 
Central  Europe. 

Future  exhibits  will  deal  with  such  topics  as  the  dynamics  of 
organic  evolution,  cultural  adaptation  to  differing  environments, 
diversity  of  life,  the  evolution  of  the  earth,  origin  of  Western  civil- 
ization, and  evolution  of  man.  Broad  concepts  of  natural  history, 
most  of  them  related  in  their  content  to  the  major  theme  of  organic 
and  inorganic  evolution,  will  be  constructed  in  axial  halls — the 
building's  major  architectural  spaces.  These  large  halls  will  be 
designed  to  serve  as  the  public's  major  passageways  into  and 
through  the  Museum, 

92  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 




Woolly  mammoth  in  "Ice  Age  Mammals  and  the  Emergence  of  Man,"  a  new 
exhibition  in  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History.  Below:  Ice  Age 
archeological  sites  reconstructed  in  the  exhibition  "Ice  Age  Mammals  and 
the  Emergence  of  Man." 



The  Museum  foyer's  Bicentennial  exhibit,  "Our  Changing  Land/' 
is  the  first  of  these  axial  halls  to  be  developed.  It  does  not  deal 
directly  with  evolution  but  will  form  a  base  for  the  understanding 
of  a  projected  hall  of  the  Dynamics  of  Organic  Evolution  above  it 
on  the  first  floor.  General  principles  of  ecology  will  be  illustrated 
in  the  Bicentennial  exhibit  by  depicting  environmental  changes  that 
took  place  over  10,000  years  in  a  single  geographical  area  of  the 
country — the  Potomac  Valley.  An  escalator  is  being  cut  through 
the  ceiling  at  the  south  end  of  this  hall  to  take  the  crowds  coming 
in  the  Constitution  Avenue  entrance  up  into  the  Rotunda. 

The  smaller  peripheral  halls  on  the  Museum's  first  and  second 
floors  will  be  used  to  provide  more  detailed  information  about  the 
broad  conceptual  exhibits,  as  a  space  for  temporary  exhibits,  and 
for  a  variety  of  exhibit  halls  on  specific  topics.  One  of  these  cur- 
rently under  development  and  scheduled  for  opening  in  the  fall  of 
1975  is  a  hall  devoted  to  South  American  anthropology,  entitled 
South  America:  Continent  and  Cultures. 


Ground  was  broken  in  1974-1975  on  the  first  major  addition  to 
the  Museum  building  since  its  east  and  west  wings  were  added  in 
the  late  1950s  and  early  1960s.  The  three-story  structure — adding 
48,324  square  feet  of  space  to  the  Museum  building — will  be  built 
in  the  Museum's  west  courtyard.  When  it  is  completed  in  mid- 
1976,  there  will  be  a  new  and  enlarged  Museum  Shop,  which  will 
house  a  natural  science  bookstore  and  a  sorely  needed  public  cafe- 
teria, that  will  seat  400  persons. 

In  the  middle  level  of  the  new  building  will  be  a  specimen  refer- 
ence library  that  will  have  natural  history  collections  that  can  be 
handled  and  studied  by  interested  hobbyists  and  students.  Staffed 
by  trained  volunteer  docents,  it  will  serve  to  bridge  the  gap  that 
now  exists  between  the  exhibits  and  the  research  collection  area. 

An  important  facility  on  the  new  building's  ground  floor,  in  addi- 
tion to  staff  and  Associates  cafeterias,  will  be  a  school  tour  recep- 
tion and  classroom  area  operated  by  the  Museum's  Office  of  Educa- 
tion. School  groups  coming  into  the  Museum  will  go  directly  to  this 
area  where  there  will  be  a  lounge  to  check  their  coats  and  bag 
lunches.  The  docent  can  then  give  them  a  brief  orientation  lecture 
before  taking  them  out  into  the  Museum  on  their  tour. 

94  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 



Looking  over  the  foundation  work  for  the  National  Museum  of  Natural 
History's  new  west  courtyard  addition  were  (left  to  right)  Dr.  Porter  Kier, 
NMNH  Director;  Richard  O.  Griesel,  Smithsonian's  Business  Management 
Office  Manager;  Richard  W.  Kernan,  Group  Vice  President  of  the  Marriott 
Corporation;  Ames  T.  Wheeler,  Treasurer  of  the  Smithsonian;  Paul  N.  Perrot, 
Smithsonian's  Assistant  Secretary  for  Museum  Programs;  and  James  F.  Mello, 
NMNH  Assistant  Director. 

During  the  1974-1975  year  the  Office  of  Education  introduced  a 
number  of  new  programs  at  the  Museum.  With  the  help  of  a  grant 
from  the  Smithsonian  Women's  Committee,  it  instituted  programs 
that  will  make  many  of  the  Museum's  exhibits,  films,  and  lectures 
more  enjoyable  to  the  deaf  and  the  blind.  Cassette  tape  players  and 
embossed  maps  were  made  available  to  the  blind  and  braille  labels 
were  installed  in  the  Museum's  Discovery  Room.  Interpreters  for 
the  deaf  were  provided  for  many  of  the  Museum's  Friday  films  and 
lectures  in  Baird  Auditorium. 

Science  I  95 


Blind  visitors  have  an  opportunity  to  touch  and  explore  a  sculpture  of  a  woolly  mammoth. 

A  group  of  children  watch  Mrs.  Isabell  Deschinny   (right),  a  Navaho   from  Houck, 
Arizona,   and   the   daughter   of   a   world-famous   weaver,    give   demonstrations   during 
April  at  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History.  She  is  being  assisted  by  docent  Fran 
O'Leary.   This  is   the  first  in  a  series  of  nmnh  Office   of   Education   demonstrations       a 
that  show  traditional  ways  in  which  items  in  the  museum's  exhibitions  were  used.  I 


In  February  1975,  three  of  the  Museum's  staff,  Donald  W.  Duck- 
worth, Frederick  J.  Collier,  and  Dieter  C.  Wasshausen,  made  a  tour 
of  a  number  of  major  European  museums  to  gather  information 
about  methods  of  modern,  high-density  storage  technology.  The 
trip  was  part  of  a  preliminary  planning  effort  being  made  by  the 
Museum  to  prepare  for  the  long-range  storage  of  part  of  its  collec- 
tions in  the  proposed  off-Mall  Museum  Support  Facility  at  the 
Smithsonian's  Silver  Hill  facility,  located  in  the  Suitland  Federal 
Center,  Suitland,  Maryland.  This  building  will  be  of  immense 
future  importance  to  the  Museum.  It  would  provide  space  for  ex- 
panding collections — which  for  the  past  two  decades  have  been 
growing  at  the  rate  of  one  million  objects  and  specimens  a  year — 
and  it  would  free  valuable  space  within  the  Museum  for  badly 
needed  exhibits  and  research  functions. 


The  prehistory  of  the  Labrador  coast  was  long  obscured  by  a  be- 
wildering melange  of  Indian  and  Eskimo  archeological  remains  that 
defied  clarification.  But  now  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  His- 
tory's Dr.  William  W.  Fitzhugh  has  worked  out  a  framework  for 
7000  years  of  that  region's  prehistory.  He  believes  that  to  under- 
stand its  shifting  cultural  patterns  one  must  take  into  account  strong 
environmental  influences  that  overrode  other  events. 

Dr.  Fitzhugh's  first  few  years  of  Labrador  field  work  testing  this 
hypothesis  focused  on  an  area  along  the  central  coast.  The  results 
were  published  in  Environmental  Archeology  and  Cultural  Systems 
in  Hamilton  Inlet,  Labrador.  During  the  past  two  years  he  has 
shifted  his  attention  northward. 

The  basic  cultural  adaptions  to  the  Labrador  environment  are 
at  times  subject  to  disruptive  cultural-historical  and  ecological 
pressures — especially  the  latter.  Climatic  controls,  operating  through 
changes  in  the  prevalence  of  forest  fires,  winter  icing  of  caribou 
feeding  grounds,  and  shifts  of  sea-ice  distribution  have  caused 
ecological  crises. 

For  the  Indians  in  the  interior,  the  icing  over  of  the  barren 
ground  lichen  cover  or  its  destruction  by  fire  means  the  starvation 
of  the  herds  of  caribou  upon  which  they  are  dependent.  It  takes 
many  years  for  the  caribou  herds  to  rebuild  when  this  happens  and 

Science  I  97 

Dr.  William  Fitzhugh  at  work  excavating  a  two-family  Dorset  Eskimo  (ca.  a.  d.  400) 
semi-subterranean  winter  house  in  northern  Labrador.  Below:  Dr.  Fitzhugh  holding 
Indian  and  Eskimo  artifacts  up  to  a  map  to  show  where  they  were  found  in  Labrador. 


^.  ? 







HdCg    2 


















Plan   and  cross   section  of  Dorset  Culture  winter   house,   northern   Labrador 

(ca.  A.  D.  400) 

the  Indian  populations  starve  because  they  cannot  sustain  them- 
selves on  a  year-round  basis  by  hunting  other  animals  and  fishing. 

Dr.  Fitzhugh  says  that  there  is  evidence  that  this  drastic  caribou- 
Indian  population  collapse — which  we  know  occurred  in  both  the 
nineteenth  and  early  twentieth  centuries — was  a  fairly  common 
occurrence  in  the  prehistory  of  the  Labrador-Quebec  peninsula.  The 
consequence  for  the  famine  stricken  Indians  was  often  cultural 
extinction.  Eventually  the  caribou  herds  would  reestablish,  Indian 
hunters  would  drift  upward  into  Labrador  from  Quebec,  and  a  cul- 
ture would  form  and  the  cycle  would  repeat  itself. 

Labrador's  Eskimo  populations  were  dependent  on  a  diverse  ma- 
rine ecology  that  was  much  more  stable  than  conditions  in  the 
interior.  But  during  very  cold  periods,  when  ice  pack  conditions  in 
the  north  made  it  difficult  to  hunt  along  the  coast,  their  populations 
shifted  southward.  This  happened  most  recently  in  800-100  B.C. 

Science  I  99 

(the  Little  Ice  Age)  when  the  Eskimo  Dorset  culture  displaced  the 
Indians  from  their  important  fishing  territories  in  southern  Labrador. 
There  was  tension  and  perhaps  warfare  between  the  Indians  and 
Eskimos  during  this  period.  The  Eskimos  would  have  been  at  a 
tactical  disadvantage.  The  Indian  was  nomadic  and  highly  mobile 
and  the  permanent  Eskimo  settlements  would  have  been  an  easy 
target,  especially  as  the  Eskimos  extended  themselves  farther  and 
farther  down  the  coast. 

African  Ethnology 

The  Himba  are  a  pastoral  cattle-keeping  people  that  live  in  a  harsh 
and  remote  mountainous  area  of  Angola  and  South  West  Africa. 
Dr.  Gordon  D.  Gibson,  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History's 
specialist  on  African  ethnology,  is  studying  the  life  of  these  people. 
Demographic  information  is  one  part  of  this  life  but  it  is  not  easily 
accessible  because  the  Himba,  like  most  preliterate  peoples,  do  not 
count  the  years  of  their  lives  or  the  years  passed  since  critical 
events.  Their  time  chronology  is  based  on  important  events  or 
"epochs"  in  the  region  in  which  they  live.  Thus,  if  an  investigator 
asks  a  Himba  when  he  was  born,  he  might  reply  that  it  was  during 
the  epoch  of  the  locust  invasion  as  readily  as  we  would  reply  to  the 
same  question  with  a  numerical  year,  like  1923. 

Dr.  Gibson  found  that  drought  and  famine,  which  are  common 
to  southwestern  Angola  and  South  West  Africa,  are  the  events 
most  frequently  memorialized  in  epoch  names.  Seasons  of  plentiful 
rain  are  also  recalled,  as  well  as  pestilences  (animal  rather  than 
human),  plagues  of  insects  and  vermin,  wars,  problems  brought  by 
administration,  magicians,  problems  (other  than  wars)  concerning 
relations  with  other  tribes,  acculturative  changes,  deaths  of  impor- 
tant people,  and  the  abundance  of  certain  wild  fruits. 

Some  events  that  brought  neither  bad  nor  good  to  the  Himba  but 
were  merely  remarkable  are  also  found  as  names  of  years;  for 
example,  an  airplane  disaster  in  the  region,  a  rainy  season  with 
many  lightning  storms,  an  abundance  of  red  velvet  mites,  and  the 
occasion  when  the  chief  of  the  Ngambwe  asked  the  Himba  to  kill 
a  rhinoceros  so  that  he  could  have  shoes  made  of  rhino  hide. 

Most  adult  Himbas  that  Dr.  Gibson  questioned  were  able  to  pro- 
vide a  sequence  of  epoch  names  relating  to  specific  events  in  their 
region,  but  before  a  number  of  these  could  be  combined  into  a 

100  /  Smithsotiian  Year  1975 

Dr.  Gordon  Gibson  holding  an  exannple  of  the  hair  ornament  shown  in  the 
enlarged  photograph  next  to  him.  Below:  Dr.  Gibson  interviews  some  of  the 
Himba  people. 

These  Plants  and  Hundreds 
More  May  Soon  Be  Extinct 

^  *-^J? 

3,200  American  Plants  Threatened  by  Extinction 

Flowers  can't  run  away.  .  • 

"  Uswa>V^-^       Sm.thson,anrecon,mends,ho,spec,a.oreos 

iojBis^^^^^^^^^^fon  endangered  Ust 
Ammaisarentthej>nJvthmgso".   ^^    ....."  -3^ 


(^'^  ^but  don't        0      ^''1%'' f'-'X'" '',:"''',<!'' '>'      '    " 

Man's  growth     ;     l^^~^ 
tramples  ^ 

wild  flowers 

start  digging    ^ 







Goodbye  Plonts 





Much  of  Ndion's 
Floral  Treasure 
Already  Is  l^'*^,, 

Rare  plants  may  be  doomed 

88  Northwest  species  threatened 
~~        /■<■«  llavft*  l-efl 

('.an't  Run 

JtS.        Society Jhreotens^W"''""'"":; 

Plants  Threatened  With  Extinction  .^ 


correctly  ordered  master  list  and  correlated  with  European  years, 
some  troublesome  obstacles  had  to  be  overcome. 

Dr.  Gibson  found  that  persons  from  the  same  area  who  claim  to 
be  able  to  recite  the  names  of  the  years  in  continuous  order  gen- 
erally do  not  agree  completely,  either  in  the  order  they  give  them 
or  the  names  of  the  year  included.  Names  often  differed  from  place 
to  place  also,  some  having  widespread  usage  while  others  were  very 
localized;  and  there  were  many  synonyms  as  well  as  some  homon- 
ymous year  names  among  the  more  than  300  epochal  names  Dr. 
Gibson  collected. 

In  spite  of  these  problems.  Dr.  Gibson  was  eventually  able  to 
come  up  with  a  well-supported  sequence  for  his  master  list  of 
epochs.  By  consulting  archival  sources  he  then  documented  several 
of  the  epochs  in  the  list,  so  that  "tie  points"  to  the  Christian  years 
are  not  separated  by  more  than  about  five  years.  With  this  list  he 
can  determine  with  a  good  degree  of  approximation  Himba  indi- 
viduals' current  ages  and  their  ages  at  life  crises — data  important 
for  certain  kinds  of  sociological  research. 


Cactus  plants,  once  plentiful  in  desert  areas  of  the  United  States, 
are  being  hunted  and  sold  in  plant  shops  for  large  sums  of  money — 
rarer  species  fetching  as  much  as  $300  apiece.  As  a  consequence 
botanists  fear  that  they  may  soon  become  extinct.  They  are  among 
a  growing  list  of  native  American  plants  that  are  vanishing  because 
of  exploitation  or  because  the  areas  in  which  they  grow  are  being 
destroyed  by  development.  Scientists  estimate  that  about  10  percent 
of  the  total  flora  in  the  United  States  is  either  endangered  or 

In  September  1974,  Dr.  Edward  S.  Ayensu,  Chairman  of  the 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History's  Botany  Department,  con- 
vened an  international  meeting  of  botanists  and  administrators 
at  American  Horticultural  Society  headquarters.  Mount  Vernon, 
Virginia.  He  was  acting  in  accordance  with  Congress'  1973  En- 
dangered Species  Act,  which  requested  that  the  Secretary  of  the 
Smithsonian,  in  conjunction  with  other  affected  organizations,  begin 
reviewing  the  species  of  plants  which  are  now  or  may  become 
endangered  or  threatened  and  methods  of  adequately  conserving 
such  species. 

Science  I  103 

Attending  the  meeting  were  representatives  of  the  Departments 
of  Interior  and  Agriculture,  Council  on  Environmental  Quality, 
National  Science  Foundation,  Nature  Conservancy,  and  a  number 
of  universities  and  botanical  gardens.  Foreign  representatives  were 
also  present,  including  Dr.  J.  K.  Morton  of  Canada,  chairman  of 
the  committee  on  Rare  and  Endangered  Species  in  the  Canadian 
Flora,  and  Grenville  Lucas,  Royal  Botanic  Gardens,  England, 
Threatened  Plant  Committee,  Secretary,  International  Union  for 
Conservation  of  Nature  and  Natural  Resources. 

Nine  recommendations,  compiled  under  Dr.  Ayensu's  super- 
vision, were  subsequently  submitted  to  Congress  in  a  report  by 
Secretary  Ripley.  Sent  to  Congress  with  the  recommendations  was 
a  list  of  about  750  endangered  and  1200  threatened  plants  in  the 
mainland  United  States.  A  separate  list  of  over  1000  endangered 
or  threatened  kinds  for  Hawaii  was  also  included.  These  species, 
either  very  rare  or  with  local  or  limited  distribution,  are  subject  to 
threats,  or  are  heavily  depleted  by  destruction  of  habitats  or  by 
commercial  or  private  collectors. 

The  report  was  the  first  organized  attempt  to  produce  a  list  of 
threatened  and  endangered  species  for  the  entire  United  States. 
Museum  of  Natural  History  botanists  realize  that  this  is  only  a 
start,  but  a  continued  program  is  proposed  to  review  and  assess 
natural  areas  that  contain  endangered  and  threatened  plant  species. 

Pollen  Research 

Dr.  Joan  W.  Nowicke,  whose  speciality  is  the  study  of  pollen 
grains,  is  part  of  an  international  group  which  is  gathering  scien- 
tific data  on  one  of  the  most  unusual  and  controversial  groups  of 
flowering  plants,  the  Order  Centrospermae.  This  Order  has  at  least 
10,000  species  distributed  among  eleven  families  including  the 
cactus,  pokeweed,  four-o'clock,  cockscomb,  and  carnation  families 
and  several  others.  Studies  have  shown  that  nine  of  this  Order's 
eleven  families  have  a  unique  red  pigment,  the  nitrogen-containing 
betacyanins  which  substitute  for  the  anthocyanin  pigments  found 
in  other  flowering  plants. 

Part  of  the  controversy  is  over  whether  the  two  families  without 
betacyanins  should  be  included  in  this  Order.  In  examining  the 
pollen  grains  of  more  than  200  species  Dr.  Nowicke  has  found  that 
the  vast  majority  of  the  grains  in  the  betacyanin  families  and  the 

104  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Pollen  Grains  in  the  Order  Centrospermae.  Top  left:  a  grain  from  the  carnation 
family  which  illustrates  the  common  type  found  in  the  betacyanin  families  and  the 
two  disputed  anthocyanin  families.  Top  right:  a  specialized  grain  from  the  cockscomb 
family.  Middle  left:  a  specialized  grain  in  the  cactus  family.  Middle  right:  a  very 
unusual  grain,  cube  shaped,  and  found  in  a  small  tropical  family,  the  Basellaceae. 
Lower  left:  the  pollen  grain  of  Bougainvillea,  a  member  of  the  four-o'clock  family. 
Lower  right:  another  member  of  the  carnation  family,  but  a  specialized  type.  All  of 
the  above  pictures  are  highly  magnified  scanning  electron  micrographs. 

Dr.  Terry  Erwin  studying  ground  beetles  that  have  moved  into  the  trees 
on  Barro  Colorado  Island. 

Calosoma  alternana. 

Artist:  George  Venable. 

Loricera  rotundicalUs. 

two  disputed  families  have  the  same  surface  patterns.  Thus  pollen 
morphology  supports  a  close  tie  between  the  betacyanin  families 
and  the  two  anthocyanin  families.  Using  the  result  of  the  study  as 
a  base.  Dr.  Nowicke  is  surveying  the  pollen  surface  patterns  of 
families  which  are  thought  to  be  related  or  derived  from  the  Cen- 
trospermae,  and  thus  far  it  appears  that  no  other  flowering  plants 
branched  off  from  the  Centrospermae  group. 


"Where  Have  All  the  Ground  Beetles  Gone?"  was  the  title  of  a 
lecture  given  last  year  by  Dr.  Terry  Erwin  at  the  National  Museum 
of  Natural  History.  Only  a  handful  of  scientists  in  the  world  are 
as  well  qualified  as  he  is  to  address  such  a  question  even  though 
the  ground  beetle  family  (Carabidae)  is  the  third  largest  family  of 
beetles  (40,000+  species). 

Dr.  Erwin's  field  observations  at  the  Smithsonian  Tropical  Re- 
search Institute's  (stri)  Barro  Colorado  Island  have  given  him  evi- 
dence that  ground  beetles  moved  from  tropical  wetlands — the  "boil- 
ing pot"  for  their  evolution — in  an  ecological  progression  from  the 
wetlands  onto  the  forest  floor,  then  into  the  forest  undercanopy, 
and  finally  upward  into  the  treetops.  He  has  pioneered  in  tracing 
the  specialized  tropical  life  cycles  developed  by  the  beetles  on  the 
forest  floor  and  undercanopy  and  plans  future  work  at  stri  and 
elsewhere  that  will  eventually  take  him  on  eighty-foot-high  cat- 
walks so  that  he  can  study  life  in  the  treetops.  There  is  an  urgency 
to  this  project  because  when  the  forests  are  cut,  as  is  happening  in 
Latin  America,  hundreds  of  these  forest  top  species  are  irretrievably 

The  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  has  a  half-million 
ground  beetles  in  its  collections,  making  it  probably  second  in  size 
only  to  the  British  Museum.  When  Dr.  Erwin  came  to  nmnh  in 
1971  he  found  these  collections  poorly  organized  because  no  ground 
beetle  specialist  had  ever  been  employed  at  the  Museum  before. 
He  has  since  sorted  all  of  these  specimens  to  tribe  level,  and  many  to 
generic  and  species  level.  The  wealth  of  data  available  in  the  col- 
lections and  the  opportunity  to  work  at  stri  launched  him  into  a 
massive  systematic  study  of  the  ground  beetles  of  Central  America. 

When  completed,  this  study  will  cover  more  than  2000  species, 
probably  40  percent  of  them  undescribed  in  scientific  literature. 

Science  I  107 

All  of  the  natural  history  and  geographical  information  on  each 
species  is  being  computerized  by  Dr.  Erwin's  wife  La  Verne,  who 
is  a  full  partner  in  the  project  and  will  co-author  the  six-volume 
study.  Heretofore,  projects  one-third  this  size  have  taken  from 
twenty-five  to  thirty  years  but  computerization  will  enable  them  to 
finish  it  in  a  fourth  of  the  time. 

The  computer  will  be  able  to  generate  ground  beetle  distribution 
maps  and  keep  them  updated  as  new  material  is  acquired;  and  make 
it  possible  to  correlate  faster  than  ever  before  such  specimen- 
related  data  as  altitude,  range,  plant  association,  parasites,  and  so 
on.  Up  to  sixty  categories  of  data  are  being  fed  into  the  computer 
for  each  newly  acquired  specimen,  as  compared  to  an  average  of 
only  fifteen  recorded  for  older  specimens. 

The  Erwins  have  designed  each  volume  to  be  a  systematic  study 
with  much  natural  history  data  included  which  can  be  used  by 
amateurs  or  mathematical  ecologists  to  simply  identify  specimens 
or  to  seek  geographical  and  ecological  data.  And  from  volume  six, 
the  all-important  faunal  analysis,  people  will  be  able  to  learn  where 
all  the  ground  beetles  have  gone. 


At  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  a  great  deal  of 
interest  in  Ascension  Island's  invertebrate  animals  has  been  stimu- 
lated by  a  field  trip  made  there  in  1971  by  Dr.  Raymond  B.  Man- 
ning, a  specialist  in  decapods  (an  order  of  crustaceans  that  includes 
shrimps,  lobsters,  and  crabs).  Like  earlier  scientists,  he  was  inter- 
ested in  Ascension's  land  crabs.  But  casting  his  net  over  a  wider 
area,  he  took  the  opportunity  to  make  an  intensive  survey  of  the 
marine  life  in  the  Island's  lava  tidal  pools  and  shallow  shore  waters. 

Because  of  Ascension's  isolation  and  relative  geological  youth — 
estimates  of  its  age  make  it  no  older  than  one  million  years — it  is 
an  excellent  natural  laboratory  on  which  one  can  study  where  its 
marine  animals  originated,  how  this  life  was  dispersed  and  carried 
to  Ascension  by  currents  and  other  means,  and  what  adaptions  it 
has  made  to  its  environment  since  its  arrival. 

An  example  of  the  Island's  puzzling  fauna,  collected  by  Dr. 
Manning  in  two  tidal  pools  on  the  western  edge  of  the  Island, 
were  two  unusual  shrimps,  one  unique  in  being  clawless  and  lack- 
ing sexual  modifications.  In  the  report  on  the  two  shrimps,  written 

108  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Clawless  Shrimp  Procaris  ascensionis.  x7.  Drawing  by  Dr.  Fenner  Chase. 
Dr.  Raymond  Manning  examines  an  Ascension  crab. 

Glomar  Challenger.  Below.  Dr.  William  Melson  and  colleague.  Dr.  Fabrizio  Aumento, 
examining  core  samples  aboard  Glomar  Challenger. 




A-        4 

few        -w,< 

with  his  colleague  Dr.  Fenner  A.  Chase,  Jr.,  Two  Neio  Caridean 
Shrimps,  One  Representing  a  New  Family,  from  Marine  Pools  on 
Ascension  Island,  the  nmnh  scientists  noted  that  one  of  the  shrimps 
had  relatives  living  in  subterranean  fresh  water  habitats  in  the  West 
Indies  and  Galapagos  Islands  whereas  the  other  one  had  no  obvious 
close  relatives.  Within  a  year  a  relative  of  the  latter  shrimp  was 
found  in  a  similar  habitat,  a  saltwater  pool  in  a  lava  flow,  in  Hawaii. 
How  two  very  similar  species  of  the  same  genus  came  to  occupy 
the  same  habitats  in  such  widely  separated  areas  remains  an  in- 
triguing mystery. 

Drs.  Manning  and  Chace  are  now  engaged  in  completing  their 
study  of  the  more  than  forty  other  species  of  decapods  collected 
by  Dr.  Manning  on  Ascension,  based  on  samples  taken  from  a 
variety  of  shallow-water  habitats  there.  Dr.  Joseph  Rosewater  has 
recently  published  a  survey  of  the  Ascension  mollusks  collected  by 
Dr.  Manning^ >ln  Annotated  List  of  the  Marine  Mollusks  of  Ascen- 
sion Island,  South  Atlantic  Ocean,  and  Dr.  David  L.  Pawson  is 
studying  the  echinoderms  Dr.  Manning  brought  back.  The  deep- 
water  fauna  off  Ascension  remains  poorly  known. 


"The  ocean  is  almost  like  a  mirror  today — almost  glassy  smooth, 
like  a  great  quiet  lake.  An  intense  morning — looking  at  our  longest 
core  so  far — core  44 — 7.1  meters  of  gloriously  interesting  material. 
All  is  well!  All  is  dehghtful  for  Leg  37,"  so  wrote  Dr.  William 
Melson,  Chairman  of  the  nmnh  Department  of  Mineral  Sciences, 
who  spent  part  of  last  year  on  board  the  U.  5.  Research  Vessel 
Glomar  Challenger,  the  ship  that  for  six  years  has  been  circling 
the  earth,  relentlessly  drilling  and  coring  the  ocean  floor  for  scien- 
tific purposes. 

This  notation  in  his  log  was  written  the  day  the  drill  reached  563 
meters  (about  1800  feet)  on  its  way  to  an  historic  1910-foot  pene- 
tration of  the  ocean  floor. 

It  was  to  be  the  deepest  of  five  borings  made  during  Leg  37  in 
1600  feet  of  water  at  sites  off  the  Azores  near  the  Mid-Atlantic 
ridge.  Each  of  the  five  holes — measuring  333,  405,  1102,  1092,  and 
1912  feet — exceeded  the  previous  record  penetration  into  the  vol- 
canic rocks  beneath  the  ocean  floor.  The  five  borings  yielded  more 
than  3000  core  samples  of  igneous  and  sedimentary  rock,  which 

Science  I  111 

are  now  undergoing  laboratory  analysis  at  the  Smithsonian  and 
other  major  research  centers  in  the  United  States,  Union  of  Soviet 
Socialist  Republics,  Canada,  France,  Germany,  and  Great  Britain. 

Earlier  legs  of  the  Glomar  Challenger  had  only  sought  to  bring 
up  cores  of  the  sediment  layers  that  overlie  the  hard  rocks  of  the 
ocean  floor.  These  have  given  an  immense  amount  of  paleonto- 
logical  information  about  the  early  history  of  the  earth.  On  Leg  37, 
however,  the  Glomar  Challenger  had  for  the  first  time  directed  its 
capabilities  at  the  ocean's  basement  rock. 

Its  probes  made  it  possible  to  study  how  crust  forms  during  sea 
floor  spreading.  The  data  from  Leg  37's  sites  confirmed  that  the  sea 
floor  is  spreading  from  the  Mid-Atlantic  rift  at  the  rate  of  1.1 
centimeters  a  year  a  few  hundred  miles  south  of  the  Azores.  The 
scientists  were  also  able  to  see  what  is  happening  deep  inside  the 
earth's  mantle,  locate  mineral  and  oil  deposits  in  the  oceanic  crust, 
and  study  the  origin  of  the  magnetic  strips  below  the  earth's  ocean 
basins  and  past  reversals  of  the  earth's  magnetism. 

Dr.  Melson  was  cruise  co-chief  scientist  with  Dr.  Fabrizio 
Aumento  of  Dalhousie  University,  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia,  Canada. 
Assisted  by  information  provided  by  the  thirteen  other  scientists 
comprising  the  international  crew,  they  made  such  critical  decisions 
as  the  exact  location  of  the  drill  sites. 


In  late  January  1975  in  the  cattle  ranching  country  of  northern 
Queensland,  Australia,  paleobotanist  Dr.  Francis  Hueber  pried  out 
of  a  low  sandstone  ledge  the  fossilized  remains  of  a  360-million- 
year-old  Devonian  plant.  It  was  the  best  preserved  specimen  found 
of  this  Devonian  genus  and  for  Dr.  Hueber  it  was  a  major  stride 
forward  on  a  project  that  began  seventeen  years  ago. 

Back  in  1958  he  had  collected  four  or  five  isolated  fragments  of 
the  same  genus  in  New  York's  Catskill  Mountains.  Unfortunately, 
the  fragments,  which,  oddly,  were  starshaped  in  cross  section,  were 
not  large  and  complete  enough  to  indicate  much  about  the  plant. 
More  fossil  material  was  needed.  Because  it  was  unlikely  that  any 
more  would  turn  up  in  New  York,  Australia  seemed  to  be  the  best 
place  to  look,  since  a  piece  of  the  same  genus  had  been  found 
there  in  the  nineteenth  century  at  a  site  on  the  Fanning  River  in 
northern  Queensland. 

112  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

It  was  nine  years  before  Dr.  Hueber  was  able  to  get  to  Australia. 
When  he  did  it  was  to  collect  fossil  material  in  the  State  of  Victoria 
connected  with  research  he  was  doing  on  other  Devonian  plants. 
But  he  took  the  opportunity  to  go  north  for  a  few  days  and  locate 
the  site  on  the  Fanning  River.  In  Devonian  times  the  area  appar- 
ently had  been  a  great  river  delta  near  the  ocean^and  trees  and  other 
plants  had  floated  down  river  and  sunk  into  the  delta  sands  and 
muds.  Dr.  Hueber  hastily  surveyed  the  area's  sandstone  formations 
and  was  encouraged  when  he  found  more  scraps  of  the  fossil.  The 
material  that  he  was  able  to  collect  turned  out  to  be  rather  poorly 
preserved  but  revealed  the  fact  that  the  plant  instead  of  being 
herbaceous  of  habit  was  in  truth  a  tree.  But  another  problem  arose 
— were  the  star-shaped  strands  of  wood  the  tree's  roots  or  branches? 
The  anatomy  of  the  trunk  was  of  a  complex  nature  and  did  not  give 
clear  evidence  for  orientation  of  the  specimens.  Therefore,  which 
way  was  up? 

In  1970,  Dr.  Hueber  returned  to  northern  Queensland  after  Don 
Wyatt,  an  Australian  geologist,  wrote  that  high  water  in  the  Fan- 
ning River  area  had  cleared  a  mudstone  layer  in  which  two  masses 
of  the  fossilized  tree  he  was  looking  for  were  exposed.  The  geolo- 
gist had  interpreted  the  fossils  as  the  tops  of  the  trees  with  their 
branches  spread  out  through  the  matrix.  Dr.  Hueber  collected  a 
considerable  amount  of  the  fossil  material  but  when  he  got  it  back 
to  the  Museum  found  it  useless  in  solving  the  problem.  The  tree 
fragments  had  so  badly  rotted  before  fossihzation  that  it  was  im- 
possible to  determine  clearly  the  orientation  of  the  specimens. 

It  was  on  his  third  trip  in  1975  that  Dr.  Hueber  and  Don  Wyatt 
discovered  the  key  8-inch  by  11- inch  chunk  of  log  weathering  out 
of  the  sandstone  ledge.  Though  it  has  not  yet  been  cut  into  sections 
at  the  Museum  and  studied.  Dr.  Hueber  is  reasonably  certain  that 
the  anatomy  of  the  specimen  is  intact  and  that  the  orientation  of 
the  specimen  indicates  that  the  star-shaped  strands  are  the  tree's 

Importantly  in  tracing  the  early  evolution  of  the  plant  kingdom 
this  discovery  marks  a  point  in  geologic  time  at  which  roots  can  be 
defined  as  an  integral  part  of  the  plant  body.  Most  land  plants 
during  the  Devonian  Period  (which  began  395  million  years  ago) 
relied  upon  the  absorptive  abilities  of  their  stems  which  trailed 
along  or  were  partially  buried  in  the  muds  and  swampy  soils  of  the 

Science  I  113 




"t :  I 



'!\>     i'. 

>^        "^:*^ 


Facing  page,  above:  Dr.  Francis  Hueber  at  work  in  his  office.  Facing  page,  below: 
The  fossilized  remains  of  a  360-million-year-old  Devonian  plant  pried  out  of  a  sand- 
stone ledge  in  Australia  by  Dr.  Hueber.  Above:  Site  of  Dr.  Hueber's  study  of  Devonian 
plant  fossils  near  the  Fanning  River,  Queensland,  Australia. 

ancient  river  deltas  and  coastal  swamps.  The  root  was  gradually 
evolved  over  a  period  of  about  twenty-five  million  years  and  the 
plant  Dr.  Hueber  is  studying  represents  one  of  those  very  early 
plants  in  which  the  differentiation  of  the  plant  body  into  stem  and 
root  was  achieved.  It  marks  an  important  step  in  the  history  of  the 
plant  kingdom. 


Dr.  Richard  Thorington  continued  his  studies  on  troops  of  howler 
monkeys  on  Barro  Colorado  Island  at  the  Smithsonian  Tropical 
Research  Institute.  The  monkeys  usually  can  be  located  by  their 
strong  smell  and  noisy  chorus.  A  troop's  eighteen  monkeys  move 
slowly  along  through  the  treetops,  feeding  on  the  fruit  of  fig  and 
hog  plum  trees  and  roaring  and  howling  at  any  stranger  who  dares 
invade  their  territorial  area. 

Many  studies  of  the  social  behavior  of  the  Barro  Colorado  howl- 
ers have  been  made,  dating  back  to  the  work  of  Dr.  C.  R.  Carpenter 
in  the  1930s,  but  Dr.  Thorington  is  the  first  scientist  to  undertake 
a  study  of  their  long-term  population  dynamics  and  the  factors  that 
influence  it. 

An  anesthesia  dart-gun  is  used  to  get  the  monkeys  out  of  the 
trees.  When  they  wobble  and  fall  they  are  caught  in  a  net  and  then 
morphological  measurements,  toothcasts,  fingerprints,  blood  sam- 
ples, and  biopsies  are  quickly  taken.  Before  they  are  released  white 
bands  are  freeze  branded  on  their  tails  so  that  they  can  be  identi- 
fied in  the  future  for  recapture.  More  than  forty  howlers  have  been 
marked  in  this  way  since  1972,  when  the  study  began. 

The  project  has  already  yielded  interesting  information.  Chromo- 
some analysis  of  tissue  cultures  sent  to  Dr.  Ma  and  Dr.  Jones  at 
Harvard's  New  England  Regional  Primate  Research  Center,  shows 
that  there  is  an  odd  translocation  of  a  Y  chromosome  in  the  male 
howler  over  to  one  of  the  (nonsex  bearing)  autosomes.  This  gives 
the  female  54  chromosomes  to  the  male's  53;  and  the  patterning 
of  footprints,  fingerprints,  and  tailprints  of  the  Barro  Colorado 
howlers  and  those  of  Costa  Rica  have  been  found  to  be  curiously 
different.  Dr.  Thorington  and  Dr.  Jefferey  Froehlich  (at  that  time, 
a  postdoctoral  student)  are  studying  this  patterning  to  see  if  there 
is  any  basic  genetic  difference  in  the  two  monkey  populations. 

116  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 


One  of  the  howler  monkeys  in  a  troupe  on  Barro  Colorado  Island  studied  by 
Dr.  Richard  Thorington.  Below:  Dr.  Thorington  measuring  the  circumference 
of  one  of  the  trees  where  the  howler  monkeys  feed.  Such  data  is  used  in  the 
study  which  correlates  productivity  of  the  forest  with  fluctuations  in  the 
monkey  population. 

Most  of  Dr.  Thorington's  findings  will  come  in  over  a  much 
longer  term  because  howler  monkeys  live  for  a  long  time,  perhaps 
twenty  years.  Gradually  he  is  documenting  life  spans,  death  rates, 
and  the  frequency  of  births  to  different  aged  females. 

By  marking  and  mapping  the  trees  in  the  forest  that  the  monkeys 
use — and  studying  the  trees'  flowering,  fruiting,  and  leafing  cycles 
— Dr.  Thorington  hopes  to  obtain  indices  of  the  annual  produc- 
tivity of  the  forest  and  find  what  impact  its  fluctuations  have  on 
the  monkey  population. 

Results  of  the  research  have  indicated  a  long-term  stability  of 
food  resources.  In  1955  there  was  a  study  of  where  the  monkeys 
moved  and  where  they  fed.  Many  of  the  trees  are  the  exact  same 
ones  in  which  the  howlers  feed  today.  Over  a  twenty-year  period 
the  distribution  of  resources  appears  to  have  changed  little.  This  is 
an  important  factor  in  the  social  life  of  these  monkeys,  as  well. 

But  there  are  gradual  inexorable  changes  occurring  in  the  mon- 
keys' habitat.  Botanists  who  have  examined  the  Island's  fig  and  hog 
plum  trees  for  Dr.  Thorington  have  noted  that  the  trees  do  not 
seem  to  be  producing  seedlings,  which  leads  him  to  believe  that  the 
main  food  supply  of  the  howlers  is  going  to  become  less  and  less 
abundant  in  the  years  ahead. 

Yellow  fever  has  the  potential  of  causing  a  swift  and  devastating 
impact  on  the  monkey  population.  Dr.  Thorington  in  collaboration 
with  the  Middle  American  Research  Unit  (maru)  has  been  able  to 
establish  that  howlers  do  not  have  antibodies  to  this  disease.  In 
1949,  the  last  time  yellow  fever  swept  through  the  Central  Ameri- 
can forests,  it  killed  up  to  75  percent  of  the  Island's  monkeys. 
Since  then  the  Island  howler  population  has  increased  from  250  in 
1951  to  800  in  1959  and  in  the  last  eight  years  has  risen  to  1500. 
But  in  1974-1975  yellow  fever  cases  have  been  reported  again  in 
the  forest,  spreading  toward  the  Canal  Zone,  and  Dr.  Thorington 
is  afraid  that  an  epidemic  could  strike  Barro  Colorado  Island. 

118  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

National  Zoological  Park 

In  the  Orient,  this  is  the  year  of  the  hare.  The  past  year  at  the 
National  Zoological  Park  could  be  well  called  the  year  of  the  cater- 
pillar— tractor  that  is.  The  highest  visible  sign  of  activity  to  the 
visitors  and  the  staff  has  been  the  construction  program  throughout 
the  Zoo.  One-third  of  the  exhibition  areas  have  been  in  the  process 
of  renovation.  The  lion  and  tiger  exhibits  have  grown  from  a  hole 
in  the  ground  to  a  recognizable  structure.  One  can  now  see  the 
outline  of  the  walls,  moats,  and  the  viewing  areas.  Internally,  the 
quarters  for  the  big  cats  are  evolving  in  an  orderly  fashion  from 
the  beginning  of  seeming  chaos.  Delays  from  strikes  and  weather 
have  occurred  but  it  is  now  hoped  that  occupancy  and  dedication 
will  take  place  about  Easter  of  1976. 

The  occupants  of  the  elephant  house  suffered  the  most  incon- 
venience for  they  were  confined  to  their  quarters  almost  the  entire 
year  while  their  outside  yards  were  being  enlarged  by  a  factor  of 
three.  The  visitor  has  had  on  display  the  lumbering  antics  of  bull- 
dozers, backhoes,  cranes,  and  cement  trucks  accompanied  by  their 
frantic  hard-hatted  keepers.  They  have  pushed  their  work  so  that 
the  giraffes  were  returned  to  their  outside  yard  five  months  ahead 
of  the  contract  completion  date.  When  the  outside  doors  were 
finally  opened,  the  giraffes  gazed  out  on  their  new  yards,  which  are 
five  times  larger  than  their  previous  inadequate  space,  for  three 
days.  Finally,  the  late  afternoon  the  third  day  the  young  colt  which 
had  been  born  in  late  spring  ventured  out  and  was  quickly  followed 
by  his  mother  and  the  other  giraffes.  For  the  first  time  in  the  history 
of  the  Zoo,  the  giraffes  have  enough  space  to  run,  kick  up  their 
heels,  and  frolic.  The  sight  of  these  graceful  animals  cantering  is 
indeed  a  reward  for  the  months  of  planning,  contract  negotiations, 
confinement,  and  general  inconvenience  to  the  visitors.  The  giraffes 
are  viewed  behind  a  low  moat.  The  path  around  the  yard  extends 
up  on  a  low  hillock  to  the  north  of  the  building  so  that  the  visitors 
actually  have  a  giraffe  eye-level  view  of  these  graceful  animals. 
Also  completed  were  the  new  pygmy  hippopotamus  yards  which 
are  the  same  size  as  previously  but  have  a  new  moat  system  and 
outside  pools.  It  is  anticipated  that  shortly  the  Indian  elephants  will 
have  the  use  of  their  new  yard  with  its  much  enlarged  bathing 
pool    and    that    by    Thanksgiving    of    1975    the    hippopotamuses. 

Science  I  119 

African  elephant,  and  Indian  rhinoceroses  will  be  enjoying  spacious 
outside  quarters. 

The  level  plaza  surrounding  the  bird  house  is  being  completely 
redeveloped  for  three  new  duck  ponds  in  front  of  the  building, 
crane  yards  on  the  left,  new  flamingo  pool,  and  exhibit  behind  in 
additional  small  cages  scattered  throughout  the  area.  The  project 
has  been  divided  into  two  phases.  Roughly  half  of  the  work  is  to  be 
completed  before  the  second  half  starts  so  that  the  birds  are  not 
completely  removed  from  their  homes.  Visitors  arrive  at  the  side 
entrance  to  the  bird  house  after  passing  the  old  eagle  cage  on  the 
right  and  the  new  waterfowl  pond  construction  on  the  left.  The 
breeding  pair  of  American  bald  eagles  rather  disdainfully  super- 
vised the  work  in  progress.  They  did  take  time  off  to  build  a  nest 
and  lay  two  eggs  but,  unfortunately,  the  eggs  did  not  hatch.  With 
good  luck  and  fair  weather  the  project  will  be  completed  about 
Thanksgiving  of  1975. 

Remodeling  of  the  1904  monkey  house,  as  described  in  Smith- 
sonian Year  1974,  was  completed  early  in  the  winter  and  the 
cage  decorations  were  assembled.  Because  it  is  so  difficult  to  dup- 
licate natural  trees  in  such  a  manner  that  the  animals  cannot 
destroy  them  with  their  ingenious  minds  and  busy  fingers,  it  was 
decided  that  the  timbers  developed  in  the  past  few  years  for  chil- 
dren's playground  equipment  would  be  used.  The  monkey  habits, 
whether  they  be  climbing,  jumping,  leaping,  or  swinging  were  taken 
into  consideration  and  a  specific  design  was  made  for  each  species. 
The  swinging  monkeys,  such  as  the  spider  monkey,  have  plenty  of 
ropes  to  swing  from  while  the  leaping  monkeys,  like  the  colobus, 
have  platforms  on  which  to  bounce  back  and  forth.  Altogether  it 
has  produced  a  very  active  exhibit  which  is  pleasing  to  the  visitors. 
Zoo  personnel  are  highly  pleased  that  the  monkeys  accepted  their 
new  furniture  with  joyous  abandon.  Despite  an  aggressive,  com- 
petent, supple  minded,  and  knowledgeable  staff,  it  is  with  trepida- 
tion that  we  attempt  to  predict  the  behavior  of  animals.  It  is  very 
heart  warming  to  have  the  monkeys'  approval  of  our  plans  and 

The  first  Smithsonian  Associates  Women's  Committee  auction 
in  mid-May  of  this  year  marked  the  official  dedication  and  opening 
of  the  monkey  house.  Following  a  delightful  meal  served  in  the 
newly  refurbished  center  of  the  old  building,  items  and  services 

120  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

^^*    -v 

^  a^ 


Giraffes  in  the  new  yards  at  the  National  Zoo.  In  the  foreground  can  be 
seen  a  section  of  the  Indian  elephants'  yard  under  construction.  Below:  Giraffe 
in  its  new  yard  at  the  National  Zoo  enjoys  "people  watching." 

A  view  of  one  of  the  redecorated  cages  in  the  renovated  Monkey  House  at 
the  National  Zoo.  The  "furniture"  inside  the  cage  was  specially  designed  for 
these  spider  monkeys.  The  logs  are  solid  oak.  The  ropes,  simulating  lianas, 
are  two-inch  thick  manila  rope.  All  the  cages  in  the  Monkey  House  have 
been  designed  with  special  features  for  the  specific  monkeys  involved. 

pertaining  to  the  various  bureaus  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution 
were  spiritedly  bid  for  by  a  distinguished  company  of  humans.  One 
of  the  elderly  and  distinguished  colobus  monkeys  was  heard  to  com- 
ment that  even  for  the  sake  of  education  he  would  never  make  a 
human  out  of  himself.  All  in  all,  the  monkeys  seemed  to  enjoy  the 
evening  with  slightly  blase  tolerant  amusement.  The  visiting  public 
has  expressed  great  pleasure  in  the  "new"  old  monkey  house,  com- 
menting that  the  lowered  cage  floors  give  good  visibility  to  small 
children  and  that  the  plateglass  does  not  obstruct  the  viewing.  The 
monkeys  are  appreciative  of  the  fact  that  they  no  longer  have  to 
smell  human  beings. 

In  addition  to  the  three  major  pieces  of  construction  all  through 
the  Zoo,  there  have  been  smaller  jobs  being  accomplished  prepara- 
tory for  the  Bicentennial  year.  At  the  year's  end,  one  dozen  projects 
were  underway  and  on  target,  with  twice  as  many  due  to  be  active 

122  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

by  late  fall.  Work  is  now  in  progress  on  ramps  for  the  small 
mammal  house  and  reptile  house.  When  these  are  completed,  all 
exhibits  will  be  accessible  to  wheel  chairs  and  baby  carriages. 

Since  the  Zoo  has  changed  its  contracting  practices  to  one  of 
direct  contracting  rather  than,  as  formerly,  through  the  General 
Services  Administration,  the  workload  has  increased  tremendously. 
The  Zoo  was  fortunate  in  having  Mr.  Robert  C.  Engle  join  the  staff 
as  engineer  and  Mr.  Fred  Barwick  as  Zoo  contracting  officer. 


On  June  22,  1975,  the  General  Services  Administration  transferred 
some  3100  acres  of  magnificent  fields,  forest,  pasture,  springs,  and 
farm  structures  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  thus  making  official 
and  legal  the  Zoo's  tenancy  at  the  old  cavalry  remount  station  at 
Front  Royal.  Previously,  the  Zoo  had  been  occupying  and  develop- 
ing this  area  under  a  use  permit.  Dr.  Christen  M.  Wemmer,  who 
joined  the  Zoo  staff  from  the  Brookfield  Zoo  in  Chicago,  heads  up 
the  Center  ably  and  is  enthusiastically  assisted  by  fifteen  employees, 
some  of  whom  were  previously  state  or  federal  agricultural  em- 
ployees and  are  continuing  their  long  careers  at  the  site.  Together 
they  have  established  successful  farming,  maintenance,  and  animal 
management  programs.  Last  year  two  large  pastures  were  enclosed 
and  one  of  the  old  horse  barns  refurbished.  This  year  two  addi- 
tional horse  barns  were  refurbished  and  four  more  large  pastures 
were  enclosed.  Now  in  residence  are  Felds  deer,  bongo,  kangaroo, 
zebra  (two  foals  born),  bactrian  camels,  rheas,  as  well  as  the  scimi- 
tar horn  oryx  and  Pere  David  deer  which  were  established  last 
year.  In  cooperation  and  conjunction  with  the  newly  formed  Minne- 
sota State  Zoological  Garden  at  MinneapoUs,  eight  bactrian  camels 
were  secured  and  are  now  in  residence  at  the  Center.  Maria,  our 
female  bactrian  camel,  returned  to  us  from  Cleveland  bringing  her 
consort,  Jimmy.  Early  this  spring  one  of  the  new  females  produced 
a  lovely,  if  somewhat  grotesque,  calf. 

Dr.  D.  Kleiman  planned  a  facility  at  one  of  the  barns'  in  the  cen- 
tral part  of  the  Center's  campus  for  a  comparative  canid  behavior 
study.  The  cages  for  maned  wolves,  bush  dogs,  and  crab-eating 
foxes  have  been  constructed  and  presently  two  pairs  of  maned 
wolves  are  in  residence  and  under   study.   These   animals   were 

Science  I  123 

secured  through  the  cooperation  of  Brazihan  officials  and  Dr.  Mario 
Autuori  of  the  Sao  Paulo  Zoo.  The  study  of  these  animals,  with 
particular  emphasis  on  their  social  and  reproductive  behavior,  will 
continue  for  several  years. 

Besides  maintaining  the  present  facility  and  producing  300  tons 
of  hay  for  general  Zoo  use,  exciting  plans  and  programs  are  being 
formulated  for  the  Center's  future  development. 


The  most  notable  event  for  the  Office  of  Animal  Management  was 
the  hatching  of  a  kiwi  chick  early  in  the  year.  This  is  the  first  time 
that  this  New  Zealand  bird  has  hatched  outside  of  New  Zealand 
and  Australia.  The  incubation  period  is  uncertain  although  reported 
to  be  fifty  days.  The  male,  who  incubates  the  egg,  hid  the  egg  for 
a  time,  and  the  office  was  only  aware  of  its  presence  for  the  twenty 
days  prior  to  its  hatching.  Great  consternation  prevailed  since  there 
was  no  knowledge  of  how  to  feed  the  young  chick;  finally  it  was 
decided  to  double  the  amount  of  feed  being  fed  to  the  adults  and 
hope  for  the  best.  Fortunately,  the  male  instructed  the  young  chick 
in  the  proper  methods  of  feeding  and  under  this  regimen  it  has 
thrived  and  grown  mightily.  The  female  pays  little  or  no  attention 
to  either  the  egg  or  her  offspring,  leaving  everything  after  egg- 
laying  entirely  up  to  the  cock. 

The  lesser  pandas  produced  a  litter  of  four  kits,  which  means 
that  these  animals  are  now  breeding  into  the  second  generation. 
It  is  hoped  a  strong  breeding  colony  of  this  charming  Asiatic  animal 
can  be  established. 

The  nene  geese,  inspired  by  the  example  of  the  previous  years, 
decided  to  outdo  themselves  this  year.  Between  February  and  March 
nineteen  goslings  were  hatched  from  the  eggs  of  three  laying  pairs. 
At  one  time  the  Zoo's  exhibit  consisted  of  twenty-eight  of  this 
highly  endangered  Hawaiian  state  bird. 

The  Utah  prairie  dogs  produced  ten  babies  this  year.  The  Office 
of  Animal  Management  completed  its  studies  of  these  animals  and 
contemplates  sending  them  to  the  University  of  Utah  for  additional 

The  white  tiger  cubs,  reported  last  year  at  Cincinnati,  continue  to 
thrive.  They  are  straight-legged,  big-boned,  husky  young  cubs,  and 
are  expected  to  be  returned  to  Washington,  D.C.,  next  Easter. 

124  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

The  first  kiwi  ever  hatched  and  reared  outside  of  its  native  New  Zealand,  except  for 
Australia,  was  an  outstanding  event  for  the  National  Zoo.  After  the  female  lays  the 
egg  she  has  no  further  interest  in  it  and  the  egg  is  incubated  for  a  period  of  75-80 
days  by  the  male.  The  chick  was  named  Toru,  the  Maori  word  for  "three."  Photo: 
Washington  Post. 

Growing  at  the  rate  of  two  pounds  a  day,  the  first  born  bactrian  camel  at  the  Front 
Royal  Conservation  and  Research  Center  brings  the  National  Zoo's  camel  herd  up  to 
eleven,  the  largest  herd  in  North  America.  The  baby  was  named  "Number  One." 
Photo:  Leo  Slaughter. 

In  keeping  with  the  Zoo's  plans  and  responsibihty  toward  the 
animal  kingdom,  animals  continue  to  be  paired  by  sending  them 
out  on  breeding  loan  to  other  zoos.  At  the  present  time  thirty-two 
mammals,  eight  reptiles,  and  numerous  birds  are  deposited  in  other 
zoos.  Cooperation  among  all  zoos  in  the  United  States  is  growing. 
More  and  more  emphasis  is  being  placed  on  replacement  of  zoo 
stock  by  zoo  breeding  and  interexchange  of  animals. 

The  Office  of  Animal  Management^  under  general  curator  Jaren 
Horsley,  is  continuing  efforts  to  enrich  contributions  to  animal- 
keeping  and  to  broaden  representation  in  the  ranks  with  the  hiring 
of  ten  women  animal-keepers.  Curatorial  involvement  in  animal- 
exhibit  planning  resulted  in  excellent  cage  furnishing  of  the  monkey 
house.  Research  activities  increased  in  the  office  with  two  papers 
given  by  animal-keepers  at  professional  meetings  and  with  the 
addition  to  the  staff  of  a  herpetologist.  Dr.  Dale  Marcellini,  who  will 
develop  the  research  programs  based  on  the  collection. 

The  most  distressing  death  during  the  year  was  that  of  the  large, 
old^  male  komodo  dragon,  Kalana,  who  had  been  in  residence  for 
five  years.  During  the  past  few  months  he  failed  noticeably,  losing 
weight,  and  decreasing  in  activity.  It  was  finally  determined  that 
euthanasia  would  be  best  for  the  animal.  Post  mortem  revealed 
that  he  had  a  growth  on  the  heart  valve  which  produced  a  valvular 
insufficiency^  with  the  associated  backup  of  blood  and  circulatory 
deficiencies    common  in  this  condition. 

The  giant  pandas,  Ling-Ling  and  Hsing-Hsing,  continue  to  be  a 
main  visitor  attraction.  This  past  April  the  young  female  came  into 
heat  for  the  third  year.  As  reported  last  year,  expectations  of  having 
a  successful  breeding  were  high.  Unfortunately,  the  male  was  still 
not  physically  mature  during  this  meeting.  We  hope  the  next  meet- 
ing in  April  will  prove  successful. 


The  year  for  the  Office  of  Zoological  Research  has  been  most  pro- 
ductive. Previous  programs  and  studies  have  continued  with  some 
major  additions.  In  the  fall  of  1974,  final  plans  were  made  with 
Venezuelan  scientists  to  inaugurate  a  program  of  field  studies  in 
vertebrate  behavior  and  ecology  in  conjunction  with  Venezuelan 
researchers  and  students.  Dr.  G.  G.  Montgomery  visited  Venezuela 

126  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

in  June  and  July  and  radio-tracked  both  the  giant  anteaters  and 
golden  anteaters  on  the  ranch  of  a  Venezuelan  collaborator,  Sr. 
Tomas  Blomh.  In  January  Dr.  Eisenberg  and  Dr.  Marcellini  under- 
took preliminary  field  investigations  on  herpetological  and  mam- 
malian studies.  In  March  Dr.  Eisenberg  and  Dr.  Eugene  Morton 
continued  the  field  research  undertaken  in  January  by  Dr.  Eisen- 
berg. In  June  Dr.  Eisenberg  and  two  graduate  students  spent  con- 
siderable time  in  the  field  working  on  the  general  problems  and 
specifically  that  of  the  small  mammals.  It  is  anticipated  that  the 
work  in  Venezuela  will  continue  for  several  years  and  should  prove 
extremely  fruitful. 

Dr.  Devra  Kleiman  of  the  research  staff  has  started  a  study  in 
the  communications  and  reproduction  behavior  of  South  American 
canids.  This  animal  group  provides  a  variety  of  social  organization 
(e.g.,  the  maned  wolf  is  a  solitary  animal,  the  crab-eating  foxes 
live  in  pairs,  and  the  third  individual  to  be  studied,  the  bush  dog, 
lives  in  family  groups  or  small  packs);  a  difference  in  physical  size; 
and  a  separation  in  geography.  Cage  facilities  have  been  con- 
structed at  the  Front  Royal  Conservation  and  Research  Center  and 
two  pairs  of  maned  wolves  are  now  in  residence  and  under  study. 

Dr.  Eugene  Morton  joined  the  Office  of  Zoological  Research  this 
past  fiscal  year  as  staff  ornithologist.  Dr.  Morton  has  previously 
worked  at  Smithsonian  facilities  in  Panama  and  the  Chesapeake 
Bay  Center  on  behavior  and  vocalization  of  avifauna.  Currently, 
Dr.  Morton  is  working  in  Venezuela  and  at  Front  Royal,  where  he 
has  initiated  studies  on  bluebirds  and  turkey  vultures. 

W.  P.  Dittus  received  his  Ph.D.  in  August  1974  on  work  done 
in  Sri  Lanka  on  the  tocque  macque.  Dr.  Dittus,  at  that  time  a  mem- 
ber of  the  research  department  staff,  is  presently  continuing  his 
work  in  Sri  Lanka  under  the  auspices  of  the  Max  Planck  Institute. 

In  April,  Victoria  Guerrero  received  her  Ph.D.  degree  on  studies 
concerning  the  hormone  control  of  courtship  behavior  in  the  green 
acouchi.  All  of  her  investigative  work  was  done  at  the  Zoo. 

In  May  1975,  Dr.  Montgomery  chaired  a  conference  on  arboreal- 
folivore  at  Front  Royal.  The  conference  gathered  together  thirty 
international  scientists  to  discuss  the  impact  of  vertebrate  and 
invertebrate  feeding  on  the  leaves  of  the  tropical  forest  and  the 
co-evolution  of  animals  and  plants  in  the  tropical  forest.  The  pro- 

Science  I  127 

ceedings  of  the  conference  will  be  published  later  as  part  of  the 
Smithsonian  series. 

Under  the  joint  auspices  of  the  National  Zoological  Park  and  the 
National  Institutes  of  Health,  about  forty  scientists  participated  in 
a  conference  on  the  behavior  and  neurology  of  lizards  held  at  Front 
Royal  in  May  1975. 

Work  in  this  department  has  continued  with  daily  treatment  and 
disease  investigation  throughout  the  Zoo.  Studies  described  in  last 
year's  annual  report  have  continued.  Dr.  Robert  M.  Sauer  resigned 
as  pathologist  and  has  been  replaced  by  Dr.  R.  Montali,  from  Johns 
Hopkins  University. 

Of  interest  was  the  initiation  of  a  cooperative  study  with  Dr. 
U.  S.  Seal,  of  the  Veterans  Hospital  in  Minneapolis,  on  contraceptive 
techniques  in  lions  and  other  cats.  Dr.  Gray  and  Dr.  Bush  have 
participated  in  this  project,  most  of  the  work  being  done  at  the  Lion 
Country  Safari  at  Doswell,  Virginia.  The  study  will  continue  for  the 
next  several  years. 

A  veterinary  intern  position  was  established.  This  will  be  a  fif- 
teen-month appointment  with  the  purpose  of  giving  practical 
clinical  experience  to  young  veterinarian  graduates  wishing  to 
specialize  in  exotic  animal  medicine.  Dr.  P.  K.  Ensley  has  been 
appointed  to  fill  the  first  internship. 

The  program  of  seminars,  as  described  in  last  year's  annual 
report,  continues  with  growing  success  and  participation  by  veter- 
inarians associated  with  exotic  animal  medicine  in  the  eastern  region 
of  the  United  States. 

Probably  the  most  noteworthy  activity  for  the  Office  of  Animal 
Health  and  Pathology  occurred  this  late  spring  and  early  summer 
when  there  was  a  sudden  outbreak  of  duck  viral  enteritis  in  the 
waterfowl  ponds.  An  early  diagnosis  was  made  in  cooperation  with 
the  Wildlife  Disease  Laboratories  of  the  United  States  Department 
of  Interior.  Through  the  cooperation  and  assistance  of  the  United 
States  Department  of  Agriculture  and  the  Cornell  School  of  Veter- 
inary Medicine,  vaccine  was  obtained  and  promptly  administered. 
The  outbreak  was  held  to  a  loss  of  some  forty  birds.  There  has 
been  no  recurrence  since  the  waterfowl  collection  was  completely 
vaccinated.  It  is  perhaps  too  soon  to  feel  that  all  danger  is  over; 

128  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

however,  it  does  appear  that  this  disease  has  been  brought  under 
control  by  the  alert  veterinary  staff,  the  early  diagnosis,  and  the 
preventative  vaccination  of  the  entire  collection. 

The  recently  created  Office  of  Education  and  Information  is  build- 
ing into   the   Zoo's   visitor   programs   new   dimensions   in   visitor 
learning  and  is  guiding  the  Friends  of  the  National  Zoo  in  their 
active  volunteer  guide  and  docent  program. 

The  Office  of  Graphics  and  Exhibits  undertook  a  wide-ranging 
program,  highlighted  by  developing  a  new  standard  identification 
label  and  the  counseling  of  designers  on  the  new  graphics  master 
plan  for  the  Zoo.  This  plan  will  go  into  production  in  1976  with 
a  unique  trail  system  for  visitors. 

In  the  Office  of  Protective  Services  a  new  health  and  safety  unit 
was  formed  to  focus  on  Zoo  needs  for  improved  visitor  and  em- 
ployee safety.  New  leadership  of  the  police  unit  has  emphasized 
officer  training  and  service  to  visitors. 

In  the  central  support  group,  the  Office  of  Facilities  Management 
continued  to  advance  the  skill  levels  of  employees.  A  helpers'train- 
ing  program  was  put  into  effect  under  capable  management,  giving 
unskilled  employees  an  opportunity  to  progress  in  mechanical 
abilities,  thereby  enabling  them  to  compete  for  positions  as  skilled 
tradesmen  in  the  future.  Maintenance  programs  were  expanded, 
with  the  custodial  force  assuming  responsibility  for  cleaning  the 
public  areas  in  the  animal  exhibit  buildings;  this  action  released  the 
keepers  for  attention  to  the  collections.  Great  credit  must  be  given 
to  the  skill  and  devotion  of  the  excellent  trade  and  craft  employees, 
who  maintained  the  Zoo  in  an  orderly  fashion  despite  the  disrup- 
tion caused  by  the  construction  program. 

At  the  core  of  the  Zoo's  administrative  operation  is  a  small  but 
highly  effective  management  services  unit.  The  main  emphasis  of 
this  office  is  to  help  develop  administrative  control  and  understand- 
ing within  each  Zoo  office  by  assisting  with  good  central  informa- 
tion and  guidance.  There  was  an  overall  step-up  in  staff  education 
efforts  with  more  than  a  threefold  increase  in  employee  participa- 
tion in  training  over  fiscal  year  1973.  During  the  year,  118  em- 

Science  I  129 

ployees  accomplished  191  educational  improvement  experiences. 
Major  emphasis  is  being  made  to  increase  knowledge  and  skill  by 
wider  participation  in  this  educational  program  through  all  areas 
of  the  Zoo.  Such  noteworthy  successes  in  management^  throughout 
the  Zoo,  left  the  Office  of  the  Director  free  to  concentrate  on  the 
broader  problems  of  guidance  and  overall  management. 

As  noted  earlier  in  this  report,  construction  was  visually  domi- 
nant within  the  Zoo  in  fiscal  year  1975.  Plans  are  proceeding  for 
construction  next  year  in  the  peripheral  areas  of  the  Zoo  and  the 
eventual  complete  modernization  of  the  entire  Zoo.  Despite  the 
turmoil,  1975  has  been  a  busy  and  exciting  year  with  many  notable 
advances.  The  Zoo  is  anticipating  a  Bicentennial  year  that  is  mean- 
ingful and  educational  for  all  its  visitors. 

Office  of  International  Programs 

The  Office  of  International  Programs  provides  support  to  United 
States  institutions  of  research  and  higher  learning,  including  the 
Smithsonian,  through  Foreign  Currency  Program  grants;  provides 
for  the  rapid  communication  of  data  on  natural  and  environmental 
phenomena  of  short  duration  through  the  Center  for  Short-Lived 
Phenomena;  provides  assistance  to  Peace  Corps  environmental  and 
natural  resources  programs;  and  provides  liaison  services  and 
assistance  in  foreign  affairs  for  other  offices  of  the  Smithsonian. 


The  Smithsonian  Foreign  Currency  Program  (sfcp)  awards  grants 
to  support  the  basic  research  interests  of  American  institutions, 
including  the  Smithsonian,  in  those  countries  where  the  United 
States  holds  blocked  currencies  derived  largely  from  past  sales  of 
surplus  agricultural  commodities  under  Public  Law  480.  The  Pro- 
gram is  active  in  countries  where  the  Treasury  Department  deems 
United  States  holdings  of  these  currencies  to  be  in  excess  of  normal 
federal  requirements,  including  at  present  India,  Pakistan,  Egypt, 
Tunisia,  and  Poland.  The  Smithsonian  received  a  fiscal  year  1975 
appropriation  of  $2  million  in  "excess"  currencies  which  was  used 
to  grant  support  to  over  seventy-five  projects  in  the  disciplines  of 

130  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

archeology  and  the  anthropological  sciences,  systematic  and  en- 
vironmental biology,  astrophysics  and  earth  sciences,  and  museum- 
related  fields.  Since  its  inception  in  fiscal  year  1966,  the  sfcp  has 
awarded  more  than  $26  million  in  foreign  currency  grants  to  some 
eighty-seven  institutions  in  thirty-two  states  and  the  District  of 
Columbia.  Within  the  framework  of  the  program,  the  Smithsonian 
this  year  made  a  second  contribution  of  $1  million  in  support  of 
international  efforts  to  save  the  submerged  temples  at  Philae,  Egypt. 
The  SFCP  participated  in  interagency  negotiations  leading  to  the 
establishment  of  a  United  States-Polish  Joint  Board  to  fund  scien- 
tific and  technical  cooperation.  This  Joint  Board,  similar  in  purpose 
to  the  United  States-Yugoslav  Joint  Board,  makes  it  possible  to 
extend  the  period  for  which  Polish  funds  will  be  available  for 
research  under  the  sfcp. 


The  International  Liaison  Section  (ils)  provides  liaison  and  assist- 
ance to  individuals  and  units  of  the  Smithsonian  in  dealing  with 
the  Department  of  State  and  with  foreign  governments.  It  handles 
international  matters  involving  travel  and  research  abroad,  and 
foreign  participation  in  domestic  programs  of  the  Smithsonian,  ils 
provides  passport  and  visa  services  for  Smithsonian  staff,  and 
assists  in  research  arrangements  for  foreign  visitors,  ils  has  been 
working  closely  with  the  Division  of  Performing  Arts  in  arranging 
Bicentennial-related  foreign  participation  in  the  Festival  of  Ameri- 
can Folklife,  and  has  been  involved  with  foreign  participation  in 
other  special  Bicentennial  activities  of  the  Institution. 

The  Center  operates  a  worldwide  electronic  alert  system  for  rapid 
communication  of  scientific  data  on  phenomena  of  short  duration 
involving  significant  changes  in  biological,  ecological,  and  geo- 
physical systems,  including  rare  or  unusual  animal  migrations, 
population  changes,  major  floods,  forest  fires,  volcanic  eruptions, 
earthquakes,  landslides;  pollution  events  such  as  oil  and  chemical 
spills,  gas  and  radioactive  substance  leaks;  and  occasional  astro- 
physical  events  such  as  meteorite  falls  and  fireballs.  During  the 
year,  the  Center  reported  235  short-lived  events  that  occurred  in 
forty-five  countries,  islands,  and  ocean  areas.  Scientific  field  teams 

Science  I  131 

investigated  160  of  the  events.  The  reporting  network  consists  of 
2874  scientists,  scientific  research  institutions,  and  field  stations  in 
185  countries,  and  is  augmented  by  an  International  Environmental 
Alert  Network  of  60,000  secondary  school  and  university  students 
in  691  schools  in  the  United  States  and  twenty-three  other  coun- 


The  Smithsonian-Peace  Corps  Environmental  Program  provides 
assistance  in  two  general  areas.  It  develops  Peace  Corps  projects 
and  assignments  dealing  with  environmental  and  natural  resource 
problems  in  the  developing  countries,  and  it  recruits  and  places 
applicants  skilled  in  the  environmental  biological  sciences.  Over 
800  applications  were  received  in  fiscal  1975^  and  203  volunteers 
with  environmental  skills  were  assigned  to  twenty-six  countries. 
Within  the  framework  of  Peace  Corps  agreements,  host  govern- 
ments assigned  these  environmental  sciences  volunteers  to  scien- 
tific and  natural  resource  conservation  programs. 

Radiation  Biology  Laboratory 

Sunlight  is  important  for  the  maintenance  of  life  on  the  earth.  The 
energy  from  sunlight  is  used  by  biological  systems  in  two  principal 
ways:  either  the  energy  is  converted  to  food^or  the  energy  is  used 
to  regulate  growth  and  development. 

In  order  for  the  sunlight  to  be  used  in  these  two  ways  it  must  be 
absorbed  by  pigments.  A  large  portion  of  the  laboratory  research 
this  year  has  been  directed  toward  research  on  plant  pigments 
involved  in  these  processes. 

Specifically,  the  laboratory  has  continued  its  investigations  in: 
(a)  regulatory  processes  of  plants,  such  as  membrane  synthesis  and 
pigment  synthesis;  (b)  environmental  processes  and  energy  flow  in 
biological  systems,  such  as  photosynthesis  and  phosphorus  metabo- 
lism; (c)  the  measurement  of  the  amount,  duration  and  color  quality 
of  sunlight  present  in  the  environment;  and  (d)  the  age  estimation 
of  biological  artifacts  based  upon  their  radioactive  carbon  content. 

132  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

As  they  evolved,  aerobic  photosynthetic  organisms  adapted  to  the 
environment  in  various  ways.  In  order  to  harvest  a  maximum 
amount  of  light  from  the  sun,  many  organisms  evolved  pigments 
in  addition  to  the  principal  photosynthetic  pigment,  chlorophyll  a. 
These  additional  pigments  absorb  sunlight  in  regions  in  which  there 
is  only  partial  absorption  by  chlorophyll  a.  Thus,  these  accessory 
pigments  extend  the  range  of  light  available  for  growth  and  confer 
a  survival  advantage  upon  the  organisms  where  they  are  present. 

In  the  red  and  blue-green  algae,  for  example,  these  accessory  pig- 
ments are  packaged  in  structures  known  as  phycobilisomes.  The 
phycobilisomes  are  light-harvesting  aggregates  of  protein  pigments 
and  are  arranged  on  membranes  in  such  a  fashion  that  energy 
caught  by  them  from  sunlight  is  transferred  to  chlorophyll  for 

These  phycobilisomes  can  be  seen  in  electron  micrographs  of  red 
and  blue-green  algae,  and  methods  for  isolating  and  purifying  them 
have  been  developed  in  our  laboratory.  Analyses  of  the  purified 
phycobilisomes  have  been  made  by  electron  microscopy,  immuno- 
chemistry,  fluoresence  and  absorption  spectra,  and  selective  disso- 
ciation in  various  ionic  strength  buffers  over  a  wide  range  of  pH. 
These  measurements  led  to  a  detailed  structural  model  for  light- 
harvesting  antennae  in  the  red  alga,  Porphyridium  cruentum. 

It  was  found  that  the  physical  dissociation,  i.e.,  the  sequential 
release,  of  the  phycobiliprotein  pigments  corresponded  directly 
with  the  decreased  activity  of  the  aggregate  in  energy  transfer.  The 
phycobilisome,  in  confirmation  of  the  previously  proposed  model, 
is  structured  for  maximum  light  energy  absorption  and  unidirec- 
tional transfer  of  this  energy  to  the  chlorophyll,  where  it  is  utilized 
for  photosynthesis. 

The  pathway  discovered  is  a  transfer  of  energy  from  the  shorter 
wavelengths  of  sunlight  toward  the  long  wavelength  absorption 
maximum  of  chlorophyll  a  in  the  following  sequence :  phycoerythrin 
to  R-phycocyanin  to  allophycocyanin  to  chlorophyll  a,  which  is 
attached  to  the  photosynthetic  membranes  of  the  algae. 

The  biosynthesis  of  the  photosynthetic  membranes  of  chloro- 
plasts  is  also  being  studied,  using  a  polyribosome-membrane  com- 
plex isolated  from  the  green  alga  Chlamydomonas  reinhardtii.  A 
principal  component  of  biological  membranes  is  protein.  Proteins 

Science  I  133 

are  synthesized  on  ribosomes,  some  of  which  are  tightly  attached  to 
the  photosynthetic  membranes.  These  membrane-bound  ribosomes 
contain  incomplete  proteins,  that  is,  proteins  in  the  process  of  being 
made.  If  synthesis  of  these  incomplete  proteins  is  artificially  ter- 
minated, for  example,  by  inhibitors,  the  prematurely  completed 
protein  chains  remain  with  the  membrane  and  not  with  the  ribo- 
somes as  might  be  expected.  This  observation  has  led  us  to  con- 
clude that  ribosomes  attached  to  the  photosynthetic  membranes 
make  membrane  proteins  that  become  part  of  the  membrane  as  the 
proteins  are  made.  This  system  probably  is  part  of  the  process  by 
which  the  total  amount  of  photosynthetic  membrane  is  increased. 
It  may  also  apply  to  the  formation  of  other  biological  membranes. 

Another  pigment  system  investigated  this  year  is  the  carotenoids. 
Carotenoids  are  found  in  all  families  of  both  plants  and  animals. 
For  example,  they  are  responsible  for  the  yellow-orange,  and  red 
colors  of  carrots,  tomatoes,  leaves  in  autumn,  starfish,  flamingos  and 
other  birds.  We  have  been  investigating  the  biosynthesis  of  carote- 
noids in  an  orange  bread  mold,  Neurospora  crassa.  This  organism 
has  the  interesting  property  of  requiring  blue  light  to  initiate  syn- 
thesis. At  least  eight  different  carotenoids  are  produced  after  the 
light  treatment. 

Considering  the  temperature  requirements  and  the  effects  of 
various  inhibitor  compounds,  we  have  proposed  that  an  inducer 
used  to  activate  a  gene  is  produced  by  the  light  reaction.  The 
genetic  code  contained  in  the  activated  gene  is  used  to  specify  the 
amino  acid  sequence  of  an  enzyme  required  for  carotenoid  syn- 
thesis. The  hypothesis  was  proposed  that  this  enzyme  is  absent  in 
dark-grown  cultures.  However,  the  interesting  possibility  remains 
that  a  whole  series  of  genes  is  activated  by  light,  and,  as  a  result, 
more  than  one  enzyme  is  produced. 

Two  approaches  are  being  used  to  test  this  hypothetical  model: 
genetic  and  biochemical.  The  genetic  study  involves  the  use  of 
ultraviolet  light  to  mutate  wild  type  Neurospora.  Using  this  muta- 
gen, we  have  obtained  four  different  types  of  strains.  These  are 
albinos  that  do  not  make  pigment  even  in  the  presence  of  light, 
yellow-orange  mutants  that  synthesize  a  different  distribution  of 
pigments,  mutants  in  which  the  sensitivity  of  carotenoid  synthesis 
to  temperatures  above  6C  has  been  reduced,  and  mutants  that  can 
make  pigment  in  the  dark.  We  are  in  the  process  of  determining  the 

134  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

location  of  these  mutants  on  the  seven  chromosomes  of  Neuro- 

From  a  biological  standpoint,  phytoene,  a  colorless  compound 
which  accumulates  in  dark-grown  Neurospora,  is  a  likely  precursor 
of  the  carotenoid  pigments.  Since  phytoene  can  be  synthesized  by 
Neurospora  in  the  dark,  it  is  predicted  that  light  induces  the  syn- 
thesis of  enzymes  for  the  conversion  of  phytoene  to  the  carote- 
noids.  Furthermore,  one  might  predict  that  the  level  of  enzymes 
involved  in  phytoene  synthesis  itself  would  be  unaffected  by  a  light 
treatment.  However,  preliminary  results  using  radioactive  pre- 
cursors of  phytoene  indicate  that  a  blue  light  exposure  of  two 
minutes  does  induce  in  vivo  the  de  novo  synthesis  of  one  or  more 
of  the  enzymes  involved  in  phytoene  synthesis.  Thus,  blue  light 
may  affect  both  the  synthesis  of  phytoene,  as  well  as  the  synthesis 
of  carotenoids  from  phytoene. 

The  single-celled  fungus,  Phycomyces  blakesleeanus,  demon- 
strates a  phenomenon  known  as  light-dark  adaptation.  That  is,  it 
has  the  ability  to  change  its  sensitivity  to  light  stimuli,  depending 
upon  the  previous  history  of  light  exposure  it  has  received.  The 
nature  of  the  pigment  receiving  the  light  stimuli  in  the  cells  is  as 
yet  unknown.  However,  by  measuring  the  bending  responses  of 
these  cells  to  unilateral  light  stimuli  of  varying  irradiance  (in- 
tensity), it  is  possible  to  measure  the  time  constants  of  the  dark- 
adaptation  rate  after  very  high  intensity  blue  light  exposures 
(>  ImW-cm--). 

Experimentally,  it  is  found  that  the  cell  can  adapt  to  a  new, 
lower  intensity  at  the  rate  of  a  factor  2  in  intensity  about  each  four 
minutes,  in  agreement  with  previous  data  from  light-growth  re- 
sponse measurements.  Surprisingly,  it  has  also  been  found  that  in 
the  range  of  intensities  so  large  that  no  responses  can  be  observed 
physiologically,  such  as  bending  or  light-growth  responses,  the 
adaptation  mechanism  still  functions.  This  was  demonstrated  by 
adapting  the  cell  to  intensities  many  fold  higher  than  it  can  respond 
to  and  then  measuring  the  time  it  takes  for  the  cell  to  become 
sensitive  to  a  standard  lower  intensity  in  the  responsive  range. 
Even  for  intensities  not  effective  in  producing  responses,  the  cell 
has  a  method  for  evaluating  the  intensity.  We  conclude  that  these 
data  indicate  that  a  photobleaching  of  the  pigment  itself  is  oc- 
curring, which  is  used  by  the  cell  for  intensity  measurement,  and 

Science  I  135 

that  the  sensitivity  changes  of  the  cell  in  light-dark  adaptation  are 
not  simply  due  to  limitations  in  the  capacity  of  responding  systems. 


From  a  photosynthetic  standpoint  salt  marshes  are  thought  to  be 
among  the  world's  most  productive  plant  communities.  It  is  also 
thought  that  this  productivity  (excess  carbon  matter  after  neces- 
sary growth  and  maintenance)  is  exported  from  the  marsh  to  be 
utilized  by  consumers  living  in  the  estuary  subtended  by  the  marsh. 
One  of  our  objectives  has  been  to  understand  the  capacity  of  the 
marsh  to  utilize  light.  We  have  studied  carbon  dioxide  assimilation 
in  the  light  and  dark  in  sections  of  salt  marsh  communities  that 
were  enclosed  in  a  plexiglass  chamber  of  approximately  one  cubic 
meter.  A  system  for  monitoring  the  in  situ  rate  of  CO2  exchange 
which  utilizes  an  infra-red  gas  analysis  system  has  been  constructed 
in  the  marsh.  During  the  night,  metabolism  of  organisms  in  the 
community  evolves  CO-,  but  when  there  is  sufficient  light,  the 
green  plants  and  algae  on  the  surface  of  the  marsh  assimilate  CO2 
at  a  rate  that  exceeds  CO2  evolution  and  is  dependent  on  light 
intensity.  Figure  1  shows  results  of  measurements  of  net  CO2  ex- 
change in  the  light  over  a  two-hour  period  in  a  community  that 
includes  approximately  60  percent  of  one  species,  a  sedge  Scripus 
olneyi,  and  approximately  40  percent  of  a  mixture  of  the  two 
grasses  Spartina  patens  and  Distichlis  spicata. 

Analysis  of  many  such  records  (Fig.  2)  has  shown  that  the  com- 
munity light  saturation  for  net  CO2  exchange  occurs  near  four 
moles  of  quanta  m^-  h~^  (about  5/7  of  full  sunlight  intensity), 
suggesting  that  the  community  is  adapted  to  utilize  rather  high 
light  intensity.  Efficiency  of  the  light  utilization  (the  ratio  of  energy 
received  to  energy  stored  in  carbon  compounds)  is  about  60  percent 
of  that  of  agricultural  crops,  such  as  corn  and  potatoes,  and  this 
adds  to  the  earlier  evidence  that  salt  marshes  are  highly  productive 
and,  therefore,  valuable  natural  resources. 

Plants  have  also  evolved  special  mechanisms  to  enable  them  to 
survive  harsh  environments  of  temperature  extremes.  During  the 
past  year,  studies  of  the  effects  of  chilling  on  the  photosynthetic 
apparatus  of  leaf  cells  were  continued.  It  has  been  found  that  it  is 
possible  to  isolate  from  whole  leaves  cells  which,  by  two  criteria, 
are  able  to  carry  on  photosynthesis  independently  of  the  leaf  struc- 

136  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Community  type        Sedge    (  Scirpus  oineyi .    Sportino  potens  .    Distichlis  spicoto  ) 

August  3,  1974 

Irradiance  of  photosynthetically  active  radiation  (400-700  nm)  and  photo- 
synthetic  uptake  of  CO2  in  a  section  of  a  sedge  community  contained  within 
a  plexiglass  chamber  on  the  Rhode  River,  Maryland.  The  photosynthesis 
record  is  interrupted  periodically  to  establish  an  instrument  baseline.  The 
instrument  measuring  irradiance  responds  in  a  few  miUiseconds  but  the  sys- 
tem for  measuring  net  photosynthesis  requires  several  minutes  to  respond. 


£■=  0.5 

o  ^ 
o  O 






(Solar  Maximum  1 





6.0     7.0 



6.0     7.0 

Irradiance    (400-700  nm)      (moles  quanta    m-2  hr-i  ) 

The  dependence  of  net  photosynthesis  in  two  salt  marsh  communities  in  the 
Rhode  River,  Maryland,  upon  irradiance  of  photosynthetically  active  radiation 
during  August  1974.  The  maximum  solar  irradiance  during  this  time  of  year 
is  7.2  moles  quanta  m""  hr'\  The  grass  community  is  a  mixture  of  Spartina 
patens  and  Distichlis  spicata,  and  the  sedge  community  is  approximately  40 
percent  of  this  grass  mixture  and  60  percent  of  the  sedge  Scirpus  oineyi. 

Science  I  137 

ture.  They  evolve  oxygen  and  assimilate  CO2  in  the  light  in  the 
absence  of  artificial  electron  donors  or  acceptors.  The  conditions  for 
obtaining  such  a  preparation  of  cells  are  that  a  high  molecular 
weight  compound,  polyvinylpyrolidone  (40,000),  be  included  in  the 
initial  medium  in  which  the  leaves  are  bathed  during  the  brief  (35 
sec)  grinding,  and  that  the  pH  be  controlled  by  a  buffer  (at 
7.0  ±  0.2  pH  units).  Whole  and  broken  cells  are  separated  by  mild 
centrifugation.  Using  this  method  to  obtain  active  cells  from  whole 
leaves  that  have  been  exposed  to  a  succession  of  cool  (5°C)  nights, 
we  were  able  to  show  that  the  reduction  in  oxygen  evolution  occurs 
at  the  same  time  and  to  the  same  extent  as  does  the  loss  in  capacity 
for  carbon  dioxide  assimilation  in  whole  leaves.  Rates  of  oxygen 
evolution  with  this  cell  system  are  of  the  order  of  25  percent  of 
those  for  carbon  dioxide  assimilation  in  whole  leaves.  It  has  been 
suggested  by  some  workers  that  the  plant  hormone  abscisic  acid 
(ABA),  which  is  known  to  effect  photosynthetic  CO2  assimilation 
by  closing  the  stomata  of  leaves,  may  also  have  a  direct  effect  on 
the  photosynthetic  apparatus  within  the  leaf.  However,  we  could 
find  no  immediate  effect  of  abscisic  acid  on  oxygen  evolution  in 
whole  green  cells  separated  from  the  leaf  by  our  methods. 

As  part  of  the  studies  investigating  the  flow  of  energy  in  the  Bay 
area,  the  relationship  is  being  investigated  between  land  use  prac- 
tices on  lands  in  Maryland  adjacent  to  the  Chesapeake  Bay  and  the 
composition  of  the  runoff  waters  flowing  from  these  lands  into  the 
estuary.  The  water  discharge  rates  and  volume-integrated  concen- 
trations of  nutrients  (nitrogen,  phosphorus,  and  organic  carbon) 
were  monitored  for  a  year  on  five  watersheds.  The  watersheds  were 
mapped  in  detail  with  respect  to  land  use,  and  the  nutrient  data 
were  analyzed  to  give  mean  seasonal  area  yield  loading  rates  for 
each  of  five  land  use  categories  (cultivated  cropland,  pastureland, 
forest,  swamps  and  freshwater  marshes,  and  residential).  Rainfall 
was  also  monitored  for  amount  and  nutrient  composition.  It  was 
found  to  contain  high  levels  of  both  nitrate  and  organic  nitrogen. 
A  quantitative  analysis  was  computed  of  the  sources  of  organic 
matter,  nitrogen,  and  phosphorus  in  the  Rhode  River,  a  subestuary 
of  Chesapeake  Bay.  Rainfall  and  the  exchange  of  water  masses 
with  Chesapeake  Bay  proper  were  found  to  be  the  principal  sources 
of  nitrogen,  while  residential  areas  and  cultivated  cropland  were 
the  largest  sources  of  phosphorus.  In  the  case  of  organic  matter. 

138  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

less  than  one  percent  was  derived  from  the  watersheds  and  air- 
shed, and  the  greatest  source  was  primary  production  by  phyto- 
plankton  in  the  estuary. 

Studies  were  also  conducted  of  phosphate  uptake  by  bacteria 
and  phytoplankton  in  the  Rhode  River.  Uptake  was  closely  cor- 
related with  cell  biomass,  but  bacterial  uptake  rates  were  between 
10^  and  10^  times  higher  per  biomass.  Thus,  although  bacterial 
biomass  was  usually  much  lower  than  phytoplankton  biomass,  bac- 
teria usually  accounted  for  over  90  percent  of  total  planktonic 
phosphorus  uptake. 

Phosphorus  compounds  which  are  biologically  important  are 
polymers  of  phosphate  commonly  called  polyphosphates.  In  the 
laboratory  these  polyphosphates  have  been  isolated  from  syn- 
chronously dividing  Chlorella  cells.  Two  classes  of  polymer  have 
been  characterized.  The  first,  a,  is  formed  in  large  amounts  during 
the  cell  expansion  phase  of  the  cell  cycle  and  then  decreases  rapidly 
in  amount.  The  second,  (i,  increases  when  a  decreases.  Radioisotope 
labeling  studies  have  shown  that  a  is  labeled  twice  as  fast  initially, 
but  both  become  labeled  with  the  same  specific  activity  as  the 
medium  within  two  cells'  cycles. 

Neither  class  of  polymer  is  homogeneous  with  respect  to  mo- 
lecular weight,  but  «  has  a  molecular  weight  range  of  50,000- 
125,000,  while  fi  has  a  range  of  5000-25,000.  A  true  polyphos- 
phate is  inert  to  alkaline  hydrolysis,  but  both  a  and  (i  give  the  same 
size  product  upon  alkaline  hydrolysis,  a  smaller  more  homogeneous 
polymer  of  about  5000  daltons.  Both  a  and  /?  release  about  80-85 
percent  of  their  phosphorus  as  orthophosphate  upon  mild  acid 
hydrolysis  under  conditions  which  give  100  percent  orthophosphate 
from  true  polyphosphates.  The  molecular  structures  of  a  and  (i,  as 
well  as  their  degradation  products,  are  unknown  but  are  currently 
under  investigation, 


One  of  the  pigments  which  controls  a  wide  range  of  diverse  bio- 
logical responses  from  flowering  to  seed  germination  is  phyto- 
chrome.  Phytochrome  is  a  photochromic  pigment  which  can  exist 
in  two  major  absorbing  forms  (wavelength  maxima  in  the  red  or  in 
the  far  red  regions  of  the  spectrum).  It  is  believed  that  many  sea- 
sonal phenomena  in  plants  are  regulated  through  this  pigment.  If 

Science  I  139 

only  the  far  red  form  is  physiologically  active,  then  plants  having 
this  pigment  would  be  sensitive  to  subtle  changes  in  the  naturally 
occurring  amounts  of  red  and  far  red  light  from  sunlight. 

We  know  from  laboratory  experiments  that  changes  in  red  and 
far  red  do  cause  marked  developmental  responses  when  all  other 
conditions  of  the  environment  are  maintained  constant.  Therefore, 
measurements  of  sun  and  sky  light  have  been  made,  and  the  ratio 
of  the  amounts  of  red  and  far  red  light  occurring  naturally  deter- 
mined. The  data  from  the  monitoring  stations  for  the  years  1968  to 
1973  have  been  published  in  tabular  form  showing  the  amount  of 
energy  in  each  spectral  region,  as  well  as  the  percentage  of  the 
total  energy. 

Ozone  is  a  naturally  occurring  trace  gas  of  the  earth's  atmos- 
pheric envelope.  It  is  concentrated  primarily  in  the  stratosphere  be- 
tween fifteen  and  thirty-five  kilometers  altitude.  Ozone  is  also 
formed  near  the  earth's  surface  from  man-made  and  naturally 
occurring  sources.  Ozone  concentration  in  the  stratosphere  varies 
with  latitude  from  about  2.4  mm  at  standard  temperature  and 
pressure  (stp)  at  the  equator  to  about  4.5  mm  at  high  latitudes. 
There  are  also  seasonal  and  geographical  variations.  This  layer  of 
ozone  is  the  principal  absorber  of  ultraviolet  radiation  from  the  sun 
for  wavelengths  of  320  nm  down  to  about  225  nm  and  serves  as  a 
shield  for  terrestrial  organisms. 

In  view  of  the  recent  concerns  about  ozone  and  ultraviolet  radia- 
tion and  the  admitted  uncertainties  that  now  exist,  the  Radiation 
Biology  Laboratory  has  developed  and  recently  installed  at  several 
monitoring  sites  ultraviolet  measuring  instruments  to  measure 
energy  in  narrow  bands  from  280  nm  to  320  nm. 

In  the  skin  of  mammals  there  are  a  number  of  pigments  present. 
One  of  these,  as  yet  not  clearly  identified,  is  involved  with  the 
reddening  of  skin  (erythemal  response)  and  is  associated  in  some 
way  with  the  induction  of  skin  cancer.  Previously,  the  short  wave- 
length limit  of  ultraviolet  light,  reaching  the  earth,  which  produces 
these  responses  was  thought  to  be  about  290  nm.  During  the  past 
year,  we  have  detected  energy  below  290  nm  at  the  surface  of  the 
earth  on  a  relatively  consistent  basis,  using  the  rbl  radiometer. 

All  living  organisms  are  in  equilibrium  with  atmospheric  carbon 
dioxide  until  death,  when  radioactive  ^^Carbon  begins  to  decay.  By 

140  /  Sj-iiithsonian  Year  1975 

measuring  present  ^^Carbon  activity  in  dead  biological  specimens, 
it  is  possible  to  determine  the  age,  or  time  of  death,  of  those  orga- 
nisms, and  thus  provide  chronologies  necessary  for  the  researches 
of  archeologists,  geologists,  palynologists,  etc.  A  small  portion  of 
the  research  time  of  the  Carbon  Dating  Laboratory  is  devoted  to 
basic  research  of  the  method  itself,  such  as  the  development  of 
chemical  pretreatments  to  extract  the  most  representative  and  reli- 
able fractions  of  sample  materials.  Major  efforts,  however,  are 
devoted  to  providing  chronologies  for  the  research  staff  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution,  to  the  investigation  of  the  relationships 
between  environmental  change  and  cultural  change,  and  to  the 
problem  of  the  early  occupations  of  the  Americas. 

In  collaboration  with  the  Smithsonian  Institution  staff,  as  well  as 
cooperative  research  with  some  twenty  other  institutions  and  uni- 
versities, the  laboratory  has  been  engaged  in  such  studies  as  late- 
glacial  and  post-glacial  sea-level  rise  along  the  Middle  Atlantic 
coast,  cultural  change  in  response  to  environmental  change  along 
the  New  England  and  Labrador  coasts,  and  the  early  occupations 
of  coastal  Labrador  some  8000  years  ago. 

Recent  discovery  of  sea  current  reversal  at  the  Strait  of  Gibraltar 
about  10,000  years  ago  conjures  up  visions  of  drastic  environmental 
and  cultural  changes  within  the  Mediterranean  Basin,  and  studies 
are  continuing  to  determine  the  extent  of  such  changes  throughout 
the  basin.  To  the  south,  the  dating  of  ancient  lake  levels  at  Alex- 
andersfontein  near  Kimberley,  South  Africa,  has  led  to  the  study 
of  climatic  changes  in  that  area  and  their  possible  correlation  with 
Middle  and  Late  Stone  Age  occupations  around  the  lake. 

A  cooperative  sampling  program  by  United  States  and  Union  of 
Soviet  Socialist  Republics  scientists  has  involved  the  laboratory  in 
a  joint  dating  effort  with  Russian  laboratories  in  the  investigation 
of  late-glacial  and  post-glacial  climates  of  east-central  Siberia.  A 
joint  U.S.S.R.-U.S.  expedition  provided  the  laboratory  with  samples 
confirming  a  continuous  occupation  of  the  Aleutian  chain  beginning 
some  8000  years  ago,  and  the  dating  of  materials  from  several  sites 
in  southeastern  Alaska  indicates  initial  occupations  there  by  10,000 
years  ago. 

The  most  striking  project  recently  undertaken  is  the  dating  of 
materials  from  the  Meadowcroft  Rockshelter  in  western  Pennsyl- 
vania. Several  samples  from  hearths  in  the  lowest  occupation  levels 
of  the  site  indicate  that  man  was  already  in  northeastern  North 

Science  I  141 

America  by  16,000  years  ago.  Since  the  most  recent,  and  generally 
accepted,  entry  to  North  America  by  way  of  the  Bering  land  bridge 
could  have  taken  place  only  between  14,000  and  17,000  years  ago 
when  land  was  exposed  there,  the  ^^Carbon  dates  from  Meadow- 
croft  suggest  that  man's  entry  must  date  to  the  prior  land  bridge, 
some  25,000  to  30,000  years  ago.  Archeologists  are  now  quickly 
revising  their  estimates  of  man's  antiquity  in  the  New  World  as  a 
result  of  this  project. 

Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory 

Since  1973,  the  related  research  activities  of  the  Smithsonian  Astro- 
physical  Observatory  (sao)  and  the  Harvard  College  Observatory 
(hco)  have  been  coordinated  under  a  single  director.  This  coopera- 
tive venture,  combining  the  facilities  of  both  observatories  in  a 
Center  for  Astrophysics  at  Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  has  as  its 
primary  goal  "the  conduct  of  excellent  astrophysical  research  in  a 
variety  of  interdependent  subfields." 

Recognizing  the  limitation  to  the  amount  of  resources  currently 
available  as  well  as  to  the  potential  growth  in  these  resources,  a 
plan  has  been  drawn  up,  covering  the  next  five  years,  for  utilizing 
the  available  resources  effectively  in  attaining  scientific  goals  and 
objectives.  In  brief,  this  plan  calls  for  specific  steps  to  strengthen 
the  research  in  each  division,  by  provision  of  new  staff  and  re- 
sources, as  well  as  by  phasing  out  programs  which  are  of  less  scien- 
tific interest  or  could  not  contribute  directly  to  the  overall  goal. 
They  also  call  for  greater  effectiveness  in  the  administrative  opera- 
tion of  the  observatories. 

During  1974,  major  new  research  appointments  were  made  in 
high-energy  astrophysics,  theoretical  astrophysics,  planetary  sci- 
ences, and  solar  physics.  New  programs  were  started  in  x-ray 
astronomy.  A  major  objective  for  the  next  few  years  is  the  pro- 
vision of  institutional  funds  to  undergird  these  new  programs  and 
other  ongoing  programs  deemed  to  be  excellent. 

Certain  scientific  programs  have  been  instituted  at  the  Center, 
including  a  Visiting  Scientist  program  and  a  Center  Postdoctoral 
Fellowship  program.  Under  the  latter  program,  six  fellows  were 

142  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

SEPT  1 1.1973    ieOOGMT 


977  0    A 

Mq  X  62e 

Three  views  of  the  solar  surface  as  seen  in  different  wavelengths  by  the  Extreme 
Ultraviolet  Spectroheliometer  on  the  Apollo  Telescope  Mount  aboard  the  Skylab.  A 
team  of  Harvard  and  Smithsonian  scientists  are  now  analyzing  data  from  this  experi- 
ment to  understand  the  physical  processes  at  work  in  the  solar  body.  Photo:  Harvard 
College  Observatory. 

The  Skylab  3  Satellite  photographed  from  the  command  module  prior  to  docking. 
Harvard  experiments  aboard  the  Apollo  Telescope  Mount  (located  just  above  the  main 
docking  port)  have  provided  data  for  research  on  solar  processes  now  underway  by 
Harvard  and  Smithsonian  scientists  at  the  Center  for  Astrophysics.  Photo:  National 
Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration. 

appointed  in  July  1974  for  a  two-year  period,  to  pursue  research 
of  their  choosing.  It  is  expected  that  four  more  fellows  will  be 
appointed  in  July  1975,  with  interests  in  radio  astronomy,  solar 
physics,  and  theoretical  astrophysics. 

More  detailed  discussion  of  the  current  research  objectives  of 
each  of  the  Center's  eight  divisions  follows. 


This  division  embraces  the  spectroscopy  laboratory  at  hco  and  the 
theoretical  atomic  physics  group,  largely  at  sao.  Experimental  work 
includes  the  measurement  of  photoionization  cross  sections  and 
oscillator  strengths  for  species  of  astrophysical  interest.  Theoretical 
work  covers  the  calculation  of  atomic  and  molecular  structure  and 
the  associated  cross  sections  for  interaction  with  radiation,  using 
such  techniques  as  model-potential  methods.  The  resulting  data  are 
being  used  in  studies  of  processes  in  the  upper  atmosphere  and  in 
interstellar  clouds. 

Future  directions  include  the  development  of  an  ion-beam  ap- 
paratus to  measure  the  interaction  of  multiply-charged  ions  with 
electrons  and  radiation;  currently  supported  by  sao. 


This  division  utilizes  a  worldwide  network  of  tracking  stations  to 
observe  precise  positions  of  artificial  satellites  (using  optical  tele- 
scopes and  laser  ranging)  and  employs  the  resulting  data  to  extract 
information  about  the  earth's  shape  and  gravitational  field.  Previous 
results  have  been  summarized  in  a  publication  called  "The  Smith- 
sonian Standard  Earth." 

The  French  Starlette  satellite,  placed  in  orbit  in  March  1975, 
and  the  Geos-c  satellite,  launched  in  April  1975,  are  being  tracked 
now;  it  is  planned  to  analyze  radar  altimeter  data  from  the  latter 
satellite  to  determine  the  ocean  geoid.  Lageos,  a  satellite  conceived 
by  the  group,  is  expected  to  be  launched  in  February  1976.  Using 
laser  ranging  to  its  corner  reflectors,  it  is  hoped  that  2-cm  range 
accuracy  can  be  achieved.  The  resulting  data  will  be  used,  as  part 
of  NASA's  Earth  and  Ocean  Physics  Application  Program  (eopap), 
to  deduce  basic  information  about  the  earth,  including  the  direct 
measurement  of  continental  drift.  Emphasis  will  be  placed  on 
dynamics  of  the  earth,  including  plate  tectonics  and  the  response  to 
loading  by  tides  and  glaciation. 

144  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Starlette,  a  satellite  designed  specifically  for  research  in  geodesy  and  geo- 
dynamics  and  launched  in  February  1975,  is  currently  being  tracked  by  the 
worldwide  laser  and  camera  network  operated  by  the  Smithsonian  Astro- 
physical  Observatory.  Starlette  is  a  solid  sphere  with  an  extremely  low 
area-to-mass  ratio  which  minimizes  all  non-gravitational  effects  on  its  orbit. 
Extremely  precise  ranging  from  ground  stations  is  facilitated  by  the  complex 
laser  array  on  the  satellite.  The  resultant  orbital  data  should  allow  study  of 
long-period  perturbations  of  gravitational  origin  as  well  as  provide  precise 
positional  determination  of  the  ground  stations  for  tectonic  purposes.  Photo: 
cnes/grgs,  France. 

Another  project  in  this  division  is  to  fly  an  extremely  precise 
hydrogen  maser  clock  in  a  high-altitude  rocket  probe  to  check 
Einstein's  prediction  that  such  a  clock  will  "tick"  faster  than  an 
identical  clock  on  the  earth.  This  prediction,  fundamental  to  the 
theory  of  relativity,  has  so  far  been  verified  at  the  1  percent  level; 
this  experiment  should  be  one  hundred  times  more  accurate. 

Finally,  the  division  is  conducting  an  experiment  aboard  the  joint 
USA-USSR  Apollo-Soyuz  Test  Project  scheduled  for  launch  in  July 
1975.  One  of  the  very  few  experiments  selected  for  this  flight,  it 
will  permit  accurate  determination  of  gravitational  anomalies  by 
extremely  precise  monitoring  of  the  distances  between  the  United 
States  and  Soviet  spacecraft. 

Science  I  145 

Future  directions  include  a  long-term  commitment  to  the  eopap 
program,  and  further  work  aimed  at  increasing  the  stability  of 
hydrogen  maser  clocks  beyond  the  current  10~^^  level  with  a  num- 
ber of  possible  applications  in  astronomy. 

The  twenty-year  Moonwatch  program  involving  an  international 
network  of  volunteer  visual  satellite  observers  was  disbanded  at  the 
end  of  June  1975.  Since  the  first  observations  of  Sputnik  I  in  1957, 
the  network  has  made  approximately  400,000  observations  of 
artificial  satellites  in  support  of  the  federal  space  program. 


In  1967,  SAO  started  a  small  group  working  with  a  novel  Cerenkov 
detector  at  Mt.  Hopkins  Observatory  to  detect  gamma  rays  of 
10^^-10^"  eV  from  celestial  sources.  This  project  succeeded  in  de- 
tecting gamma  rays  from  the  Crab  pulsar,  placing  severe  constraints 
on  theoretical  models.  More  recently,  the  group  has  used  equip- 
ment in  Australia  to  demonstrate  that  the  Centaurus-A  radio  source 
(ngc  5128)  also  emits  high-energy  gamma  rays. 

In  1973,  a  major  new  program  of  x-ray  astronomy,  using  rocket- 
and  satellite-borne  detectors,  was  added  at  sao.  This  group  is 
analyzing  the  data  acquired  by  the  uhuru  x-ray  instrument.  Many 
stellar  x-ray  sources  have  been  discovered,  which  appear  to  be 
associated  with  collapsed  stars  orbiting  normal  stellar  companions. 
Black  holes  are  predicted  by  Einstein's  theory  of  relativity,  but  they 
had  never  been  observed  before. 

Extragalactic  sources  were  also  found,  including  many  clusters 
of  galaxies.  The  source  of  x-rays  in  clusters  appears  to  be  extremely 
hot  gas,  whose  origin  and  heating  may  be  connected  with  basic 
processes  in  cosmology. 

Current  projects  include  rocket  flights  and  participation  in  ex- 
periments aboard  the  Astronomical  Netherlands  Satellite,  launched 
in  August  1974.  Observations  of  increased  x-ray  activity  in  the 
object  Cygnus  X-1  between  May  1  and  May  5  by  the  Smithsonian 
experiment  aboard  that  satellite  sparked  a  series  of  ground-based 
searches  leading  to  the  detection  of  increased  radio  emissions  by 
astronomers  at  the  National  Radio  Astronomy  Observatory  (nrao). 
The  corresponding  activity  in  two  wavelengths  confirms  observa- 
tions of  dual  intensity  changes  from  Cygnus  X-1  first  seen  four 
years  earlier,  thus  supporting  the  contention  that  the  object  is  a 

146  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

black  hole  and  suggesting  physical  mechanisms  unique  to  such 
stellar  systems. 

Investigators  at  the  Center  are  also  involved  in  the  experiments 
aboard  Sas-c  an  x-ray  observatory  launched  in  May  1975.  A 
laboratory  facility  for  the  design  and  calibration  of  x-ray  detectors 
and  telescopes  is  being  built  at  the  Center. 

Future  plans  heavily  emphasize  participation  in  a  program  of 
High-Energy  Astronomy  Observatories  (head),  with  major  effort 
going  into  the  design  of  a  large  x-ray  telescope  on  heao-b,  which 
will  have  a  resolution  better  than  two  arcseconds.  This  experiment 
will  be  launched  in  1978.  Instruments  to  be  placed  at  the  focus  of 
this  telescope  are  being  designed  by  various  groups  around  the 
country,  including  the  one  at  the  Center. 

In  addition  to  using  Harvard's  61-inch  reflector  at  Agassiz  Station 
and  Smithsonian's  60-inch  reflector  at  Mt.  Hopkins,  observational 
astronomers  in  this  group  enjoy  guest  privileges  at  a  number  of 
observatories  in  the  United  States  and  abroad.  They  also  use  a 
40-inch  balloon-borne  telescope  developed  jointly  by  hco,  sao,  and 
the  University  of  Arizona  for  observations  in  the  far  infrared.  This 
division  utilizing  numerous  facilities  has  made  observations  of 
comets  and  asteroids,  planets,  stars,  x-ray  sources,  nebulae,  inter- 
stellar clouds,  pulsars,  quasars,  and  galaxies.  Some  recent  high- 
lights include  the  study  of  halos  of  spiral  galaxies  at  one-micron 
wavelength,  discovery  of  high  winds  in  the  atmosphere  of  Venus, 
high-resolution  mapping  of  the  Orion  nebula  in  the  far  infrared,  a 
demonstration  that  the  brightest  x-ray  source  in  the  sky  (Sco  X-1) 
exhibits  regular  light  variations  with  a  period  of  approximately 
nineteen  hours,  and  the  discovery  that  for  a  brief  period  the  quasar 
3C  279  exceeded  the  luminosity  of  100  trillion  suns. 

The  future  activities  of  this  division  are  heavily  oriented  toward 
the  completion  of  the  Multiple-Mirror  Telescope,  which  is  being 
constructed  jointly  by  sao  and  the  University  of  Arizona  on  Mt. 
Hopkins.  A  telescope  of  novel  design  based  on  altitude-azimuth 
mounting  of  six  lightweight  72-inch  mirrors,  the  mmt  will  have  an 
equivalent  aperture  of  175  inches,  and  an  optical  resolution  better 
than  0.7  arcsecond;  it  will  be  optimized  for  operation  in  the  infra- 
red. The  MMT  is  scheduled  to  draw  first  light  in  1976;  some  of  the 

Science  I  147 

major  components  are  already  complete  and  await  assembly,  while 
others  are  in  various  stages  of  construction.  However,  full-scale 
operation  will  not  take  place  until  1977.  A  high  priority  for  this 
project  is  its  successful  observation  of  faint  optical  and  infrared 
objects,  especially  extragalactic  ones. 

In  this  division  observations  of  the  smaller  bodies  in  the  solar 
system — comets,  meteors,  asteroids,  and  satellites — are  empha- 
sized, as  are  studies  of  meteoritic  and  lunar  material.  Theoretical 
work  centers  on  the  origin  of  the  solar  system  and  of  various  bodies 
within  it.  Recent  studies  include  a  campaign  to  study  stellar  occulta- 
tions  by  Eros,  which  led  to  new  estimates  of  the  size  and  shape  of 
that  asteroid.  Mutual  occultations  of  the  satellites  of  Jupiter  are 
leading  to  better  estimates  of  their  sizes.  Theoretical  work  indi- 
cates that  the  obliquity  of  the  earth  may  increase  dramatically  in 
the  future,  and  that  the  presence  of  resonance  gaps  in  Saturn's  rings 
implies  that  the  particles  making  up  the  rings  must  be  of  the  order 
of  ten  meters  across. 

Several  research  programs  involving  lunar  and  meteorite  samples 
are  continuing,  including  mineralogical  and  petrological  studies  on 
a  complex  brecchia  boulder  from  the  Apollo  17  site  and  on  particles 
from  the  Allende  carbonaceous  chondrite,  as  well  as  isotopic  in- 
vestigation of  lunar  material.  In  a  related  program,  inexpensive 
detectors  to  determine  the  neutrino  fluxes  from  various  cosmic 
sources  have  been  developed.  The  Prairie  Network,  a  ten-year 
project  to  photograph  fireballs,  is  being  discontinued. 

Future  directions  will  probably  emphasize  further  the  origin  of 
the  solar  system,  including  cosmochemistry  and  theoretical  analysis. 

In  spring  1975,  a  new  asteroid  discovered  by  two  members  of 
this  division  using  the  telescope  at  Agassiz  Station  was  named 
"Whipple"  in  honor  of  the  former  director  of  sao.  Dr.  Fred  L. 

This  group  is  comprised  of  both  hco  and  sao  scientists.  The  Cen- 
ter's efforts  include  the  Harvard  Radio  Astronomy  Station  at  Ft. 
Davis,  Texas,  where  studies  of  extragalactic  radio  sources  and  of 
solar  radio  bursts  are   made.    Center   scientists   are   also   heavily 

148  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Several  hundred  Southern  Arizona  astronomy  buffs  take  advantage  of  the 
annual  Mount  Hopkins  Observatory  Open  Days  each  year  to  visit  the  varied 
facilities  at  the  7600-foot  level  of  the  mountain  site,  including  the  large 
10-meter  gamma-ray  detector  shown  above.  Photo:  Smithsonian  Astrophysical 

involved  in  studies  of  the  interstellar  mediunn  and  maser  sources  at 
microwave  and  millimeter  wavelengths.  Observational  facilities  at 
Agassiz,  Haystack,  nrao,  and  the  Texas  Millimeter  Wave  Observa- 
tory are  used  in  this  work. 

Recent  studies  include  the  detection  of  ethanol  (grain  alcohol)  in 
interstellar  clouds  and  CH  in  Comet  Kohoutek.  Isotopic  abundances 
were  studied  in  the  Orion  nebula,  and  heavy  ions  were  identified 
in  the  recombination-line  spectrum  of  H  I  clouds.  Evidence  has  been 
presented  both  from  vlbi  and  single-dish  measurements  that  milli- 
gauss  magnetic  fields  exist  in  Orion.  If  confirmed,  this  would  imply 
energy  densities  a  million  times  greater  than  in  the  typical  inter- 
stellar medium,  suggesting  interesting  new  effects. 

A  new  program  has  been  initiated  in  response  to  the  recent  find- 
ing that  chlorinated  hydrocarbons  released  into  the  atmosphere 
may,  via  a  series  of  photochemical  reactions,  attack  the  ozone  in 
the  earth's  upper  atmosphere,  with  potential  dire  consequences  for 
living  things.  Experiments  in  Texas  have  demonstrated  the  feasi- 
bility of  detecting  some  of  the  key  molecules  in  the  stratosphere 
by  their  millimeter  lines. 

Science  I  149 

The  84-foot  dish  used  at  Agassiz  Station,  Massachusetts,  in  the  joint 
Harvard-Smithsonian  program  of  radio  astronomy.  Photo:  Harvard 
College  Observatory. 

The  Fort  Davis  (Texas)  Radio  Astronomy  Station,  with  28-foot  and 
85-foot  antennas,  operated  by  the  Harvard  College  Observatory  as 
part  of  the  joint  Harvard-Smithsonian  program  of  research  in  radio 
astronomy.  Photo:  Harvard  College  Observatory. 


Emphasis  in  future  research  will  be  placed  on  short  millimeter 
and  submillimeter  wavelengths,  where  good  work  can  be  done  at 
a  more  moderate  cost.  This  spectral  range  is  rich  in  molecular  fea- 
tures of  prime  interest  to  various  groups  at  the  Center. 

This  division  comprises  the  hco  Solar  Satellite  Project,  an  hco 
solar  x-ray  group,  and  a  variety  of  studies,  many  of  them  theo- 
retical, at  SAO.  The  Solar  Satellite  Project  is  deeply  involved  in  the 
analysis  of  the  large  amounts  of  solar  ultraviolet  data  gathered  on 
Skylab.  All  the  evidence  points  to  strong  magnetic  control  of  the 
chromosphere  and  corona,  evidenced  by  prominent  arch  structures 
and  bright  points.  Recent  work  has  developed  evidence  for  wave 
propagation  from  lower  to  upper  layers;  if  expectations  are  fulfilled, 
the  long-sought  heating  mechanism  for  the  corona  will  be  found. 

Starting  in  1974,  the  ultraviolet  data  at  the  Center  have  been 
complemented  by  x-ray  observations  from  the  same  spacecraft 
obtained  by  a  group  that  joined  hco  last  year.  Among  the  more 
striking  findings  is  confirmation  of  the  fact  that  "coronal  holes/' 
regions  where  the  coronal  density  and  temperature  are  low,  appear 
to  be  the  source  of  streams  of  solar  wind.  Further  work  concerns 
the  high  densities  and  temperatures  along  magnetic  coronal  arches. 
This  work  will  lead  to  a  better  understanding  of  the  solar  corona, 
and  how  the  solar  wind  originates  in  it. 

Theoretical  work  among  the  sao  members  of  the  division  con- 
tinues on  a  variety  of  problems  involving  non-LTE  radiative  transfer. 
This  work  is  being  applied  to  models  of  the  chromosphere  and 
corona  and,  in  particular,  to  the  analysis  of  the  region  of  the  tem- 
perature minimum. 

Stellar  research  is  being  carried  out  using  orbiting  ultraviolet 
telescopes  such  as  the  Princeton  instrument  aboard  Copernicus. 
A  recent  finding  is  that  Capella,  a  nearby  star  of  solar  type,  may 
have  a  stellar  wind.  By  applying  the  analytical  tools  developed  for 
the  sun,  we  hope  to  infer  the  properties  of  this  wind.  In  the  future, 
the  division  expects  to  participate  in  the  International  Ultraviolet 
Explorer  and  Large  Space  Telescope  missions  of  nasa. 

Finally,  there  is  increasing  interest  in  solar-terrestrial  relations, 
based  on  recent  studies  that  seem  to  show  correlation  between 
indices  of  solar  activity  and  meteorological  changes.  Because  of  the 

Science  I  151 

Center's  involvement  with  research  on  the  sun  and  the  upper  at- 
mosphere, it  may  be  possible  to  make  significant  contributions  to 
this  controversial  but  exciting  field. 


Members  of  this  division  are  engaged  in  a  wide  variety  of  theo- 
retical studies,  ranging  from  stellar  atmospheres  to  cosmology.  Re- 
cent work  has  included  studies  of  the  equilibrium  and  stability  of 
galaxies  and  clusters  of  galaxies,  novel  methods  of  integration  of 
the  equation  of  transfer,  molecular  processes  in  interstellar  clouds, 
weak  interactions  in  supernova  explosions,  the  heating  of  the  inter- 
galactic  medium,  the  physics  of  neutron  stars  and  pulsating  white 
dwarfs,  deuterium  production  in  supernovae,  and  tidal  effects  in 
binary  systems. 

Smithsonian  Science  Information  Exchange,  Inc. 

The  Exchange  has  experienced  a  considerable  expansion  of  its 
activities  during  the  year,  both  with  regard  to  an  expansion  of  the 
services  provided  and  in  terms  of  internal  improvements  designed 
to  enhance  the  value  of  its  services  to  users  and  to  incorporate  the 
latest  technological  improvements  which  distinguish  the  Exchange 
as  a  major  scientific  and  technological  information  center. 

The  Exchange  undertook  a  series  of  projects  for  various  Federal 
Agencies  which  were  directed  toward  meeting  national  needs  in 
major  areas  of  research  interest.  Among  these  were  the  designation 
of  ssiE  as  the  Current  Cancer  Research  Project  Analysis  Center 
(ccRESPAc)  by  the  National  Cancer  Institute  as  a  part  of  its  Inter- 
national Cancer  Research  Data  Bank  (icrdb)  Program.  In  its  role 
as  such  a  center,  the  Exchange  will  be  involved  in  the  collection, 
storage,  and  retrieval  of  comprehensive  information  about  current 
research  projects  in  cancer  and  cancer-related  fields  from  both 
national  and  international  sources;  transfer  of  this  information  to 
the  National  Cancer  Institute  for  use  through  cancerline  (an  on- 
line computerized  file  searchable  through  the  medline  network) 
which  will  make  this  information  available  to  thousands  of  users 
engaged  in  research  or  the  management  of  cancer  projects  and 

152  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

programs.  In  addition,  the  Exchange  will  be  developing  new  vocabu- 
lary tools  for  the  indexing  and  retrieval  of  such  information  and 
will  prepare  a  number  of  catalogues  for  publication  by  the  National 
Cancer  Institute  intended  for  dissemination  on  a  worldwide  basis. 
The  ssiE  will  also  be  providing  direct  search  services  to  investigators 
in  the  cancer  field  who  do  not  have  access  to  remote  terminals. 
This  activity  is  expected  to  continue  and  expand  over  the  next 
several  years  and  could  serve  as  a  prototype  for  future  international 
centers  of  ongoing  research  information  in  selected  areas. 

In  the  field  of  energy  research  the  Exchange  has  engaged  in  a 
major  effort  to  expand  its  data  base  in  this  field.  New  input  has 
been  obtained  from  state  governments  as  well  as  industry.  At  the 
international  level  the  Exchange  has  negotiated  arrangements  with 
five  European  countries  and  Canada  to  obtain  information  in  whole 
or  in  part  on  their  ongoing  energy  research  projects  for  input  into 
the  system.  A  directory  of  international  research  in  energy  will  be 
produced  during  1975  under  a  grant  from  the  National  Science 
Foundation,  at  the  request  of  the  Intergovernmental  Committee  on 
International  Cooperation  in  Energy  Research  and  Development. 
The  information  collected  is  expected  to  be  helpful  in  the  review 
and  planning  of  new  international  efforts  in  this  area. 

With  support  from  the  National  Science  Foundation  and  in  an 
effort  to  expand  United  States  knowledge  of  other  ongoing  research 
information  systems  worldwide,  and  to  facilitate  the  exchange  of 
information,  ssie  has  taken  a  series  of  steps  designed  to  identify 
and  subsequently  expand  its  coverage  in  selected  areas  of  major 
national  interest.  As  an  important  part  of  this  effort  the  unisist 
Program  of  unesco  in  conjunction  with  ssie  has  organized  a  three- 
day  International  Symposium  on  Information  Systems  and  Services 
in  Ongoing  Research  in  Science  to  be  held  in  Paris  in  October  1975. 
Dr.  Hersey  has  been  designated  as  symposium  chairman  and  head 
of  the  program  committee,  which  has  outlined  the  purpose  of  the 
symposium  as  threefold: 

1.  To  expand  international  understanding  of  the  need  and  uses 
for  information  about  research  in  progress, 

2.  To  stimulate  the  development  of  improved  data  collection  and 

3.  To  encourage  worldwide  exchange  among  national  and  inter- 
national systems  working  in  this  field. 

Science  I  153 

Speakers  from  all  over  the  world  will  be  representing  their  organi- 
zations and  countries.  More  than  forty  papers  will  be  presented  in 
addition  to  two  panel  sessions  involving  discussions  on  problems 
of  operating  such  systems  and  meeting  user  needs. 

In  addition  to  the  International  Symposium,  the  Exchange  has 
begun  discussions  with  a  number  of  countries  which  now  have,  or 
are  in  the  process  of  developing,  information  systems  of  ongoing 
research,  with  the  possibility  of  developing  bilateral  agreements  for 
the  exchange  of  information  in  selected  areas.  These  discussions 
involve  problems  of  compatibility,  language,  indexing  techniques, 
and  the  economics  of  exchange  methods.  It  is  particularly  note- 
worthy that  an  increasing  number  of  countries  are  developing  data 
bases  comparable  to  ssie  at  the  national  level.  The  Exchange,  which 
had  its  inception  some  twenty-five  years  ago,  is  providing  other 
countries  with  information  about  its  experience  gained  over  that 
period  of  time  regarding  the  problems  and  pitfalls  which  can  be 
encountered  in  the  operation  of  such  a  system.  It  is  expected  that 
the  Exchange's  discussions  in  this  area  will  result  in  making  infor- 
mation about  ongoing  research  more  widely  available  not  only  to 
United  States  users  but  throughout  the  world  in  consonance  with 
the  Smithsonian's  raison  d'etre,  "the  increase  and  diffusion  of 
knowledge  among  men." 

Among  other  activities  designed  to  increase  the  availability  of 
information  to  the  research  community,  the  Exchange  completed 
an  agreement  with  the  System  Development  Corporation  of  Cali- 
fornia to  make  its  data  base  available  for  remote  interrogation 
throughout  the  country  for  on-line  searching.  The  new  sdc/ssie 
service  is  designed  to  give  quick,  easy,  and  economical  access  from 
remote  computer  terminals  to  a  file  of  over  125,000  summaries  of 
ongoing  research  projects  in  the  life  and  physical  sciences. 

SDc's  retrieval  program,  called  orbit,  permits  subscribers  to  con- 
duct extremely  rapid  searches  through  two-way  communication 
terminals  located  in  their  own  facilities.  Searchers  may  specify  their 
search  information  inquiry  by  subject  terms,  names  of  researchers, 
performing  organizations,  or  a  number  of  other  access  points,  or 
by  any  combination  of  these. 

After  examining  the  preliminary  results  of  inquiries,  searchers 
will  be  able  to  refine  their  questions  further  to  make  them  broader 
or  narrower  in  scope.  This  interaction  between  searcher  and  com- 
puter is  conducted  in  simple,  English-language  statements. 

154  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

The  SDC  system  is  tied  into  a  nationwide  communications  net- 
work, so  that  most  subscribers  can  hnk  their  terminals  to  the  com- 
puter through  the  equivalent  of  a  local  telephone  call.  The  sdc 
Search  Service  is  the  world's  largest  with  over  five  million  items 
(mostly  bibliographic)  on  file  for  daily  use.  Users  of  other  sdc 
services  are  expected  to  find  access  to  ssie  an  important  adjunct  to 
their  regular  bibliographic  searches  of  such  data  bases  reinforcing 
the  importance  of  ongoing  research  information  as  well  as  biblio- 
graphic information  in  the  overall  research  management  process. 

In  other  major  research  program  activities,  the  Exchange  has  com- 
pleted a  number  of  directories  of  ongoing  research  for  several 
federal  agencies  designed  to  support  research  management  in  such 
areas  as  water  resources,  pesticides,  and  disaster-related  technology. 
This  latter  project  is  particularly  noteworthy  since  it  combined 
information  about  both  ongoing  research  and  abstracts  of  published 
technical  reports.  The  Exchange  has  also  developed  in  conjunction 
with  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration  the  first 
federal  semimonthly  publication  containing  both  ongoing  research 
and  bibliographic  information.  The  inclusion  of  ongoing  research 
in  this  publication  has  been  well  received  and  is  expected  to  be 
continued  for  another  year. 

The  Exchange  has  continued  to  develop  new  techniques  in  data 
processing  in  order  to  achieve  optimum  utilization  of  its  staff  and 
equipment.  Several  of  these,  such  as  machine-aided  indexing,  have 
already  been  published  and  may  prove  useful  to  information  sys- 
tems on  an  international  level.  The  ssie  also  produced  during  the 
current  year  several  output  products  in  computer  output  microfiche 
which  may  open  a  whole  new  approach  to  improving  the  use  of 
the  Exchange's  information.  It  remains  to  be  seen  what  kind  of 
user  acceptance  this  type  of  output  receives  from  the  science  com- 
munity. Improved  internal  operational  methods  have  allowed  the 
Exchange  to  accomplish  its  largest  input  ever,  over  130,000  research 
projects  in  fiscal  year  1975,  with  only  minimal  increases  in  staff. 
Improved  computer  programming  changes  have  not  only  reduced 
processing  costs  but  increased  the  speed  with  which  information  is 
now  processed  through  the  system.  Overall  demand  for  the  Ex- 
change's services  continues  to  rise  as  greater  realization  of  the  use- 
fulness of  ongoing  research  information  in  the  research  process 
becomes  evident  to  both  governmental  and  nongovernmental 

Science  I  155 

In  summary,  the  Exchange  has  taken  a  major  leadership  role  in 
the  awareness  of  ongoing  research  information^  not  only  in  terms 
of  developing  and  testing  a  variety  of  new  modes  to  enhance  use 
of  the  data  collected  but  in  the  international  area  of  scientific 
research  in  selected  special  areas.  The  identification  of  and  ex- 
changes of  information  which  are  expected  to  come  from  these  in- 
ternational activities  are  expected  to  benefit  not  only  the  United 
States  but  the  entire  worldwide  research  community  as  well. 

Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute 

Research  at  the  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute  (stri)  is  a 
multi-faceted  compound  of  the  individual  efforts  of  the  scientific 
staff,  research  fellows,  and  associates.  A  deliberate  policy  of  bring- 
ing together  a  community  of  permanent  staff,  who  are  intrigued 
and  fascinated  by  the  complexity  of  tropical  biotas,  has  achieved 
a  unity  of  purpose  in  seeking  to  explain  this  intricacy  at  all  levels 
of  biological  organization.  They  have  found  the  interactions  of  a 
variety  of  disciplines  to  be  a  powerful  aid  to  studies  of  the  eco- 
logical and  evolutionary  adaptations  of  tropical  organisms.  In  a 
field  as  relatively  unexplored  as  tropical  biology,  the  work  of 
analysis  and  synthesis  can  go  on  more  or  less  simultaneously;  this 
is  certainly  the  case  with  the  stri  research.  This  simultaneous 
approach  is  illustrated  by  a  sampling  of  our  studies,  here  reported 
in  brief  outline. 

The  complexity  of  systems  of  sexual  reproduction  and  sexual 
behavior  are  fundamentally  important  to  organic  evolution.  Among 
vertebrates  the  greatest  diversity  of  patterns  of  sexual  reproduction 
occurs  in  the  fishes,  where  several  types  of  hermaphroditism  have 
evolved.  Two  groups  of  marine  fishes,  common  on  the  Caribbean 
coasts  of  Panama,  are  protogynous  hermaphrodites  (i.e.,  individuals 
are  first  functional  females  and  then  become  functional  males). 
These  fishes,  the  wrasses  and  parrotfishes,  have  been  intensively 
studied  by  a  multidisciplinary  group  of  stri  scientists  and  fellows. 
D.  R.  Robertson,  R.  W.  Warner,  D.  Diener,  and  S.  Hoffman  have 
conducted  extensive  field  and  laboratory  research  into  the  behavior, 
ecology,  and  physiology  of  these  fishes  and  E.  Leigh  has  worked 

156  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

with  them  to  develop  mathematical  models  of  the  evolution  of 
protogyny  and  protandry.  Models  of  protogyny  have  been  tested 
by  studying  the  mating  system  of  one  species  in  great  detail.  Alto- 
gether eighteen  species  of  protogynus  hermaphrodites  have  been 
the  subject  of  stri  comparative  studies.  These  studies  have  revealed 
that  there  is  a  great  deal  of  variability  in  the  population  structures 
of  the  hermaphrodites;  in  sex  ratios,  sexual  color-phase  ratios,  and 
in  the  proportions  of  hermaphroditic  and  nonhermaphroditic  indi- 
viduals present.  Alongside  studies  of  the  ecology  and  behavior  of 
free-living  fishes,  studies  have  been  made  of  the  role  of  hormones 
in  the  process  of  sex  change  and  also  of  their  role  in  the  equally 
interesting  process  of  color-phase  change.  These  investigations 
show  that  there  is  much  variation  between  species  in  the  effects  of 
hormones  on  these  two  processes  and  that,  in  fact,  the  two  processes 
are  often  independent. 

These  studies  of  hermaphroditism  have  already  yielded  an  ac- 
cumulation of  basic  information  on  the  many  aspects  of  the  phe- 
nomenon that  were  previously  unknown  and  at  the  same  time  they 
have  led  to  syntheses  of  comparative  data  that  permit  evolutionary 
generalizations.  Off  the  coasts  of  Panama  another  kind  of  her- 
maphroditism is  found  in  the  relatively  abundant  groupers.  These 
fishes  are  synchronously  hermaphroditic,  individuals  may  be  male 
and  female  at  the  same  time.  Work  is  already  in  progress  on  the 
possible  adaptive  value  of  this  type  of  system  and  E.  Fischer  will 
shortly  begin  a  year's  pre-doctoral  study. 

A  really  basic  question  about  tropical  ecology  is  being  asked, 
and  studied,  by  H.  Wolda.  He  is  concerned  about  fluctuations  in 
the  abundance  of  insects  in  tropical  forests.  Many  scientists  have 
argued  that  since  tropical  forests  are  extremely  complex  they  should 
be  ecologically  much  more  stable  than  forests  of  temperate  regions, 
and  insect  populations  should,  accordingly,  fluctuate  less  than  in 
the  temperate  zone.  Wolda's  work  suggests  strongly  that  this  is  not 
true.  His  data  are  derived  from  studies  of  two  separate  groups  of 
insects,  lepidopterans  and  homopterans.  In  the  first  case,  Wolda 
studied  the  caterpillars  feeding  on  a  tropical  violaceous  plant  and 
others  feeding  on  figs.  Over  a  period  of  four  years  the  populations 
of  caterpillars  in  the  Barro  Colorado  forest  showed  very  consider- 
able fluctuations.  One  species  reached  outbreak  densities — plague 
proportions — during  two  of  the  study  years.  Data  from  homopteran 

Science  I  157 

catches  at  light  traps  shows  that  the  lepidopterans  are  not  merely 
exceptional  cases  that  prove  the  general  rule  of  constancy  and  sta- 
bility. Wolda  has  taken  data  from  light  traps  operated  at  the  same 
sites  on  Barro  Colorado  for  several  years  and  calculated  ratios  that 
highlight  changes  in  abundance  from  year  to  year.  Data  from  110 
species  have  presently  been  converted  to  ratios  of  annual  variability. 
These  can  be  compared  with  data  on  temperate  insects  that  are 
already  available  in  the  ecological  literature.  The  results  of  this 
comparison  are  very  striking  indeed.  The  variability  in  the  insects 
in  tropical  forest  is  of  the  same  order  of  magnitude  as  that  for  the 
various  groups  of  insects  from  the  temperate  zone.  Further  studies 
of  other  groups  on  tropical  insects  are  in  progress.  In  these  studies 
Wolda  is  collaborating  with  specialists  in  the  groups  concerned.  He 
recently  communicated  his  findings  at  the  symposium  on  Tropical 
Ecology  held  at  Lubumbashi,  Zaire. 

Work  on  adaptive  aspects  of  plant  morphology  is  a  comparatively 
recent  focus  of  tropical  biology.  At  stri,  Alan  P.  Smith  is  actively 
pursuing  researches  into  several  problems  where  preliminary  studies 
of  morphological  patterns  lead  directly  into  quantitative  studies  of 
life  history  and  physiological  adaptations.  Smith  is  studying  adap- 
tive aspects  of  leaf  form  in  tropical  lowland  forests,  the  support 
systems  of  tropical  trees  and  has  embarked  on  a  long-term  study 
of  the  life  form  and  life  history  of  tropical  alpine  plants  belonging 
to  the  genus  Espeletia.  Three  aspects  of  leaf  form  are  being  studied: 
the  elongation  of  leaf  tips  into  characteristic  "drip  tips" — long 
believed  to  be  correlated  with  the  heavy  rainfall  occurring  in  tropi- 
cal forest,  lateral  asymmetry  in  leaf  shape,  and  variegation  in  leaf 
color.  In  the  latter  case.  Smith  is  testing  the  hypothesis  that  varie- 
gation may  be  a  defense  against  the  leaf-eating  larvae  of  insects, 
that  it  may  function  to  deter  insects  from  laying  their  eggs  on  the 
leaf  by  simulating  the  effects  of  insect  attack.  Smith's  studies  of 
Espeletia  species  are  being  carried  out  in  the  Andes  of  Venezuela 
and  Colombia  where  the  plants  are  a  conspicuous  feature  of  the 
alpine  regions.  It  is  distinguished  by  a  large-leaved  rosette  sup- 
ported by  a  central  unbranched  or  little-branched  stem.  Beneath 
the  rosette  of  hairy  living  leaves  the  plant  accumulates  dead  leaves 
as  growth  takes  place.  The  dead  leaves  are  retained  around  the  stem 
and  persist  for  many  years.  This  bizarre  growth  form  has  evolved 
repeatedly  in  tropical  alpine  areas  but  is  absent  in  alpine  areas  to 

158  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

the  north  and  the  south.  It  is  thus  an  ideal  subject  for  studies  aimed 
at  determining  the  selective  forces  that  operate  in  tropical  alpine 
environments.  Smith  has  initiated  long-term  studies  of  Espeletia 
species,  concentrating  on  growth  form  and  demography.  His  studies 
include  species  with  unbranched  stems  and  rosettes  of  leaves, 
branched  stems  and  rosettes  of  leaves,  and  forms  that  are  simply 
arborescent.  Early  results  are  revealing  exciting  correlations  between 
growth  form,  life  history,  and  environmental  constraints. 

Most  studies  of  animal  communication  have  involved  visual  and 
acoustic  signaling  systems.  These  are  certainly  the  types  of  signals 
most  readily  understood,  and  studied,  by  humans.  Michael  and 
Barbara  Robinson  are  studying  the  courtship  and  mating  behavior 
of  web-building  spiders  where  the  signals  involved  are  almost 
entirely  tactile  or  vibrational.  In  a  broad  comparative  study  they 
have  so  far  investigated  over  thirty  species  in  detail.  Their  aim  is 
to  understand  the  types  of  signals  involved  in  the  contact  between 
male  and  female,  the  functional  significance  of  the  signals  used, 
and  to  elucidate  the  evolutionary  stages  through  which  the  court- 
ship of  spiders  has  passed.  The  Robinsons'  studies  have  already 
shown  that  early  generalizations  about  spider  courtship,  based  on 
data  from  temperate  regions,  were  inaccurate  and  premature.  As  in 

Espeletia  timotensis  (Compositae)  at  4200  m  in  the  Venezuelan  Andes, 
specialized  plants  under  study  ^y  Alan  Smith. 



t  -.v -^» 





all  tropical  studies,  the  overwhelming  impression  from  this  investi- 
gation is  that  of  staggering  complexity.  The  courtship  behavior  of 
the  male  spider  has  two  very  important  functions;  he  has  to  iden- 
tify himself  as  nonfood  and  then  stimulate  the  female  into  accept- 
ance of  his  mating  attempts.  This  twofold  function  of  courtship 
has  led  to  some  bizarre  behavioral  adaptations.  In  one  case  the  male 
spider  leads  the  female  out  onto  a  line  that  is  directly  connected 
with  his  silk-producing  organs,  and,  as  she  rushes  towards  him  he 
pays  out  silk  so  that  she  never  quite  catches  him.  Eventually  the 
female  abandons  the  futile  pursuit  and  either  accepts  a  mating  or 
goes  back  to  her  web.  While  in  New  Guinea  the  Robinsons  cen- 
sused  all  the  trap-building  spiders  in  200  square  meters  of  coffee 
plantation.  With  the  census  data  and  the  results  of  their  previous 
studies  on  the  prey-consumption  of  tropical  spiders  they  were  able 
to  work  out  an  estimate  of  the  insecticidal  effect  of  the  spiders  in 
a  hectare  of  coffee.  They  calculate  that  the  spiders  consume  a  mini- 
mum of  forty  million  insects  per  hectare  annually.  This  suggests 
that  spiders  have  an  important  ecological  role  and  may  be  of  con- 
siderable economic  importance. 

During  the  past  year,  Jeffrey  Graham  was  a  visiting  investigator, 
for  two  months,  at  the  National  Marine  Fisheries  Service  Labora- 
tory in  La  Jolla,  California.  There  he  collaborated  with  John  L. 
Roberts  of  the  University  of  Massachusetts  in  a  study  of  red  and 
white  muscle  temperatures  and  electromyograms  of  fast-swimming 
scombrid  fishes.  Roberts  and  Graham  perfected  a  technique  for 
surgically  implanting  thermocouples  in  fish  swimming  muscles  to 
enable  them  to  measure  muscle  temperatures  as  the  fish  swam  at 
controlled  speeds  in  a  respirometer.  In  addition,  while  at  La  Jolla, 
Graham  completed  his  study  of  the  types  and  distribution  of  retial 
countercurrent  heat  exchangers  in  scombrid  fishes.  This  study  has 
shown  that  for  the  seven  known  species  of  tuna  (Thunnus)  there 
is  a  relationship  between  the  level  to  which  the  body  temperature 
is  raised  and  both  the  type  of  heat  exchanger  and  the  latitudinal 
distribution  of  a  species.  Tropical  and  subtropical  tunas  and  skip- 
jacks have  the  most  primitive  arrangement  of  heat  exchangers,  they 
have  small  central  heat  exchangers,  and,  in  some  cases  poorly  de- 
fined lateral  ones.  On  the  other  hand  the  three  high  latitude  tuna 
species  have  lost  central  heat  exchangers,  but  have  highly  developed 
lateral  systems. 

160  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Other  work  on  fishes  has  been  carried  out  by  stri  postdoctoral 
fellow  Donald  Kramer.  Kramer  has  studied  the  ecology  and  be- 
havior of  freshwater  fishes  in  Panama,  concentrating  on  detailed 
studies  of  feeding  behavior  and  feeding  strategies.  He  has  also 
carried  out  cooperative  studies  with  Graham  on  air-breathing  fresh- 
water fishes.  Graham  and  Kramer  have  discovered  a  phenomenon 
that  they  call  "synchronous  air-breathing."  Fishes  that  exhibit  syn- 
chronous air-breathing  rise  together  in  groups  to  break  the  water 
surface  and  breathe  in  air.  They  break  the  surface  either  simul- 
taneously or  in  rapid  succession.  Graham  and  Kramer  believe  that 
synchronicity  of  air-breathing  constitutes  an  antipredator  adapta- 
tion. Graham,  Kramer,  and  E.  Pineda  (a  graduate  fellow  from  the 
University  of  Panama)  have  recently  discovered  populations  of  the 
characin  Piabucina  festae  which  is  an  air-breather  and  are  studying 
this  species  and  the  closely  related  Piabucina  panamensis,  which  is 
not  an  air-breather. 

The  STRI  program  on  human  adaptations  to  tropical  areas  began 
this  year  with  an  exciting  week-long  seminar  at  Barro  Colorado 
Island,  where  a  number  of  distinguished  anthropologists  and  biolo- 
gists were  invited  for  informal  discussions  of  new  research  and 
recent  methodology.  Representing  the  Institute  Venezolano  de 
Investigaciones  Cienti'ficas  were  Dra.  Erika  Wagner,  and  Dra. 
Alberta  Zucchi,  who  is  working  on  the  ridgefield  systems  of  the 
Venezuelan  Llanos.  From  Colombia  came  Drs.  Gerardo  and  Alicia 
Reichel-Dolmatoff,  well  known  for  their  pioneering  work  on  the 
archeology  of  northern  Colombia,  and  on  the  ethnology  of  various 
Colombian  Indian  groups.  Representing  the  biological  disciplines 
were  Dr.  C.  Earle  Smith  of  the  University  of  Alabama,  and  Dr. 
Alan  Covich  of  Washington  University,  who  together  discussed 
the  dynamics  of  plant  domestication  and  their  interaction  with 
faunal  communities  in  the  tropics. 

Besides  holding  discussions  with  the  stri  staff  and  graduate  stu- 
dents, as  well  as  with  Panamanian  professionals,  the  visiting  scien- 
tists were  taken  on  a  tour  of  archeological  sites  in  the  central 
provinces.  On  hand  to  discuss  his  own  research  on  the  transition 
from  hunting-gathering  to  agriculture  on  the  Isthmus  was  Dr. 
Anthony  J.  Ranere,  a  stri  associate,  who  led  the  group  to  show 
them  the  Aguadulce  preceramic  rockshelter,  where  he  is  continuing 
excavations  this  year.  A  second  morning  was  spent  visiting   the 

Science  I  161 


— §-— !?5' 


Martin  Moynihan  and  Arcadio  Rodaniche  entering  a  "wet"  submarine  used 
in  studying  the  behavior  of  pelagic  squid. 

Laborides  dimidiatus  fighting  at  the  mutual  border  of  their  territories  on  the 
Great  Barrier  reef  of  Australia,  where  they  were  studied  by  Ross  Robertson. 

site  of  Sitio  Sierra,  being  excavated  at  the  time  by  Dr.  Richard 
Cooke,  a  University  of  London  archeologist  and  one  of  stri's  post- 
doctoral fellows. 

Sitio  Sierra  began  as  a  snnall  prehispanic  maize-growing  village 
located  on  the  shores  of  the  Santa  Maria  river.  Code  province, 
during  the  first  centuries  after  the  Christian  era  (circa  a.d.  200). 
Despite  having  to  work  one  step  ahead  of  bulldozers  ready  to  level 
off  the  mounded  area  in  order  to  plant  sugarcane.  Dr.  Cooke  was 
able  to  recover  an  impressive  sample  of  the  faunal  and  floral  re- 
sources exploited  by  the  riverine  group  in  the  drier  section  of  the 
Isthmus  during  pre-Sitio  Conte  days.  This  was  accomplished  by 
fine-screening,  excavating  housefloors,  and  concentrating  on  the 
horizontal  exposure  of  activity  areas.  Comparisons  of  the  Sitio 
Sierra  materials  with  those  excavated  by  Dra.  Olga  F.  Linares  of 
STRi,  and  members  of  her  research  team,  is  resulting  in  a  volume 
on  the  evolution  of  differential  adaptations  to  the  wet  versus  the 
seasonal  tropics  of  Panama. 

STRI  makes  an  important  contribution  to  interbureau  cooperative 
science  programs  at  the  Smithsonian  through  its  support  of  the  esp 
(Environmental  Sciences  Program)  Tropical  Projects.  These  are 
being  conducted  at  stri  facilities,  with  stri  logistic  and  technical 
support,  and  involve  several  stri  scientists.  The  appearance  of  the 
465-page  report  Environmental  Monitoring  and  Baseline  Data — 
1973 — Tropical  Studies  in  December  1974  marked  a  major  step  in 
the  development  of  the  esp  program  in  Panama. 

The  ESP  is  a  long-term  study  of  natural  fluctuations  in  several 
contrasting  environments  on  Smithsonian-controlled  preserves.  The 
tropical  projects  are  sited  in  the  Canal  Zone,  on  a  coral  reef  at 
Galeta  Point,  and  in  forest  on  Barro  Colorado  Island. 

Even  the  proverbially  stable  tropics  are  not  unchanging  but  are 
in  dynamic  rather  than  static  equilibria.  They  undergo  considerable 
and  important  fluctuations  within  each  year  and  also  from  year  to 
year.  To  understand  the  magnitude  and  impact  of  these  fluctuations 
careful  and  repeated  measurements  must  be  made  at  different  times 
of  the  year  and  for  a  number  of  years.  The  most  valuable  results 
of  these  studies  will  not  come  until  a  number  of  years  have  been 
studied  and  the  data  analysed  and  compared.  The  data  that  have 
already  been  collected  and  published  are  valuable  both  to  investi- 
gators working  at  the  esp  sites  and  to  ecologists  studying  other 
environments  elsewhere  in  the  world. 

Science  I  163 

Dr.  Richard  Cooke  and  assistant  excavating  at  Sitio  Sierra, 
Code  Province,  Panama. 

The  report  for  1973  is  intended  as  the  first  in  a  series  of  annuals 
which  will  make  available  the  results  from  a  wide  range  of  en- 
vironmental measurements.  These  include  solar  radiation,  me- 
teorological, hydrological,  botanical,  and  zoological  variables.  These 
data,  particularly  those  collected  by  the  core,  or  baseline,  monitor- 
ing programs  of  N.  Smythe  on  Barro  Colorado  Island,  and  D.  Meyer 
and  C.  Birkeland  at  Galeta,  are  presented  in  considerable  detail  for 
1973  and  also  summarized  in  various  ways  to  facilitate  comparisons 
with  other  years  and  places.  Though  the  report  concentrates  on 
measurements  that  will  be  repeated  in  successive  years,  it  also  in- 
cludes other  kinds  of  baseline  data  such  as  maps  and  species  lists. 

In  this  first  report  the  editor,  R.  Rubinoff,  put  strong  emphasis 
on  developing  a  format  that  would  allow  direct  comparison  between 
the  tropical  marine  and  terrestrial  environments  under  study,  as 
well  as  with  the  temperate  esp  projects  being  conducted  at  cbces. 
A  second  in  the  series  of  annual  reports,  that  for  1974,  is  currently 
in  preparation. 

Investigators  from  the  Smithsonian  Institution  involved  in  the 
ESP  Tropical  Projects  during  fiscal  year  1975  included:  W.  Klein, 
rbl;  T.  Erwin,  M.  Hale,  C.  Handley,  R.  Heyer,  R.  Thornington,  and 

164  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

G.  Zug,  all  of  MNH;  G.  Montgomery,  nzp;  as  well  as  C.  Birkeland, 
E.  Leigh,  D.  Meyer,  5.  Rand,  R.  Rubinoff,  N.  Smythe,  and  H. 
Wolda,  STRi.  Several  investigators  from  outside  the  Smithsonian 
were  partially  supported  by  esp,  particularly  R.  Foster,  University 
of  Chicago,  and  J.  Lawrence,  Harvard  University.  A  number  of 
students  and  visiting  scientists  at  stri  have  also  made  important 
contributions  to  the  projects. 

During  April,  Drs.  Glynn  and  Birkeland  accompanied  by  Martin 
Wells  of  Cornell  University  made  an  expedition  to  the  Galapagos 
Islands  where  a  survey  of  the  coral  reefs  was  initiated  in  coopera- 
tion with  G.  M.  Wellington  of  the  Charles  Darwin  Research  Station. 
Through  the  cooperation  of  the  cdrs  and  the  Ecuadorian  National 
Park  Service,  about  twenty  species  of  corals  were  identified,  at  least 
three  of  which  are  new  to  science,  and  a  preliminary  analysis  of 
the  distribution  and  ecology  of  Galapagos  corals  was  begun. 

Based  upon  a  visit  to  Papua,  New  Guinea,  by  Rubinoff  and  Rand, 
the  Smithsonian  became  a  sponsoring  member  of  the  Wau  Ecology 
Institute.  With  support  from  the  International  Environmental  Pro- 
gram and  the  Fluid  Research  Fund,  stri  sent  Dr.  Tyson  Roberts  to 
initiate  an  ecological  investigation  of  the  fishes  of  the  Fly  River 
and  Dr.  Alan  Smith  to  begin  studies  of  tree  ferns  on  Mt.  Wilhelm 
in  Papua,  New  Guinea. 

Our  program  of  providing  short-term  fellowships  to  introduce 
students  to  tropical  research  was  continued  with  grants  from  the 
Henry  L.  and  Grace  Doherty  and  the  Edward  John  Noble  founda- 
tions. More  than  twenty-four  students  from  the  United  States, 
Panama,  Colombia,  Canada,  and  the  Virgin  Islands  participated  in 
the  program  during  fiscal  year  1975. 

Dr.  D.  R.  Robertson,  a  fish  behaviorist,  has  accepted  an  appoint- 
ment as  our  newest  staff  member.  He  will  continue  his  work  on  the 
sexual  behavior  of  fishes. 

During  1975,  major  rebuilding  was  begun  on  the  main  laboratory 
on  Barro  Colorado  Island.  When  completed,  the  building  will  in- 
clude a  series  of  centrally  air-conditioned  individual  laboratories, 
a  classroom,  instrument  room,  and  dark  room.  The  first  phase  of 
the  Tivoli  laboratory  has  been  completed.  The  first  wing  includes 
space  for  the  herbarium  which  occupies  what  we  hope  will  be  its 
final  home.  A  contract  has  been  awarded  for  the  second  phase  of 
the  Tivoli  renovation. 

Science  I  165 

.»^.  -«r''i,'-y«-,*ji»i«E«5;-i 

S»  if-*-'!*  1*taF"<S!K  •»«».'r,  •T'Mfo'ti,- 

The  opening  on  October  1,  1974,  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden  was  a 
major  event  of  fiscal  year  1975.  The  view  above  is  from  the  Mall. 

Smithsonian  Year  •  1974 


In  HIS  RECENT  VOLUME  of  reminiscences,  charmingly  and  most  ap- 
propriately titled  Self-Portrait  with  Donors,  the  former  Director  of 
the  National  Gallery  of  Art  laments  a  change  he  has  observed  in 
the  thinking  of  museum  directors.  "Until  recently  the  directors  of 
European  and  American  museums  have  had  the  same  basic  phi- 
losophy," John  Walker  writes.  "Their  primary  interest  has  been 
the  acquisition  of  masterpieces."  Of  late,  he  observes,  this  interest 
has  been  subordinated  to  a  concern  for  "relevance"  and  for  rather 
vaguely  defined  programs  of  "social  service."  Mr.  Walker  leaves  no 
doubt  where  his  sympathies  lie:  "I  fervently  hope  my  colleagues 
will  regain  faith  in  their  original  mission,  which  once  was  to  as- 
semble and  exhibit  masterpieces." 

Despite  the  survival  in  the  art  museum  world  of  a  few  individual 
directors  who  compete  flamboyantly  for  the  title  of  Grand  Acquis- 
itor,  Mr.  Walker's  characterization  is  evidently  correct  for  the 
profession  as  a  whole.  In  a  survey  conducted  last  year  for  the  Na- 
tional Endowment  for  the  Arts,  a  national  sample  of  museum 
directors  was  asked  to  evaluate  in  order  of  importance  ten  specified 
functions  of  museums.  In  the  resulting  hst,  "acquiring  works  or 
specimens"  was  rated  fifth  by  the  respondents;  art  museum  di- 
rectors rated  acquisition  as  fourth  in  importance,  history  museum 
directors  rated  it  as  fifth,  and  art/history  museum  directors  rated 
it  as  fifth. ^  Exhibitions,  conservation,  the  education  of  children,  and 

1  Museums  USA,  published  by  the  National  Endowment  for  the  Arts,  1974, 
page  28. 


service  as  a  "scholarly  and  information  resource"  were  all  deemed 
to  be  more  important.  The  current  attitudes  of  the  public  seem  to 
reflect  a  similar  skepticism  about  the  overwhelming  importance 
of  acquisitions.  Understandably,  a  would-be  visitor  who  finds  his 
favorite  museum  closed  due  to  financial  difficulties  is  apt  to  be  less 
than  enthusiastic  when  that  same  museum  purchases  a  multimillion 
dollar  object  or  collection;  and  he  is  not  very  interested  in  talk  of 
restricted  endowments  and  earmarked  purchase  funds. 

Granting  that  Mr.  Walker's  explicit  emphasis  on  the  acquisition 
of  "masterpieces"  severely  limits  the  generality  of  his  message, 
which  is  primarily  addressed  to  the  directors  and  trustees  of  great 
and  wealthy  art  museums,  there  does  seem  to  be  an  element  of 
paradox  in  the  results  of  the  Arts  Endowment  survey.  For  the  fact 
is  that  each  of  the  functions  regarded  as  more  important  than  the 
acquisition  of  collections  presupposes  the  existence  of  collections. 
One  is  reminded  of  a  similar  paradox  that  at  least  used  to  exist  in 
colleges  and  universities:  the  marriage  of  a  faculty  member  and 
a  student  tended  to  be  viewed  with  great  pleasure  in  the  com- 
munity, but  the  courtship  of  a  student  by  a  faculty  member  was 
generally  thought  to  be  improper  if  not  positively  indecent.  Simi- 
larly, it  is  assumed  that  museums  have  collections,  but  there  is 
some  uneasiness  about  the  notion  that  they  should  get  collections. 

In  all  fairness  one  must  admit  that  attitudes  in  the  museum  world 
are  no  less  pendulum-like  than  those  in  other  areas  of  human  en- 
deavor. The  results  of  the  Arts  Endowment  survey  mirror  a  rather 
recent  shift  of  emphasis  from  the  goal  of  acquiring  objects  to  the 
goal  of  preserving  and  using  them.  Mr.  Walker  himself  applauds 
the  development  of  long-term  loan  programs,  through  which  mu- 
seums with  vast  collections  in  storage  can  help  to  fill  the  galleries 
of  less  fortunate  museums.  The  growing  concern  for  conservation  of 
museum  objects  should  undoubtedly  lead  to  a  welcome  redis- 
tribution of  museum  resources.  Similarly,  a  persuasive  case  can 
be  made  for  the  variety  of  activities  designed  both  to  widen  and  to 
deepen  the  use  of  objects  that  museums  already  have  in  their  col- 
lections. The  Smithsonian  is  proud  of  having  participated  in  each  of 
these  developments,  and  intends  to  continue  to  do  so. 

But  perhaps  the  pendulum  has  swung  a  trifle  too  far?  Perhaps  we 
should  heed  Mr.  Walker's  advice  and  regain  faith  in  our  original 
mission  of  acquiring?  To  do  so,  to  maintain  an  active  interest  in 

168  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

acquisitions,  would  seem  to  be  required  as  part  of  our  obligation  to 
posterity,  to  the  future  generations  who  will  then  be  able  to  use 
what  we  have  collected  as  we  use  what  earlier  generations 

Various  branches  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  illustrate  in  very 
concrete  terms  some  of  the  forms  this  obligation  can  assume.  The 
case  of  the  National  Zoological  Park  is  admittedly  unique,  for  here 
the  mortality  of  living  animals  absolutely  requires  constant  re- 
plenishment of  the  collections.  But  the  case  of  a  museum  of  con- 
temporary art  is  not  so  very  different;  the  necessity  of  keeping 
abreast  with  interesting  and  important  new  artistic  developments 
is  absolute  if  such  a  museum  is  to  fulfill  its  role.  Similarly,  unless 
we  assume  that  the  history  of  American  art  and  the  history  of 
technology  are  somehow  going  to  come  to  a  halt,  museums  devoted 
to  these  subjects  must  continue  to  acquire  objects  of  historical  sig- 
nificance in  their  fields.  A  national  gallery  of  portraiture,  repre- 
senting men  and  women  who  contribute  to  the  development  of  our 
Nation,  must  assume  that  such  men  and  women  will  continue  to 
appear  on  the  scene,  although  their  likenesses  may  increasingly  be 
photographs,  films,  and  videotapes  rather  than  paintings  and 
sculptures.  Even  in  museums  less  obviously  committed  to  keeping 
up  with  new  developments,  the  case  for  filling  the  gap  in  the  record 
of  the  past  is  powerful  indeed.  It  is  precisely  because  we  are  con- 
cerned with  the  use  of  our  collections  that  we  feel  so  strongly  the 
need  to  make  them  more  useful,  which  more  often  than  not  means 
making  them  more  complete.  And  this,  of  course,  is  what  acquisi- 
tion is. 

The  Smithsonian  can  also  serve  to  illustrate,  however,  the  fact 
that  acquiring  does  not  necessarily  mean  purchasing.  Again  the  case 
of  the  National  Zoo  is  unique,  for  its  collections  have  the  happy 
ability  to  reproduce  themselves — an  ability  that  will  presumably  be 
enhanced  by  the  Zoo's  new  breeding  farm.  In  many  other  cases, 
notably  those  covered  by  the  rubric  Natural  History,  objects  are 
typically  acquired  by  scientific  expeditions.  But,  in  the  arts,  and  to 
a  very  large  extent  in  the  various  fields  of  history,  the  usual  options 
are  gifts  (including  bequests)  and  purchases.  Throughout  its  his- 
tory, the  Smithsonian  has  relied  overwhelmingly  upon  gifts  in 
forming  the  national  collections,  and  it  continues  to  do  so.  The  fact 
that  virtually  every  imaginable  sort  of  object  is  now  avidly  col- 

History  and  Art  I  169 

lected  by  someone,  and  the  fact  that  the  prices  of  things  that  are 
collected  rise  at  a  rate  considerably  in  excess  of  the  general  rate 
of  inflation,  have  combined  to  make  our  reliance  upon  gifts  and 
bequests  more  important  than  ever.  The  day  when  the  knowledge- 
able and  energetic  curator  could  find  objects  of  museum  quality 
in  attics  or  rubbish  heaps,  or  could  purchase  them  for  a  pittance 
because  they  were  out  of  fashion,  is  surely  gone  and  will  not  return. 

The  Smithsonian's  dependence  upon  gifts,  and  its  very  notable 
success  in  attracting  them,  is  surely  not  unrelated  to  its  performance 
in  using  what  it  has  been  given.  In  a  sense,  then,  we  are  led  to 
another  paradox,  one  which  perhaps  resolves  the  apparent  conflict 
between  acquisition  and  use.  Donors,  who  should  not  be  assumed 
to  be  any  less  intelligent  and  sensitive  than  other  people,  want  to 
know  that  what  they  give  to  museums  will  be  cared  for,  will  be  ex- 
hibited, and  will  be  used  by  scholars  and  perhaps  even  school 
children.  Thus  acquisitions  may  well  be  the  result  of  other  activities, 
not  an  alternative  to  them.  If  the  age  of  sheer  acquisitiveness,  of 
acquisitiveness  for  its  own  sake  is  over,  museum  officials  must  not 
react  to  its  excesses  by  turning  their  attention  away  from  a  prudent 
and  measured  program  of  acquisitions,  acquisitions  for  use. 

In  the  case  of  the  Smithsonian,  this  will  involve  several  things 
apart  from  encouraging  our  Zoo  animals  to  reproduce  and  our 
natural  historians  to  collect  in  the  field.  It  will  involve  continuing 
efforts  to  demonstrate  that  what  we  acquire  is  properly  cared  for 
and  imaginatively  used.  It  will  involve  continuing  requests  for  funds 
to  be  used  in  the  acquisition  of  objects  that  are  urgently  needed  to 
fill  gaps  in  our  collections,  objects  that  complete  the  historical  record 
or  make  possible  an  important  exhibition,  which  might  never  come 
to  us  if  we  were  to  rely  solely  upon  the  uncertainties  of  gifts  and 
bequests.  It  means  also  that  we  will  continue  to  hope  for  a  change 
in  the  tax  laws  that  will  once  again  encourage  artists  to  donate  their 
own  works  to  musuems.  To  the  extent  that  these  efforts  are  suc- 
cessful and  this  hope  is  realized,  future  generations  will  be  able 
to  build  upon  our  achievements  as  we  endeavor  to  build  upon  those 
of  our  predecessors. 

170  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Archives  of  American  Art 

That  research  in  American  art  is  a  thriving  activity  is  clearly  re- 
flected in  the  growing  use  of  documentary  resources  at  the  Archives 
of  American  Art.  During  the  past  year  students  and  more  advanced 
scholars  made  1750  visits  to  consult  Archives  holdings  at  the  five 
regional  offices  in  Boston,  New  York,  Washington,  D.C.,  Detroit, 
and  San  Francisco,  an  increase  of  more  than  400  over  the  number 
in  1974.  Researchers  in  thirty-two  states  and  three  foreign  coun- 
tries borrowed  550  rolls  of  microfilm  through  interlibrary  loans. 

In  serving  the  needs  of  art  historians,  the  Archives  continues 
to  seek  out  and  assemble  the  records  of  artists,  dealers,  critics,  and 
art  societies.  Over  250  collections  were  accessioned  this  year, 
some  of  them  of  major  significance  for  investigations  of  American 
art  in  the  nineteenth  and  twentieth  centuries.  The  papers  of  the 
contemporary  sculptor  Joseph  Cornell,  the  largest  single  group 
received,  include  quantities  of  notes,  correspondence,  clippings, 
and  the  objects  and  artifacts  that  comprised  the  elements  of 
Cornell's  work.  Other  especially  useful  collections  were  the  papers 
of  the  art  historian  William  Seitz;  of  the  painters  Philip  Evergood, 
Abraham  Rattner,  and  Moses  Soyer;  of  the  dealers  Martin  Birn- 
baum  and  Betty  Parsons;  of  the  architect  Albert  Kahn;  and  of  the 
photographer  Imogen  Cunningham.  Diaries  kept  by  the  painter 
Robert  Henri  over  a  fifty-year  period  were  lent  for  microfilming, 
as  were  important  groups  of  letters  from  Frederick  Remington, 
Charles  Burchfield,  Frank  Duveneck,  and  Bernard  Berenson. 

'Trom  Reliable  Sources,"  the  first  exhibition  of  letters,  photo- 
graphs, and  other  documents  selected  from  Archives  holdings, 
commemorated  the  Archives'  twentieth  anniversary.  Installed  in 
an  attractively  designed  room  made  available  by  the  National 
Portrait  Gallery,  the  exhibition  opened  in  November  to  enthus- 
iastic acclaim  from  both  press  and  public.  An  illustrated  catalogue 
published  for  the  occasion  includes  transcripts  of  the  documents 
shown,  together  with  introductory  essays  on  the  Archives  and  on 
the  significance  of  historical  papers. 

The  Archives  staff  devoted  much  effort  during  the  year  to  the 
preparation  of  a  comprehensive  checklist  of  Archives  holdings. 
Over  3000  entries  incorporate  information  on  quantity,  inclusive 
dates,  and  forms  of  documentation.   The   checklist   will  be   pub- 

History  and  Art  I  171 

Robert   Henri   whose   diaries,   covering   1881-1928,   were   microfilmed   by   the 
Archives  of  American  Art. 

lished  for  distribution  to  libraries  and  art  history  departments  on  a 
national  basis.  The  Archives  continues  to  bring  its  resources  to  the 
attention  of  the  scholarly  community  through  its  quarterly  Journal, 
which  carries  articles  based  on  Archives  holdings  and  describes 
recent  acquisitions.  In  another  move  to  inform  students  of  useful 
research  material  at  the  Archives,  the  Area  Directors  instituted  a 
series  of  talks  at  university  art  history  departments  in  Massachu- 
setts, Michigan,  and  California. 

The  Archives  Oral  History  Project  carried  on  its  work  of 
recording  reminiscences  and  thoughts  of  persons  involved  in 
American  art.  Taped  interviews  with  two  elder  statesmen  of  the 
museum    world,    Bartlett    Hayes    and    William    Milliken,    provide 

172  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

detailed  information  on  their  careers.  Among  artists  interviewed 
during  the  year  were  Andrew  Dasburg,  Jimmie  Ernst,  Robert 
Motherwell,  Isama  Hoguchi,  and  Claes  Oldenburg. 

More  than  fifty  books,  articles,  exhibition  catalogues,  disserta- 
tions, and  theses  completed  in  1975  acknowledged  assistance  from 
the  Archives.  These  included  published  monographs  on  Albert 
Bierstadt,  Ward  Lockwood,  and  Everett  Shinn,  catalogues  on  Cecilia 
Beaux  and  David  Smith,  articles  on  Raphael  Peale  and  Benjamin 
West,  and  dissertations  on  Alexander  Calder  and  Max  Weber. 
Articles  on  the  Archives  appeared  in  the  Neio  York  Times  and 
several  art  periodicals,  including  three  published  in  California. 

Cooper-Hewitt  Museum 

of  Decorative  Arts  and  Design 

Renovation  was  begun  in  the  summer  of  1974  on  the  Andrew 
Carnegie  Mansion — future  home  of  the  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum 
of  Decorative  Arts  and  Design — at  91st  Street  and  Fifth  Avenue 
in  New  York  City.  Work  is  scheduled  for  completion  by  October 
1975  at  which  time  the  Museum  will  install  its  collections,  library, 
and  exhibitions  for  a  March  1976  opening.  The  opening  exhibition 
is  being  designed  by  architect  Hans  Hollein,  with  significant  inter- 
national participation.  In  conjunction  with  the  main  exhibition, 
the  Museum  is  organizing  thirty  satellite  exhibitions  in  museums, 
libraries,  and  universities  in  New  York — lending  collections  which 
are  particularly  suited  to  those  institutions.  The  satellite  exhibitions 
will  serve  as  an  "homage"  to  the  Cooper-Hewitt. 

The  Museum  organized  the  first  full-scale  exhibition  of  Winslow 
Homer  drawings,  water  colors,  and  paintings  to  appear  in  Europe. 
The  exhibition  opened  at  the  Victoria  and  Albert  in  London  in 
November  1974  to  great  acclaim.  Other  exhibitions  of  Cooper- 
Hewitt  material  during  the  year  were  "Thomas  Moran:  Drawings 
of  the  West,"  "Frederic  E.  Church  Oil  Sketches  and  Drawings," 
"Italian  Drawings  and  Master  Printmakers,"  and  "Prints  by 
Whistler,  Hassam,  and  Moran."  In  addition,  the  Cooper-Hewitt 
participated  in  exhibitions  at  twenty  museums  and  galleries. 

A  first  in  a  series  of  exhibitions  outside  the  Museum's  walls  took 
place  in  June.  The  exhibition  "Immovable  Objects"  invited  visitors 

History  and  Art  I  173 

to  view  objects  in  Lower  Manhattan — buildings,  plazas,  piers, 
parks,  street  furniture — either  for  their  intrinsic  architectural 
quality  or  for  their  effect  on  the  design  of  the  city.  A  catalogue 
was  published  which  served  as  a  guide  to  the  objects  and  which 
listed  a  series  of  events — parades,  tours,  special  exhibitions — in 
the  area. 

The  Museum  accepted  886  gifts  for  the  collections  and  39,317 
items  for  the  library.  Among  the  most  important  were  a  large 
group  of  designs  by  Simon  Lissim  for  porcelain,  silver,  playing 
cards,  and  screens;  an  eighteenth-century  altar  frontal  embroidered 
in  China  for  the  Western  market;  and  seventeen  pieces  of  art 
deco  and  Tiffany  glass  and  metalwork.  In  addition,  McDonnell 
Aircraft  Company  has  donated  equipment  necessary  to  establish 
a  holography  laboratory.  An  Advisory  Committee  for  the 
Museum's  Holography  Program  is  headed  by  Dr.  Denis  Gabor, 
the  Nobel  Laureate. 

174  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Facing  page: 

Red  Grooms  and  helpers  adjusting  the 
Customs  House  which  he  constructed 
for  the  "Immovable  Objects"  parade. 


John  Dobkin,  Administrator  ot  the 
Cooper-Hewitt,  in  the  Singer  Building, 
constructed  by  Peter  Wilson  ot  the 
architectural  firm  of  Hardy  Holzman 
and  Pfeiffer.  The  parade  inaugurating 
the  "Immovable  Objects"  exhibition 
moved  from  City  Hall  to  Chase 
Manhattan  Plaza  at  noon  on  June  18, 

During  the  year,  the  Museum  has  given  five  objects  to  the 
Metropohtan  Museum  of  Art,  twenty  to  the  Royal  Ontario 
Museum,  and  twenty-three  objects  were  transferred  to  the 
National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts. 

A  second  annual  benefit  auction  was  held  in  May  in  the  Museum 
garden,  with  Mrs.  Gerald  Ford  as  honorary  patron.  Proceeds  of 
the  auction,  approximately  $125,000,  were  contributed  to  the 
renovation  of  the  Carnegie  Mansion.  In  addition,  the  Museum  re- 
ceived major  grants  from  the  New  York  State  Council  on  the  Arts, 
the  National  Endowment  for  the  Arts,  and  the  Mobil  Foundation. 

Two  members  have  been  added  to  the  staff:  as  Librarian,  Mr. 
Robert  Kaufmann,  former  librarian  of  the  Art  and  Architecture 
School  at  Yale;  and,  as  Curator  of  Decorative  Arts,  Mr.  J.  Stewart 
Johnson,  former  curator  of  decorative  arts  at  the  Brooklyn  Museum. 
Sadly,  we  must  report  that  Mrs.  Mary  Blackwelder,  Museum 
Registrar  for  eighteen  years,  died  in  April,  after  a  long  illness. 

History  and  Art  I  175 


K^-^   I 

Gala  night  at  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  as  an  exhibition  of  Islamic  art — "Art  of  the 
Arab  World" — is  opened.  The  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  was  assisted  in  arranging  this 
exhibition  by  a  grant  from  the  Mobil  Oil  Corporation. 

Dr.  Esin  Atil,  Associate  Curator,  Near  Eastern  Art,  Freer  Gallery  of  Art,  shows  Mobil's 
President  William  P.  Tavoulareas  (on  the  right)  the  unique  decoration  on  one  of  the 
eighty  objects  of  art  displayed  in  the  "Art  of  the  Arab  World"  exhibition. 

Freer  Gallery  of  Art 

Recent  international  developments  continue  to  stimulate  interest 
in  the  cultures  of  the  Near  and  the  Far  East.  Understandably,  that 
interest  is  reflected  in  the  increasing  number  of  visitors  to  the  Freer 
Gallery  of  Art.  In  addition,  members  of  the  curatorial  staff  have 
noted  a  sharp  increase  in  requests  for  information  relating  to  the 
Near  and  Far  Eastern  collections  during  fiscal  year  1975. 

Members  of  the  Freer  curatorial  staff  served  as  consultants  in 
the  organization  of  the  Exhibition  of  Archaeological  Finds  of  the 
People's  Republic  of  China,  which  was  shown  at  the  National 
Gallery  of  Art  from  December  13,  1974,  through  March  30,  1975. 
The  Chinese  curators  who  accompanied  the  exhibition  made  a 
number  of  lengthy  visits  to  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art,  studying 
Chinese  art  objects  in  the  galleries  and  in  storage.  Attendance  at 
the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  increased  significantly  during  the  period 
of  the  Chinese  exhibition.  To  meet  the  unusually  large  number  of 
requests  for  docent  service,  the  Gallery  added  a  new  docent  to 
the  staff  thereby  supplementing  the  existing  educational  program 
by  offering  gallery  tours  on  a  regular  basis. 

For  many  years  the  Technical  Laboratory  of  the  Freer  Gallery 
of  Art  has  been  engaged  in  research  relating  to  metal  corrosion. 
W.  T.  Chase,  Head  Conservator,  was  asked  by  the  John  D.  Rocke- 
feller III  Fund  to  survey  the  major  conservation  facilities  and 
bronze  collections  in  Asia  and  to  recommend  ways  in  which  some 
of  the  more  pressing  problems  of  bronze  conservation  might  be 
alleviated.  Mr.  Chase  strongly  advised  that  an  organized  program 
of  bronze  treatment  and  care  be  established  in  Thailand  to  prevent 
the  further  deterioration  of  the  extraordinary  number  of  objects 
infected  with  bronze  disease.  At  the  same  time,  a  project  was 
also  begun  on  an  exhibition  to  be  shown  in  Bangkok  which  would 
demonstrate  the  importance  of  a  national  conservation  program 
in  Thailand.  Mr.  Chase  assisted  in  the  selection,  planning,  and 
organization  of  the  exhibition.  He  also  wrote  the  text  used  in 
the  catalogue. 

Dr.  Esin  Atil,  Curator  of  Near  Eastern  Art,  organized  a  special 
exhibition  entitled,  "Art  of  the  Arab  World."  In  the  catalogue 
written  by  Dr.  Atil,  each  of  the  eighty  objects  included  in  the 
exhibition  is  illustrated  in  color  and  discussed  in  detail.  Approxi- 

History  and  Art  I  177 

mately  1000  people  attended  the  opening  of  the  special  exhibition 
on  May  8.  A  grant  from  Mobil  Oil  Corporation  helped  defray  the 
costs  of  the  exhibition. 

The  large  collection  of  American  paintings  is  among  the  most 
important  included  in  the  original  Charles  Lang  Freer  bequest. 
The  numerous  works  by  James  McNeill  Whistler  make  the  Gallery 
a  focal  point  for  any  study  of  that  artist.  Dr.  Susan  Hobbs  joined 
the  Smithsonian  Institution  during  fiscal  year  1975,  serving  as 
Joint-Curator  of  American  Art  both  in  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art 
and  in  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts.  Dr.  Hobbs  is  cur- 
rently reviewing  the  entire  American  collection  in  the  Gallery 
preparatory  to  writing  the  catalogue  for  a  special  exhibition  of 
American  paintings  scheduled  for  1976.  Dr.  Hobbs  is  also  pre- 
paring entries  on  a  select  group  of  American  paintings  to  be 
illustrated  in  the  Freer  handbook. 

The  Oriental  painting  mounting  studio  at  the  Freer  Gallery  of 
Art  has  been  in  operation  since  the  Gallery  opened  to  the  public 
in  1923.  For  many  years,  the  Freer  studio  was  the  only  such 
facility  in  the  United  States.  The  three  mounters  who  constitute 
the  present  staff  are  among  the  delegates  who  will  attend  the 
Japan-America  Cultural  Conference  at  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art 
in  August  1975.  The  purpose  of  the  meeting  is  to  discuss  ways  of 
improving  mutual  exchange  of  exhibitions,  especially  as  relates 
to  the  proper  conservation  of  art  objects. 

In  the  course  of  fiscal  year  1975,  the  collections  were  expanded 
by  the  accession  of  twenty-two  objects.  Of  those,  several  fine  items 
were  acquired  by  gift  from  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Province  Henry  of 
McLean,  Virginia.  Over  300  volumes,  catalogues,  reports,  period- 
icals, bulletins,  and  notebooks  were  given  to  the  library  by  Mrs. 
Rutherford  J.  Gettens,  Colonel  F.  B.  Hoffman,  and  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Province  Henry. 

The  Cultural  Department  of  the  Imperial  Embassy  of  Iran  and 
the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art  presented  a  series  of  four  lectures  on 
"The  Art  and  Civilization  of  Iran."  A  lecture  on  Japanese  culture, 
jointly  sponsored  by  the  Embassy  of  Japan  and  the  Freer  Gallery 
of  Art,  was  included  in  the  Gallery's  22nd  Annual  Series  of 
"Illustrated  Lectures  on  Oriental  Art." 

178  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 


Japanese  wood  sculpture;  Kamakura 
period,  a.d.  1185-1333.  Zocho-ten 
(one  of  the  set  of  Shitenno);  poly- 
chrome. Height  31 V2  inches.  Freer 
Gallery  of  Art. 

Below  left: 

Chinese  bronze  ritual  vessel  of  the 
type  yu;  Shang  dynasty,  ca.  1523-1028 
B.C.  Height:  12y2   inches.  Freer 
Gallery  of  Art. 

Below  right: 

Persian  metalwork;  Achaemenid 
period,  fifth  century  B.C.;  made  for 
Artaxerxes,  the  son  of  Xerxes,  grand- 
son of  Darius.  Silver  Phiale  with 
repousse  decoration  representing 
radiating  stems  and  lotus  flowers. 
Inscription  on  the  rim:  Artaxerxes, 
the  Great  King,  King  of  Kings,  King 
of  Countries,  son  of  Xerxes  the  King, 
of  Xerxes  (who  was)  son  of  Darius 
the  King,  in  whose  royal  house  this 
silver  saucer  was  made.  Height: 
1%   inches;  diameter:  11%   inches. 
Freer  Gallery  of  Art. 




""-ih^iJK^^b^  .^B^J^  Jj^^^^^^^^^^^B  s^^^m  ak 



"^'^hL  1 

H^B~^H..  .^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


Opening  night  speech  by  Mr.  Hirshhorn,  October  1,  197A. 

Distinguished  visitors  admire  lighted  fountain  in  the  inner  circular  court  of  the 
Hirshhorn  Museum  on  opening  night,  October  1,  1974. 


Although  the  status  of  Hillwood  remained  that  of  an  unopened  mu- 
seum during  the  past  fiscal  year,  much  activity  was  taking  place 
behind  the  scenes.  The  several  thousand  objects  contained  in  the 
Marjorie  Merriweather  Post  collections  were  classified  and  recorded 
by  the  staff. 

Records  were  made  of  all  objects  of  art  after  checking  the  estate 
inventory,  and  polaroid  pictures  were  taken  of  all  objects  which 
had  not  been  previously  photographed.  A  large  number  of  gifts, 
notably  those  from  members  of  the  Post  family,  were  recorded. 

The  assistant  curator  established  a  special  system  for  assigning 
accession  numbers  to  the  objects  in  the  art  collection.  Since  this 
collection  consists  predominantly  of  the  decorative  arts,  the  system 
is  based  on  the  materials  out  of  which  the  objects  are  made,  e.g., 
gold,  porcelain,  wood,  etc.  A  card  file,  arranged  according  to  these 
categories,  is  being  prepared  with  the  assistance  of  a  part-time 
volunteer.  Another  card  file  records  the  location  of  the  object. 
Thus  far,  approximately  2200  cards  have  been  made  for  objects  in 
Mrs.  Post's  bequest  of  September  1973. 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 

A  major  contribution  to  the  cultural  life  of  both  Washington  and 
the  Nation  was  marked  by  the  opening  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum 
and  Sculpture  Garden  on  October  1,  1974. 

In  the  first  six  months  of  its  operation,  over  one  million  visitors 
were  attracted  to  this  new  national  museum  of  contemporary  art. 
The  substantial  percentage  of  repeat  visitors  indicated  that  this 
enthusiastic  public  response  comes  from  an  interest  far  deeper  than 
mere  curiosity  about  the  Smithsonian  Institution's  newest  museum 
on  the  Mall. 

During  the  Museum's  first  six  months,  the  following  public 
services  were  initiated: 

(1)  A  thrice  weekly  film  program,  including  evening  presenta- 
tions and  Saturday  matinee  special  features  for  children; 

(2)  A  monthly  Sunday  lecture  series  given  by  outstanding  art 
historians,  critics,  and  scholars; 

History  and  Art  I  181 

Left:  Sculpture  removal  by  helicopter  from  Greenwich,  Connecticut,  in  August  1974,  for 
placement  in  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden.  Right:  Installation  of  Two 
Disks  by  Alexander  Calder,  August  1974,  at  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden. 
Below:   Hirshhorn  Sculpture  Garden  as  seen  from  the  Mall. 

Outer  court  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden. 

(3)  A  special  four-part  lecture  series  supported  by  a  grant  from 
the  National  Endowment  for  the  Humanities; 

(4)  A  guide  program  utilizing  135  specially  trained  docents, 
providing  regularly  scheduled  special  tours  for  the  public,  as  well 
as  tours  for  visiting  national  and  international  dignitaries; 

(5)  A  series  of  concerts  of  contemporary  music  presented  in 
collaboration  with  the  Smithsonian  Institution's  Division  of  Per- 
forming Arts; 

(6)  Two  intern  programs,  one  of  which  provides  an  opportunity 
for  university-enrolled  students  to  earn  applicable  credits  at  the 
graduate  level  and  the  other  of  which  establishes  a  summer 
program  for  a  group  of  five  undergraduate  students. 

The  transfer  to  Washington  of  the  Museum's  collection  of  more 
than  6000  works  of  art  from  storage  in  New  York,  Toronto,  and 
the  Hirshhorn  estate  in  Connecticut  was  completed  in  September 
1974.  Painting  and  sculpture  not  included  in  the  Inaugural 
Exhibition  were  unpacked,  examined,  and  stored  in  the  painting 
and  sculpture  study-storage  areas,  located  on  the  fourth  floor 
and  lower  level  of  the  Museum,  respectively.  Many  aspects  of 
this  move,  as  well  as  of  the  installation  of  the  Inaugural  Exhibition, 
were  captured  in  a  film  entitled  A  Life  of  Its  Own. 

A  catalogue  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden's 
Inaugural  Exhibition  was  published  in  both  hard  cover  and  paper- 
back editions  at  the  time  of  the  opening.  This  volume,  now  in  its 
second  edition,  includes  1019  reproductions — 290  in  color — of 
paintings  and  sculpture  in  the  Museum's  collection.  Also  included 
is  a  foreword  by  S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian; 
an  introduction  by  Abram  Lerner,  Director  of  the  Hirshhorn 
Museum;  and  essays  by  six  outstanding  art  scholars.  The  docu- 
mentation of  1001  works  of  art  was  supervised  by  Curator  Cynthia 
J.  McCabe.  A  souvenir  booklet.  An  Introduction  to  the  Hirshhorn 
Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  was  also  published  for  the  opening. 

Since  the  opening,  the  Museum's  Department  of  Painting  and 
Sculpture  has  actively  continued  its  research  on  the  Museum's 
collection.  An  archive  on  the  collection  has  been  set  up  under  the 
supervision  of  Curator  Inez  Garson;  material  in  the  archive  will 
be  available  to  scholars  in  the  field.  In  addition,  basic  information 
on  the  collection  has  been  entered  in  the  Smithsonian  Institution's 

184  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Coinciding  with  the  Museum's  pubUc  opening,  a  loan  exhibition, 
"Sculptors  and  Their  Drawings:  Selections  from  the  Hirshhorn 
Museum  Collection,"  opened  at  the  Lyndon  Baines  Johnson  Library 
of  the  University  of  Texas  in  Austin.  A  catalogue  was  published 
for  this  exhibition,  which  was  viewed  by  95,000  visitors  between 
October  4,  1974,  and  January  5,  1975. 

Other  loans  from  the  museum  collection  included  a  Man  Ray 
painting  to  the  Delaware  Art  Museum;  three  paintings  by  Arthur 
B.  Davies  to  the  Knoedler  Gallery;  two  paintings  by  Thomas  Eakins 
and  one  by  Ernest  Lawson  to  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts; 
two  paintings  by  Yasuo  Kuniyoshi  to  the  University  of  Texas  Art 
Museum  in  Austin;  and  three  paintings  by  Ralph  Albert  Blakelock 
to  the  University  of  Nebraska  Art  Galleries.  In  addition,  twenty- 
two  paintings  were  loaned  to  the  White  House  for  use  in  the 
Executive  Offices  and  the  Residence. 

From  December  15,  1974,  to  January  13,  1975,  an  exhibition  of 
works  honoring  the  ninetieth  birthdays  of  sculptor  Jose  de  Creeft 
and  painter  Ben  Benn  was  held  in  the  Hirshhorn  Museum's  lower- 
level  lobby. 

"Artist-Immigrants  of  America  1876  to  1976,"  the  Museum's 
Bicentennial  exhibition,  is  being  organized  by  Curator  Cynthia 
J.  McCabe.  It  will  consist  of  more  than  230  works  by  approxi- 
mately 70  foreign-born  painters,  sculptors,  architects,  photog- 
raphers, and  filmmakers.  The  exhibition,  which  will  open  in  May 
1976,  will  be  shown  in  the  second-floor  exhibition  galleries  and  on 
the  outdoor  plaza. 

Also  in  preparation  are  the  two  exhibitions  that  will  inaugurate 
the  Hirshhorn  Museum's  program  of  temporary  exhibitions: 
"Soto:  A  Retrospective  Exhibition,"  September  25  to  November  9, 
1975,  and  "The  Sculpture  and  Drawings  of  Elie  Nadelman," 
December  18, 1975,  to  February  15, 1976. 

The  personnel  of  the  new  Conservation  Laboratory  began  to 
prepare  condition  reports  on  the  over  6000  works  of  art  in  the 
Museum,  and  at  the  same  time  planned  and  developed  an  overall 
laboratory  layout,  which  will  provide  the  necessary  facilities  for 
a  program  of  professional  conservation  and  preservation  of  the 
permanent  collection. 

Since  the  official  opening  last  October,  the  Department  of  Ex- 
hibits and  Design  has  been  conducting  a  systematic  program  of 

History  and  Art  I  185 

i   h 


Curving  sculpture  hall  in  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden   rings 

inner  circular  court. 

daily  gallery  inspection  and  maintenance.  In  addition,  the  Depart- 
ment is  supervising  the  repainting  of  gallery  walls  and  pedestals, 
as  well  as  the  installation  of  Plexiglas  vitrines,  as  deemed  necessary 
for  the  protection  of  paintings  and  sculpture. 

The  Education  Department  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  has  the 
task  of  interpreting  the  collections  of  the  Museum  to  a  broad  and 
varied  public.  Programs  initiated  by  the  Education  Department  in- 
cluded a  series  of  docent  tours  for  school  groups,  organized  adult 
groups,  and  walk-in  visitors;  the  preparation  of  printed  material 
for  museum  visitors;  and  the  installation  of  Telesonic  electronic 
guided  tours. 

Fifty-five  volunteer  docents  completed  the  first  docent  training 
given  between  January  15,  1974,  and  the  opening  of  the  Museum; 
guided  tours  in  the  Museum's  galleries  commenced  on  October  7, 
1974.  During  the  nine-month  period  through  June  1975,  the 
following  tours  were  given: 

186  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Elementary  Schools  229  tours  10,018  students 

Secondary  Schools  105  tours                      4,876  students 

Adult   Groups  385  tours  13,775  adults 

General  (unscheduled)  789  tours  12,084  adults/ children 

Total  1,508  tours  40,753  visitors 

During  this  period,  the  Museum's  docents  gave  over  4500  hours  of 
volunteer  service. 

To  meet  the  increasing  needs  for  additional  docents,  particularly 
during  the  Bicentennial  year,  the  Museum  undertook  a  second 
docent  training  program.  Two  hundred  and  fifty  applications  were 
received  and  ninety  persons  were  selected  for  this  second  program, 
which  began  on  January  7,  1975,  and  continued  through  April  15. 
Seventy-six  docents  successfully  completed  this  second  course.  At 
the  present  time,  the  Museum  has  a  total  of  131  docents  available 
for  touring. 

Prior  to  the  Museum's  opening  in  October,  work  was  completed 
on  five  special  illustrated  leaflets  for  free  public  distribution 
throughout  the  Museum.  To  date,  over  half  a  million  of  these 
brochures  have  been  distributed  to  Museum  visitors.  Also  under 
the  auspices  of  the  Education  Department  was  the  Museum's 
auditorium  program  of  films,  lectures,  and  concerts.  Through  April 
a  total  of  sixty-seven  film  programs  were  presented.  Ten  lectures 
on  art  were  given  between  November  1974  and  June  1975.  In- 
cluded among  the  lecturers  were  Dore  Ashton,  Irving  Sandler, 
Anne  Hanson,  Milton  Brown,  Daniel  Robins,  and  Walter  Rosen- 
blum.  A  special  series  of  four  lectures  on  Twentieth-Century  Art 
was  given  by  Professor  Robert  Rosenblum  of  New  York  Uni- 
versity: "Sexism:  Picasso  as  a  Male  Chauvinist;"  "High  Art  Versus 
Low  Art:  Cubism  as  Pop/'  "War:  Art  From  Sarajevo  to  Hiro- 
shima/' and  "Religion:  The  Deities  in  Abstract  Art." 

As  an  adjunct  to  the  film  program,  talks  on  film  as  an  art 
medium  were  given  by  Derek  Lamb,  Rosalind  Schneider,  Doris 
Chase,  Robert  Breer,  John  and  Faith  Hubley,  Frank  Mouris,  and 
Lillian  Schwartz. 

Among  the  major  new  American  works  performed  in  the 
auditorium  concert  series  were  "Four  Butterflies"  by  Morton 
Subotnick,  "Black  Angels"  by  George  Crumb,  and  "Conflicts  '74" 
by  Lloyd  Ultan. 

History  and  Art  I  187 

Joseph  Henry  Papers 

Volume  two  of  The  Papers  of  Joseph  Henry,  now  in  the  hands  of 
the  Smithsonian  Press,  will  appear  in  print  in  December  1975. 
Documented  in  this  volume  are  Henry's  first  three  years  at  Prince- 
ton (1832-1835),  where  his  systematic  pursuit  of  earlier  discoveries 
in  electromagnetic  induction  brought  him  increased  prominence 
and  into  direct  rivalry  with  his  great  British  contemporary,  Michael 
Faraday.  The  volume  includes  extensive  selections  from  personal 
and  professional  correspondence,  detailed  laboratory  notes,  and 
lengthy  diary  entries  on  the  contemporary  scientific  scene.  Publica- 
tion ceremonies  are  being  planned  for  Princeton  in  December. 

The  next  installment  of  The  Papers  of  Joseph  Henry  series  is 
now  in  progress,  tracing  Henry's  career  at  Princeton  through  mid- 
1838.  Of  paramount  interest  in  volume  three  are  diary  entries  on 
Henry's  first  European  tour  in  1837.  With  his  usual  curiosity  and 
candor,  Henry  compares  European  and  American  science  and 
culture.  Especially  noteworthy  are  detailed  observations  on  Euro- 
pean technological  installations,  such  as  lighthouse  systems,  that 
foreshadow  Henry's  later  involvement  with  comparable  American 
projects.  In  addition  to  preparing  the  letterpress  series,  the  Henry 
Papers'  staff  continues  to  work  toward  a  special  volume  of  Henry's 
lectures  and  addresses,  designed  to  reach  both  a  scholarly  and 
popular  audience. 

During  the  last  year,  the  Institution  received  title  to  the  surviv- 
ing library  of  Alexander  Graham  Bell,  a  major  section  of  which 
comprises  the  Joseph  Henry  Library,  which  had  been  on  loan  to 
the  Henry  Papers  project  for  over  five  years.  An  inventory  of  the 
Bell  books  revealed  about  150  additional  Henry  volumes.  The 
entire  collection,  amounting  to  some  2800  volumes,  will  be  formally 
installed  at  the  Smithsonian  as  the  Bell-Henry  Library.  Major 
steps  have  been  taken  toward  developing  a  publishable  catalogue 
of  the  Henry  Library,  with  the  use  of  a  computer  index.  An  index 
to  the  Henry  annotations  contained  in  the  books  and  pamphlets 
has  also  been  prepared.  Bell's  valuable  collection  of  scientific  books 
will  also  be  indexed  by  computer. 

The  appearance,  in  1972,  of  the  first  volume  in  The  Papers  of 
Joseph  Henry  series  has  made  scholars  increasingly  aware  of  the 
Henry  Papers  as  an  important  data  resource   for  the  history  of 

188  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

science.  Copies  of  the  vast  bulk  of  private  manuscripts  relating  to 
Henry's  career  are  now  on  hand  at  the  project  and  indexed  by 
computer.  The  collections  have  attracted  numerous  students  and 
outside  scholars  to  work  at  the  Henry  Papers  over  the  past  year; 
research  topics  included  studies  of  the  French  physicist  Ampere, 
of  the  American  explorer  and  naturalist  Kennicott,  and  of  the 
geologist  G.  K.  Gilbert.  The  nineteenth-century  seminar,  sponsored 
by  the  Henry  Papers,  continues  to  draw  scholars  from  both  within 
and  outside  the  Institution. 

National  Armed  Forces  Museum  Advisory  Board 

At  its  meeting  on  December  16,  1974,  the  National  Armed  Forces 
Museum  Advisory  Board  approved  a  report  to  the  Board  of 
Regents  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  concerning  its  participation 
in  an  investigation  and  survey  of  lands  and  buildings  in  and  near 
the  District  of  Columbia  suitable  for  the  display  of  military  collec- 
tions, pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  Section  3(a)  of  the  Act  of 
August  30,  1961  {75  Stat.  414,  20  USC  80-80d),  which  established 
the  Board. 

The  Advisory  Board  noted  that  its  participation  in  the  investiga- 
tion and  survey  was  lengthy  and  thorough,  extending  from  1962 
to  1974.  During  those  years,  with  the  assistance  of  the  Advisory 
Board  and  with  the  approval  of  the  Board  of  Regents,  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  made  a  series  of  efforts,  without  success,  to 
acquire  a  suitable  site  on  which  to  establish  a  National  Armed 
Forces  Museum  as  a  separate  entity  with  facilities  as  were  sug- 
gested in  Section  3(b)  of  the  Act  of  August  30,  1961.  The  Advisory 
Board  recommended  that,  in  view  of  recent  history,  the  Smithsonian 
not  renew  such  efforts  until  circumstances  materially  change. 

The  Advisory  Board  expressed  its  satisfaction  at  the  establish- 
ment, in  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  of  the 
study  center — known  as  the  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  Institute  for 
Historical  Research — authorized  under  Section  2(a)  of  the  Act  of 
August  30,  1961.  The  Board  stated  its  conviction  and  recommended 
that  this  study  center,  working  in  concert  with  the  curatorial  and 
exhibits   components   of   the   National   Museum   of   History    and 

History  and  Art  I  189 

Technology,  can  and  should  play  a  vital  part  in  the  development 
of  future  Smithsonian  programs  toward  portrayal  of  the  historic 
contributions  of  the  Armed  Forces  of  the  United  States  to  American 
society  and  culture. 

The  Advisory  Board  recommended  further  that  the  Smithsonian 
act  (1)  within  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 
and  (2)  in  concert  with  the  Department  of  the  Interior,  at  Fort 
Washington,  Maryland,  to  carry  out  to  the  fullest  extent  possible 
the  purposes  of  Section  2(a)  of  the  Act  of  August  30,  1961,  which 
calls  for  the  creative  display  of  military  artifacts  to  further  the 
public's  understanding  of  the  role  of  the  military  forces  in  our 
national  life.  The  Advisory  Board  stated  its  readiness  to  advise  and 
assist  the  Board  of  Regents  toward  the  furtherance  of  all  programs 
to  carry  out  this  goal. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

Over  the  years,  from  the  very  beginning  of  the  Smithsonian,  the 
collection  which  is  now  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  has 
acquired  a  wide  and  representative  range  of  American  art,  including 
not  only  works  by  the  acknowledged  great,  but  also  those  by  artists 
who  were  acclaimed  in  their  time  but  ignored  by  succeeding  genera- 
tions. Now  numbering  over  17,000  works,  the  ncfa  continues 
to  be  concerned  with  all  aspects  of  American  art.  It  searches  for 
works  to  fill  areas  poorly  covered  in  the  past  and  acquires  a  broad 
cross  section  of  contemporary  material.  It  is  rare,  however,  that  it 
has  the  pleasure  of  adding  to  the  Collection  such  masterpieces  as 
the  two  superb  portraits  by  Ralph  Earl,  painted  in  1792,  acquired 
by  purchase  and  partial  gift  this  year.  According  to  the  descendant 
from  whom  the  works  were  acquired,  the  stern-faced  Mrs.  Mary 
W.  Alsop  took  over  the  family  importing  business  on  the  death  of 
her  husband,  using  her  helpful  mother,  the  subject  of  the  other 
portrait,  as  a  kind  of  watchful  lieutenant.  The  carefully  specific 
landscapes  in  the  backgrounds  are  among  Earl's  finest. 

Notable  among  the  other  995  paintings,  graphic  works,  and 
sculpture  added  to  the  Collection  this  year  were  Charles  Willson 
Peale's  portrait  of  Mathias  and  Thomas  Bordley,  probably  his  most 

190  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Ralph  Earl,  Portrait  of  Mrs.  Mary  W.  Alsop, 
1792,  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts. 

Gertrude  Stein  by  Red  Grooms, 
National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts. 

important  miniature  painting;  William  Rimmer's  evocative  little 
painting, Af  the  Window;  Roger  Brown's  World's  Tallest  Disaster 
(from  the  "Made  in  Chicago"  exhibition) ;  and  many  fine  twentieth- 
century  prints  and  drawings  including  Red  Grooms's  three-dimen- 
sional print  of  Gertrude  Stein.  Special  attention  has  been  given  to 
graphic  works  from  the  1920s  and  1930s,  a  period  in  which  the 
NCFA  has  a  particular  interest,  such  as  its  Louis  Lozowick's  1928 
lithograph  Crane. 

Since  many  paintings  acquired  by  the  collection  or  shown  in  its 
exhibitions  represent  forgotten  aspects  of  American  art,  they  often 
have  suffered  physical  neglect  and  must  be  restored  before  they 
regain  their  rightful  historical  content,  ncfa's  conservation  staff — 
a  conservator  of  paper  was  added  this  year — is  kept  busy  not  only 
maintaining  the  health  of  the  works  of  art  but  revealing  the  true 
appearance  of  the  past.  Many  brown-tinged  paintings  selected  for 
the  "American  Art  in  the  Barbizon  Mood"  exhibition  emerged 
fresh  and  brilliant  in  hue,  forcing  a  reevaluation  of  some  historical 
assumptions.  A  large  percentage  of  the  works  in  the  exhibition 
"Academy"  were  cleaned  for  the  first  time  in  many  years  and  again 
could  dazzle  the  eye  as  they  originally  did. 

The  physical  space  and  context  in  which  works  of  art  are  seen 
is  of  major  concern  to  the  ncfa.  All  exhibitions,  including  those  in 
the  Renwick  Gallery,  are  mounted  so  that  the  individual  works 
can  have  the  space,  color,  and  general  atmosphere  necessary  for 
their  full  appreciation.  The  temporary  exhibitions  that  were  pre- 
sented this  year  in  the  large  third-floor  gallery  were  especially 
striking,  from  the  shadowy  motel -like  complex  of  "Made  in 
Chicago,"  in  which  each  artist  had  a  room  painted  with  the  color 
of  his  choice,  to  the  rich  soft  colors  and  free  flowing  space  of 
"American  Art  in  the  Barbizon  Mood,"  and  finally  to  the  formal 
dignity  of  "Academy:  the  Academic  Tradition  in  American  Art," 
with  its  effect  of  an  atrium  with  diffused  light  and  four  surrounding 
galleries  painted  in  colors  sympathetic  to  works  from  the  periods 
they  represented.  All  designs  were  by  Val  Lewton  of  the  Depart- 
ment of  Exhibition  and  Design,  who  also  held  a  one-man  exhibition 
of  his  paintings  in  June.  This  year's  temporary  exhibitions  at  the 
Renwick  were  just  as  dramatic,  ranging  from  the  rather  sombre 
dignity  of  "The  Goldsmith,"  to  the  sprightly  and  irreverent  "Figure 
and  Fantasy,"  and  to  the  elegantly  proportioned  display  of  "A 

192  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Modern  Consciousness/'  showing  the  furniture  introduced  over 
the  years  by  D.  J.  Dupree  and  Florence  Knoll.  These  installations 
were  designed  by  Renwick  Curator  Michael  Monroe. 

In  all,  eighteen  exhibitions  were  produced  by  the  ncfa  during  the 
year,  including  sculptures  and  drawings  by  "Chaim  Gross";  works 
by  "Ilya  Bolotowsky"  (produced  with  the  Guggenheim  Museum); 
"Two  Decades  of  American  Prints:  1920-1940";  paintings  by  the 
Httle-known  "Horatio  Shaw  (1847-1918)";  "Art  for  Architecture," 
photographs  and  studies  of  murals  from  the  turn  of  the  century 
in  Washington;  "Pennsylvania  Academy  Moderns,"  showing  early 
twentieth-century  modern  painters  from  Philadelphia;  and  the 
"24th  National  Exhibition  of  Prints,"  a  juried  print  exhibition 
sponsored  jointly  with  the  Library  of  Congress. 

Exhibitions  from  abroad  shown  in  the  Renwick  included  "Con- 
temporary Nigerian  Art:  Craftsmen  from  Oshogbo"  and  "Con- 
temporary Textile  Art  from  Austria,"  the  latter  produced  in 
association  with  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition 

Exhibition    view,    "Academy:    The    Academic    Tradition    in    American    Art," 
National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts. 



Service.  Exhibitions  sent  to  other  countries  through  ncfa's  Office 
of  Exhibitions  Abroad  included  CatHn's  paintings  of  American 
Indians  shown  in  the  Middle  East,  "Calder's  Circus"  sent  to  the 
Far  East,  and  "Variations  on  the  Camera's  Eye,"  an  exhibition  of 
recent  paintings,  circulated  in  South  and  Central  America.  "Made 
in  Chicago,"  which  circulated  in  South  America,  returned  after  a 
very  successful  showing  in  Mexico  City  and,  expanded  and  pro- 
vided with  a  new  catalogue,  was  shown  in  Washington  and 

Two  exhibitions  highlighted  the  year:  "American  Art  in  the 
Barbizon  Mood"  and  "Academy."  The  first,  directed  by  Dr.  Peter 
Bermingham,  Curator  of  Education,  who  wrote  the  authoritative 
publication  accompanying  the  show,  explored  the  work  of  those 
late  nineteenth-century  American  painters  who  painted  with  the 
French  painters  in  Barbizon  or  were  attracted  by  the  "Barbizon 
Mood."  This,  the  first  thorough  look  at  these  painters,  who  were 
shown  here  side  by  side  with  their  French  colleagues,  proved  reveal- 
ing in  both  quality  and  variety. 

The  exhibition,  "Academy,"  directed  by  Dr.  Lois  Fink,  Curator 
of  Research,  and  commemorating  the  founding  of  the  National 
Academy  of  Design  in  1825,  was  produced  with  the  extensive  co- 
operation of  that  institution.  The  271-page  publication.  Academy: 
The  Academic  Tradition  in  American  Art,  is  based  on  a  new  study 
of  the  Academy's  records,  which  have  now  been  microfilmed.  Many 
paintings  from  the  Academy's  collection,  unseen  for  years,  were 
restored  for  the  show. 

The  staff  also  has  participated  in  professional  activity  outside  the 
Museum.  Several  have  juried  exhibitions  in  various  parts  of  the 
country  and  presented  lectures  either  on  the  museum  or  in  their 
special  field.  Mrs.  Edith  I.  Martin  of  the  Renwick  Gallery  was 
active  in  both  the  local  and  national  organization  of  the  National 
Conference  of  Artists.  Miss  Abigail  Booth,  who  heads  the  Bicen- 
tennial Inventory  of  American  Painting  Before  1914,  met  with 
volunteer  groups  in  many  cities  who  are  actively  studying  works 
in  local  collections  at  the  behest  of  the  Inventory.  The  Inventory 
is  in  touch  with  some  2500  individuals  and  agencies,  and  has  now 
registered  descriptions  of  150,000  paintings.  The  museum's  educa- 
tional activities  have  been  much  studied  by  professionals  from  here 
and  abroad,  and,  in  August,  Miss  Margery  Gordon  of  the  education 

194  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

staff  spoke  at  the  International  Conference  on  Art  Education  in 
Split,  Yugoslavia.  Mr.  Walter  Hopps,  Curator  of  Twentieth- 
Century  Painting  and  Sculpture,  lectured  in  Paris  and  Vienna  and 
served  on  the  jury  of  the  Paris  Biennial.  Mr.  Lloyd  Herman, 
Director  of  the  Renwick  Gallery,  spent  several  weeks  in  Europe 
visiting  craft  museums  and  discussing  the  possibility  of  future 
exhibition  exchanges.  Dr.  Taylor  lectured  in  various  cities,  con- 
ducted museum  workshops  in  the  Northwest,  and  spent  two 
weeks  in  Caracas,  Venezuela,  lecturing  and  advising  on  the  forma- 
tion of  a  new  gallery  of  national  art. 

National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 

The  collections  of  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Tech- 
nology, which  touch  on  virtually  every  aspect  of  American  life  and 
history,  have  led  the  Museum  in  many  directions  as  it  prepares  to 
commemorate  the  Nation's  Bicentennial.  In  five  major  exhibits,  two 
of  which  were  recently  opened,  more  than  22,000  objects  will  be 
displayed  for  visitors  as  part  of  the  national  celebration.  Four  of 
the  exhibits  will  be  on  view  in  the  Museum,  and  one,  "1876:  A 
Centennial  Exhibition,"  will  occupy  the  four  bays  and  central 
rotunda  of  the  Arts  and  Industries  Building. 

"Suiting  Everyone,"  the  Museum's  first  Bicentennial  exhibition, 
was  launched  in  September  1974.  It  chronicles  the  democratization 
of  clothing  in  America  through  200  years  of  evolution  and  revolu- 
tion in  design,  production,  and  marketing.  Demands  for  a  traveling 
exhibit  on  the  theme  were  so  great  that  five  duplicate  copies  were 
made,  each  now  on  a  two-year  tour.  The  range  of  the  exhibition 
was  further  extended  by  an  illustrated  catalogue,  written  by 
Claudia  Kidwell  and  Margaret  Christman,  and  a  handbook  on 
costume  conservation  by  Karyn  Harris. 

The  project  was  a  multidisciplinary  effort,  based  upon  two  years 
of  research  by  Mrs.  Kidwell,  coordinator  of  the  exhibit,  assisted 
by  Donald  Kloster,  Assistant  Curator  of  Military  History,  and 
Grace  Cooper,  Curator  of  Textiles.  An  Apparel  Advisory  Group 
made  up  of  fashion  designers,  clothing  manufacturers  and  retailers, 
and  fashion  editors  assisted  curators  in  the  selection  of  the  con- 
temporary fashions  shown.  Some  of  the  clothing  on  display  was 

History  and  Art  I  195 

acquired  through  a  nationwide  appeal  for  period  clothing,  which 
drew  responses  from  4500  Americans  from  California  to  Maine. 

The  exhibition  is  in  four  sections.  The  first,  "Clothing  for  Some- 
body/' contrasts  the  elegant  fashions  of  wealthy  eighteenth- 
century  Americans  with  the  simple,  utilitarian  homespuns  worn  by 
the  majority  of  the  people.  The  second  and  third  sections,  "Cloth- 
ing for  Anybody"  (1800-1860)  and  "Clothing  for  Everybody" 
(1860-1920),  trace  the  development  of  the  "ready-made"  clothing 
industry  made  possible  by  the  Industrial  Revolution.  The  last 
section,  "Something  for  Everybody,"  presents  the  variety  of  cloth- 
ing, textiles,  and  styles  available  to  Americans  over  the  past 
fifty  years. 

In  addition  to  the  clothing  displayed,  the  early  tools  of  textile 
manufacture  and  of  the  "ready-made"  dress  trade  are  shown,  includ- 
ing Samuel  Slater's  original  spinning  frame  and  a  model  Eli 
Whitney  made  about  1800  showing  minor  adjustments  to  his 
original  cotton  gin.  Later  and  more  sophisticated  machines,  which 
speeded  up  production  of  textiles,  fabrics,  and  designs,  as  well  as 
factory  machines  for  sewing,  cutting,  and  pressing,  are  included. 
By  the  turn  of  the  century,  the  American  consumer  was  able  to 
rely  upon  the  "ready-to-wear"  market  for  clothing  for  his  entire 

In  early  April,  "Suiting  Everyone"  served  as  the  focus  for  a  two- 
day  symposium  on  early  American  clothing  manufacture,  spon- 
sored by  the  Costume  Society  of  America. 

With  introspection  befitting  the  Nation  on  its  two-hundredth 
birthday,  the  Museum's  second  Bicentennial  exhibition,  "We  The 
People,"  which  opened  on  June  4,  takes  a  reflective  look  at  the 
American  people  and  their  government.  Its  title  derived  from  the 
Constitution,  the  exhibit's  three  major  sections  explore  the  mean- 
ing of  Lincoln's  phrase,  "government  of  the  people,  by  the  people, 
for  the  people."  "Of  the  People"  asks  who  we  are  as  a  people; 
"By  the  People"  asks  how  we  have  governed  ourselves;  and  "For 
the  People"  asks  what  we  as  citizens  have  asked  of  our  government. 

Seeking  first  to  define  Americans  as  a  Nation,  the  exhibition 
opens  with  an  exuberant  display  of  symbols  by  which  the  United 
States  is  recognized  around  the  world.  "Of  the  People"  also  looks 
at  the  tools  of  census  by  which  Americans  have  defined  themselves 

196  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

statistically  since  1790.  With  the  growth  of  the  United  States  came 
stature  as  a  nation  among  nations.  Gifts  presented  to  American 
presidents  by  many  nations,  on  view  in  "Of  the  People,"  range 
from  a  pair  of  muskets  inlaid  with  coral  and  gold  presented  to 
President  Jefferson  by  the  Emperor  of  Morocco  to  the  famous 
"Resolute  Desk"  used  at  the  White  House  by  every  president  from 
Hayes  through  Kennedy. 

The  section  on  "By  the  People"  illuminates  the  struggles  of  the 
disenfranchised  for  the  right  to  vote.  The  pre-Civil  War  era  saw 
voting  by  American  immigrants,  and  the  Civil  War  brought  voting 
by  Union  soldiers  and  freed  slaves,  and  resulted  in  the  temporary 
disenfranchisement  of  Southern  whites.  Dramatizing  the  right  to 
petition  is  a  painted  view  of  the  East  Capitol  Steps,  in  front  of 
which  protestors  march  petitioning  the  Nation's  legislators  for 
social,  economic,  and  political  change.  Its  Ufe-size  scale  makes 
visitors  feel  a  part  of  historic  protest  movements.  The  first  major 

"We  the  People,"  a  Bicentennial  exhibit  at  the  National  Museum  of  History 
and  Technology.  View  of  the  East  Capitol  Steps,  in  front  of  which  protestors 
march  petitioning  the  Nation's  legislators  for  social,  economic,  and  political 













history  in  artifacts  of  the  right  to  petition,  the  exhibit  displays  such 
present-day  symbols  of  protest  as  a  canvas-and-plywood  hut  from 
Resurrection  City  and  a  Vietnam  War  Veterans  Against  the  War 
banner,  with  the  familiar  red  shawl  of  women's  rights  advocate 
Susan  B.  Anthony,  John  Quincy  Adam's  abolitionist  cane,  and, 
from  the  Revolutionary  era,  a  Stamp  Act  box  which  once  carried 
the  King's  seals. 

The  Preamble  to  the  Constitution,  which  broadly  defines  areas  of 
responsibility  the  American  people  wished  their  government  to 
assume,  provides  the  basis  for  the  final  section,  "For  the  People." 
Nineteenth-century  America  saw  steady  territorial  expansion 
beyond  the  original  states,  beginning  with  the  acquisition  of  the 
Louisiana  Territory.  The  panoramic  painting  "Grand  Canyon  of 
the  Yellowstone'/  by  landscape  artist  Thomas  Moran,  suggests  the 
vastness  of  the  wilderness  which  awaited  nineteenth-century 
settlers.  Various  objects  tell  the  story  of  government  exploration 
of  new  lands  and  government  programs  for  settlement,  culminat- 
ing with  twentieth-century  explorations,  exemplified  by  a  lunar 
sample  box  which  carried  rocks  collected  on  the  moon's  surface 
by  Apollo  11  astronauts. 

"We  The  People"  was  funded  with  a  special  appropriation  from 
the  Congress,  and  was  researched  and  produced  by  Margaret  Klap- 
thor,  Curator-in-Charge,  and  Herbert  Collins,  Curator,  assisted  by 
the  able  staff  of  the  Division  of  Political  History  and  the  nmht 
Office  of  Exhibits.  The  Hall  was  designed  by  the  Washington  firm 
of  Staples  &  Charles.  A  catalogue  accompanies  the  exhibit. 

Three  remaining  Bicentennial  exhibitions  have  been  progressing 
rapidly,  with  the  majority  of  the  Museum  staff  redirected  toward 
these  endeavors.  "American  Banking,"  the  Museum's  first  major 
exhibit  on  this  vital  aspect  of  American  life,  will  open  on  September 
17,  1975.  This  exhibition,  made  possible  by  a  grant  from  the 
American  Bankers  Association,  is  being  prepared  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Dr.  Vladimir  and  Mrs.  Elvira  Clain-Stefanelli,  Curators  of 
Numismatics,  and  designed  by  the  firm  of  Joseph  A.  Wetzel  of 
Stamford,  Connecticut.  The  exhibit  will  be  installed  in  the 
Museum's  third-floor  special  exhibits  gallery. 

Almost  5000  objects — from  buttons  to  buildings — have  been 
assembled  for  inclusion  in  "A  Nation  of  Nations,"  opening  early 
in  1976.  One  of  the  largest  exhibits  ever  produced  by  the  Smith- 
sonian, "A  Nation  of  Nations"  will  tell  of  the  early  settlers  and 

198  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

later  immigrants  who  populated  the  United  States,  making  it  a 
nation  of  many  nations  whose  peoples  created  a  diverse  cultural 
heritage.  Two  period  buildings  have  been  installed  and  work  has 
been  started  on  two  others.  With  the  exhibit  area  already  through 
structural  alterations,  work  on  individual  exhibit  cases  is  now 
underway.  The  design  has  been  completed  for  approximately  two- 
thirds  of  the  exhibit.  "A  Nation  of  Nations"  will  impart  a  full 
array  of  museum  experiences — original  three-dimensional  objects, 
graphics,  posters,  moving  exhibits,  music  and  sound  effects,  and 
audiovisual  presentations.  A  team  of  twenty-two  museum  staff 
members  are  actively  engaged  in  the  development  of  the  project 
under  the  direction  of  a  committee  chaired  by  Carl  H.  Scheele, 
Division  of  Philately  and  Postal  History,  and  including  Richard 
E.  Ahlborn,  Division  of  Ethnic  and  Western  Cultural  History; 
Grace  R.  Cooper,  Division  of  Textiles;  Harold  D.  Langley,  Division 
of  Naval  History;  Otto  Mayr,  Division  of  Mechanical  and  Civil 
Engineering;  C.  Malcolm  Watkins,  Department  of  Cultural  History; 
and  John  H.  White,  Jr.,  Division  of  Transportation.  The  exhibit 
is  being  designed  by  the  New  York  firm  of  Chermayeff  and 

In  1975  virtually  all  collecting  and  design  was  completed  for 
"1876:  A  Centennial  Exhibition" — nmht's  microcosmic  recreation 
of  the  Philadelphia  Centennial  slated  for  the  restored  Arts  and 
Industries  Building.  Well  over  half  the  curatorial  staff  has  been 
involved  in  "1876,"  with  overall  planning  delegated  to  a  com- 
mittee comprised  of  Robert  M.  Vogel,  Curator-in-Charge;  Benjamin 
Lawless,  the  Museum's  Assistant  Director  for  Design  and  Produc- 
tion; William  Miner,  Project  Manager;  Nadya  Makovenyi,  De- 
signer; and  Robert  Post,  Historian.  In  February,  Jon  D.  Freshour, 
formerly  Registrar  at  the  National  Portrait  Gallery,  joined  "1876" 
as  Collections  Manager. 

Having  completed  restoration  of  an  impressive  array  of  century- 
old  machine  tools,  the  nmht  Technical  Laboratory  turned  to  a 
diversity  of  other  large  objects  for  "1876."  Among  the  major 
projects  were  several  field  pieces  from  nafmab,  and  two  Rodman 
Guns — one  with  a  15-inch  barrel  weighing  nearly  25  tons — that 
once  defended  Chesapeake  Bay;  a  Nasmyth  forging  hammer  22 
feet  high;  a  sorghum  mill,  grist  mill,  and  wooden  windmill;  and  a 
Brayton  Ready  Motor,  an  oil-burning,  flame-ignition  engine 
patented  in  1874. 

History  and  Art  I  199 

One  of  several  projects  ably  handled  by  a  group  of  volunteers 
headed  by  Lieutenant  Comniander  Stanley  Stumbo,  U.S.N.,  was 
the  restoration  of  an  Otis  steam  elevator  engine.  A  period  freight 
platform  is  being  rigged  to  operate  in  the  West  Hall  of  the  Arts  and 
Industries  Building,  thanks  to  a  generous  donation  by  the  Otis 
Company  in  New  York. 

Important  restoration  projects  include  a  steam  locomotive  built 
in  1876  by  the  Baldwin  Locomotive  Works  for  the  Santa  Cruz 
Railroad  in  California.  Its  acquisition  ends  a  fifteen-year  search 
by  Curator  of  Transportation  lohn  H.  White  for  an  authentic 
American-type  locomotive  (4-4-0  wheel  arrangement).  Formerly 
owned  by  O.  Roy  Chalk,  who  had  it  on  exhibit  in  a  Washington 
playground,  it  was  exchanged  with  a  newer  steam  locomotive  in 
May  1975.  Refurbishing,  under  the  direction  of  lohn  Stine,  in- 
cludes fabrication  of  a  new  wooden  pilot  and  cab. 

A  less  awkward  but  equally  difficult  project  was  the  restoration  of 
hundreds  of  dental  tools,  surgical  instruments,  prosthetic  devices, 
and  pharmaceutical  specimens  undertaken  by  Michael  Harris  and 
Everett  lackson  of  the  Division  of  Medical  Sciences.  In  many 
instances,  displays  of  these  objects  will  be  faithful  replicas  of 
Philadelphia  exhibits  a  century  ago. 

A  variety  of  objects  representing  foreign  nations  has  been 
located  by  Anne  Golovin.  Herbert  Collins  and  Peggy  Bruton 
showed  great  resourcefulness  in  putting  together  exhibits  repre- 
sentative of  the  states  of  the  union,  as  did  Deborah  Warner  in 
developing  a  miniature  version  of  the  Women's  Pavilion.  All  in  all, 
"1876"  may  well  be  the  most  diversified,  evocative,  and  colorful 
exhibition  the  Smithsonian  has  ever  done,  and  its  opening  next 
May  is  expected  to  be  one  of  the  outstanding  events  of  our 
Bicentennial  year. 

Between  major  hall  openings  the  Museum  has  produced  a  num- 
ber of  important  temporary  exhibits.  Notable  among  these  was  the 
first  showing  anywhere  of  a  selection  of  original  folios  from  the 
long-lost  Madrid  Manuscripts  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  on  loan  from 
the  Spanish  government.  Arrangements  for  the  loan  and  exhibition 
of  these  important  manuscripts  were  initiated  and  carried  forward 
by  the  Deputy  Director  of  the  Museum,  Silvio  A.  Bedini.  The  manu- 
scripts formed  a  portion  of  two  volumes  once  part  of  the  private 
collection  of  King  Philip  V  of  Spain.  Codex  Madrid  I  includes 
Leonardo's  sketches  of  devices  that  were  not  to  find  application  for 

200  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

The  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  has  acquired  a  ninety-nine- 
year-old  "American  type"  steam  locomotive  whose  kind  dominated  the 
Nation's  railways  in  the  nineteenth  century.  Built  in  Philadelphia  in  1876  as  a 
wood  burner,  the  engine  is  one  of  about  25  in  existence  today  of  the  approxi- 
mately 25,000  manufactured.  The  engine  will  be  exhibited  in  "1876:  A  Centen- 
nial Exhibition." 

many  years,  or  that  were  to  be  reinvented  centuries  later.  In  this 
notebook,  Leonardo  also  developed  a  systematic  analysis  of  the 
concepts  and  elements  of  machines.  Codex  Madrid  II  is  more  of  a 
daily  notebook,  with  sketches  and  remarks  covering  a  multitude 
of  topics. 

The  manuscripts  on  display  were  written  in  Leonardo's  curious 
"mirror"  or  reverse  script.  A  number  of  objects  from  the  Museum's 
collections  were  shown,  together  with  several  models,  based  on 
Leonardo's  drawings,  produced  by  International  Business  Machines. 
The  exhibit  was  opened  with  a  lecture  by  Professor  Ludwig  M. 
Heydenreich  of  Munich  on  "Visualized  Knowledge,"  an  interpreta- 
tion of  the  Madrid  codices.  Following  display  at  the  Museum,  the 
exhibition  was  loaned  to  the  American  Museum  of  Natural  History 
in  New  York  City  for  a  brief  showing  at  the  American  Association 
for  the  Advancement  of  Science  meetings. 

In  "America  Set  to  Music,"  a  selection  of  songsheets  from  the 
collection  of  Mr.  Lester  S.  Levy  of  Pikesville,  Maryland,  were  dis- 
played with  objects  in  the  Museum's  collections  suggested  by  the 
musical  scores.  The  sheet  music  evoked  vivid  pictures  of  nine- 
teenth-century American  life,  ranging  in  theme  from  national  issues 
and  politics  to  romance,  fashion,  parlor  games,  and  popular  sports 
for  men  and  women.  Some  of  the  sheet  music  related  to  American 

Histori/  and  Art  I  201 

technological  achievements,  from  the  first  drilling  for  oil  to  the 
invention  of  Bell's  "Wondrous  Telephone"  and  "Edison's  phono- 
graph." Notable  cover  illustrations  were  a  striking  lithography  of 
two  girls,  orphaned  by  the  Boston  fire  of  1872,  pictured  on  the 
cover  of  "Homeless  To-night,  or  Boston  in  Ashes;"  humorous 
portrayals  of  the  latest  fashions;  and  a  political  cartoon  for  the 
song  "Inflation  Galop"  which  depicted  a  despondent  President 
Grant  in  1874  watching  political  opponents  fill  a  huge  balloon. 

From  January  to  May,  the  nmht  was  host  to  "Steuben,  Seventy 
Years  of  American  Glassmaking,"  a  traveling  exhibition,  organized 
by  the  Toledo  Museum  of  Art,  featuring  more  than  100  of  Steuben's 
greatest  accomplishments  since  1903.  Highlighted  in  the  exhibit 
were  major  pieces  which  had  served  as  gifts  of  state,  such  as  the 
"Great  Ring  of  Canada,"  America's  gift  to  the  people  of  Canada 
on  that  nation's  centennial  in  1967,  and  the  "Merry-Go-Round 
Bowl"  which  President  and  Mrs.  Truman  presented  to  Queen 
Elizabeth  II  at  her  marriage  in  1947. 

Finally,  construction  was  begun  on  the  Hall  of  American  Mari- 
time Enterprises  in  which  will  be  told  the  story  of  America's  inter- 
action with  the  sea  from  the  colonial  period  to  the  Nation's 
emergence  as  a  major  sea  power.  The  first  exhibit  for  the  new 
Hall,  the  3-ton  triple  expansion  steam  engine  of  the  United  States 
Coast  Guard  tender  Oak,  was  restored,  rebuilt,  and  placed  in  the 
Hall,  where  it  will  provide  the  Museum  visitor  with  an  engineer's 
view  of  a  ship's  operating  powerplant. 

The  Museum's  popular  Van  Alstyne  Collection  of  American  Folk 
Art,  which  was  removed  from  the  second  floor  to  make  room  for 
the  "A  Nation  of  Nations"  exhibit,  has  been  installed  in  new  space 
on  the  first-floor  rotunda  and  opened  in  time  for  the  Festival  of 
American  Folklife. 

A  modest  but  unusual  exhibit  installed  with  virtually  no  cost, 
which  drew  impressive  press  and  public  comment,  was  the 
"Whatsit"  case,  a  continuing  display  of  a  variety  of  objects,  the 
identity  of  which  had  not  been  positively  established  by  the 
Museum  staff.  These  items  had  been  assembled  from  the  Museum's 
collections  over  a  period  of  years,  and  comments  solicited  from  the 
public  led  to  positive  identification  of  several  of  the  objects. 

The  popular  Frank  Nelson  Doubleday  Lectures,  Frontiers  of 
Knowledge,  continued  to  draw  on  the  world's  leading  thinkers  and 

202  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

At  the  exhibition  "Steuben,  Seventy  Years  of  American  Glassmaking,"  Paul  N. 
Perrot  (right).  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology's  Assistant  Secre- 
tary for  Museum  Programs,  and  Paul  V.  Gardner  (left).  Curator,  Division  of 
Ceramics  and  Class,  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  admire 
The  Great  Ring  of  Canada  (height:  40  inches),  a  unique  creation  of  Steuben 
artists.  Inscribed  'Tor  the  People  of  Canada  on  the  Centenary  of  Canada's 
Nationhood  from  the  People  of  the  United  States  of  America,"  it  was  presented 
in  1967  to  Prime  Minister  Lester  Pearson  by  President  Lyndon  B.  Johnson. 

shapers  of  events  to  speak  on  themes  reflecting  the  broad  concerns 
of  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  This  year's 
series,  "The  Modern  Explorers,"  looked  at  explorations  made 
possible  by  twentieth-century  advances  in  technology,  from  expedi- 
tions to  the  last  untouched  regions  of  earth  to  probes  of  the 
galaxies  and,  in  some  senses,  the  past.  Speakers  were  New  Zealand 
explorer  Sir  Edmund  Hillary,  British  astronomer  and  mathematician 
Sir  Fred  Hoyle,  a  leading  theoretician  on  the  origin  and  nature  of 
the  universe,  and  Nobel  Prize-winning  American  chemist  Willard 
Frank  Libby,  discoverer  of  the  radiocarbon  dating  technique.  Bio- 
chemist and  science  fiction  writer  Isaac  Asimov  ended  the  series 
with  a  look  at  explorations  yet  to  come,  his  topic  being  "The 
Moon  as  Threshold." 

A  special  lecture  sponsored  by   the  Division  of  Electricity   on 

History  and  Art  I  203 

"Superconductive  Energy  Storage  For  Large  Electric  Power  Sys- 
tems" featured  Professor  H.  A.  Peterson  who  holds  the  Electric 
Utilities  Chair  in  Power  Engineering  at  the  University  of  Wisconsin, 
Professor  W.  C.  Young,  and  Professor  R.  W.  Boom,  all  of  the 
University  of  Wisconsin. 

The  continuing  philatelic  lectures  presented  in  cooperation  with 
the  United  States  Postal  Service  featured  four  stamp  issues; 
Greever  Allan  on  "The  Universal  Postal  Union  1874-1974";  Dr. 
Keith  E.  Melder  on  "The  Chautauqua  Centennial";  and  Mr. 
Sinclair  H.  Hitchings  on  "Currier  and  Ives,  and  Their  Art."  Subse- 
quent lectures  looked  at  the  stamp  series  "Contributors  to  the 
Cause,"  with  speakers  Dr.  Lillian  B.  Miller  and  Mr.  Rodney  H.  C. 
Schmidt,  and  finally  the  quartet  of  stamps  issued  by  the  Postal 
Service  depicting  "Military  Uniforms  of  the  American  Revolution." 
Edward  T.  Vebell,  designer  of  the  stamps,  was  the  evening's 

The  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology's  one  o'clock 
Tuesday  Presentations  offered  a  wide  range  of  free  films  for  the 
visiting  public,  as  well  as  occasional  lectures.  Especially  popular 
films  included  the  prize-winning  "Rube  Goldberg  ...  Or  Doing  It 
the  Hard  Way,"  produced  by  the  Museum  in  conjunction  with  a 
past  exhibit,  and  Charles  Eames's  shorts,  "Tops"  and  "Toccata  for 
Toy  Trains."  Lectures  ranged  in  theme  from  "Women  Astronomers 
in  America"  and  "The  Evolution  of  the  Drug  Store"  to  "Restora- 
tions for  the  Smithsonian's  Centennial  Exhibition,"  about  the 
readying  of  heavy  machinery  from  America's  early  industrial  age 
for  viewing  in  the  Bicentennial  retrospective,  "1876:  A  Centennial 

The  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology's  Division  of 
Public  Information  and  Education  recently  completed  its  first  year 
of  independent  existence  following  decentralization  of  the  Smith- 
sonian's Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education.  Respon- 
sible for  educating  and  informing  the  public  about  the  Museum, 
the  Division  has  continued  regular  school  tours  and  greatly  ex- 
panded its  offerings  of  prescheduled  and  walk-in  programs  for 
other  museum  visitors. 

During  the  1974-1975  school  year  (October  through  May),  155 
volunteer  docents  specializing  in  varied  interest  areas  such  as 
Colonial  Experience,  Energy,  Transportation,  and  Needlework  con- 

204  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

ducted  school  tours  for  26,855  students,  212  Outreach  programs 
in  area  schools,  and  1557  tours  for  general  visitors.  In  addition, 
another  group  of  docents  conducted  380  Highlights  Tours  for 
weekend  visitors.  In  all,  more  than  60,000  people  had  the  oppor- 
tunity to  participate  in  the  Museum's  docent-conducted  educa- 
tional program. 

New  tours  in  "Suiting  Everyone"  have  been  added  and  other 
tours,  such  as  "Newsmaking,"  "Medical  Sciences,"  and  "Techno- 
logical Change,"  have  been  modified  to  appeal  to  the  walk-in 

A  new  feature  of  the  Educational  Program  has  been  the  Spirit  of 
1776  Discovery  Corner  located  in  the  Armed  Forces  Hall.  Within 
this  area  docents  offer  short  presentations  while  encouraging 
visitors  to  touch  and  handle  artifacts  relating  to  the  common 
soldier  in  the  American  Revolution.  This  exhibition  served  3395 
visitors  in  178  sessions  during  its  first  six  weeks  of  operation. 
Other  "discovery  corners"  are  planned  to  bring  the  visitor  into 
contact  with  the  Museum's  wide-ranging  collections. 

During  the  summer  of  1974,  the  Division  and  the  nmnh's  Office 
of  Education  participated  with  the  D.  C.  Public  Schools  in  a  Title  1 
enrichment  program  designed  to  bring  museum  experiences  into 
the  classroom.  Museum-trained  high  school  students  presented 
"touch-it"  talks  relating  to  colonial  America  and  natural  history 
to  elementary  school  students,  giving  children  the  opportunity  to 
handle  and  examine  related  objects. 

The  Division  also  worked  with  the  Office  of  Elementary  and 
Secondary  Education  to  provide  workshops  for  area  teachers.  From 
these  programs  have  come  greater  cooperation  and  understanding 
of  the  needs  of  the  local  schools. 

This  year  the  Museum  was  called  upon  to  repair  the  ceremonial 
mace  of  the  House  of  Representatives.  Under  the  supervision  of 
Mr.  Robert  M.  Organ  of  the  Conservation-Analytical  Laboratory, 
the  historic  mace  was  examined  and  repaired  by  Mr.  Robert  Klinger 
and  Mr.  Donald  Hoist  of  the  Office  of  Exhibits  Model  Shop.  The 
mace,  not  originally  designed  to  stand  upright,  when  first  presented 
to  the  House  of  Representatives  133  years  ago,  was  altered  so 
that  it  could  stand  upon  a  marble  base  when  the  House  was  in 
session.  In  the  course  of  the  years  the  tenon  fitting  into  the 
marble  had  loosened.  Repair  included  replacing  the  original  wooden 

History  and  Art  I  205 

Robert  Klinger  with  ceremonial  mace  of  the  House  of  Representatives  which 
was  repaired  in  NMHT's  Office  of  Exhibits  Model  Shop. 

core  with  a  bronze  rod.  None  of  the  structural  repairs  altered  the 
outer  appearance  of  the  mace,  which  was  further  cleaned  and  re- 
furbished, and  shortly  returned  to  the  House. 

Additions  to  the  collections  of  the  National  Museum  of  History 
and  Technology  were  numerous  and  varied,  ranging  from  thirty- 
seven  grain  testing  devices  for  the  Division  of  Agriculture,  an  1898 
single  truck  street  car  and  1892  cable  car  trailer  for  the  Division 
of  Transportation,  to  an  early  nineteenth-century  orchestral  horn 
by  Courtois  of  Paris  and  a  gourd  fiddle  from  St.  Mary's  County, 
Maryland,  for  the  Division  of  Musical  Instruments.  The  Division 
also  arranged  for  a  long-term  loan  of  a  harpsichord  by  Joseph 
Johannes  Couchet,  dated  1679. 

In  the  Division  of  Political  History,  the  generous  gift  of  ap- 
proximately 15,000  more  objects  relating  to  political  campaigning 
from  Mr.  Ralph  E.  Becker  brings  together  the  entire  Becker  collec- 
tion. Combined  with  more  than  4000  objects  from  the  Honorable 
Michael  V.  Disalle  and  665  objects  from  the  estate  of  the  late 

206  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Presentation  of  Rush  Tray  to  the  Smithsonian,  February  1975,  in  the  Secretary's 
Parlor,  Smithsonian  Institution  Building.  Left  to  right,  Colonel  Benjamin  Rush 
III,  Curator  Anne  Golovin,  Curator  James  M.  Goode,  and  Mrs.  Benjmain 
Rush  II. 

William  F.  and  Edith  R.  Meggers,  the  Museum's  collection  of 
political  campaigning  memorabilia  becomes  not  only  the  largest 
but  the  most  important  in  the  country.  A  large  number  of  these 
new  acquisitions  are  featured  in  the  exhibit,  "We  the  People." 

Among  the  most  important  single  items  acquired  was  a  Chinese 
export  porcelain  bowl  decorated  with  the  insignia  of  the  Order  of 
the  Cincinnati  from  the  set  purchased  by  General  George  Wash- 
ington in  1786.  Continuously  owned  by  Washington's  descendants 
to  the  present,  the  bowl  has  been  on  loan  to  the  Museum  since 

The  Division  also  acquired  an  engraved  silver  platter  inscribed 
to  Dr.  Benjamin  Rush  in  1798  for  his  services  to  Philadelphia's  City 
Hospital  during  that  year's  yellow  fever  calamity.  America's  lead- 
ing physician  until  his  death  in  1813,  Dr.  Rush,  signer  of  the 
Declaration  of  Independence,  was  Surgeon  General  during  the 
American  Revolution.  His  son,  Richard,  who  inherited  the  platter, 
was  Minister  to  France  and  England,  and  was  instrumental  in  ob- 

History  and  Art  I  207 

Chinese  export  porcelain  bowl,  decorated  with  the  insignia  of  the  Order  of 
the  Cincinnati, from  the  set  purchased  by  General  George  Washington  in  1786, 
acquired  by  the  Division  of  Political  History,  National  Museum  of  History  and 

taining  the  bequest  which  estabUshed  the  Smithsonian  Institution. 
The  tray  is  the  work  of  Philadelphia  silversmith  John  Myers,  and 
was  donated  to  the  Museum  by  Mrs.  Benjamin  Rush  and  the  late 
Mr.  Rush,  a  sixth  generation  descendant  of  the  doctor. 

Among  the  331  pieces  of  ceramics  and  glass  acquired  by  the 
Division  of  Ceramics  and  Glass  were  two  extremely  rare  pieces 
of  early  Chelsea  porcelain,  1745-1752,  an  American  porcelain 
vase  made  for  the  Philadelphia  Centennial  Exposition  of  1876,  and 
rare  pressed  glass  made  in  Wheeling,  West  Virginia,  late  in  the 
nineteenth  century. 

Notable  acquisitions  for  the  Department  of  Cultural  History 
include  a  pair  of  painted  Hepplewhite-style  side  chairs  of  a  Phila- 
delphia type  predating  1800,  an  Empire-style  wardrobe  of  the 
1830s  with  the  label  of  Joseph  Meeks  and  Sons  of  New  York 
City,  and  two  fine  eighteenth-century  side  chairs  from  New  York. 

An  important  addition  to  the  Museum's  Warshaw  Collection  of 
Business  Americana  was  a  gift  of  the  New  York  advertising  firm, 
N.  W.  Ayer  ABH  International,  of  more  than  400,000  proofs  of 
advertisements  published  in  newspapers  and  periodicals  between 
1889  and  1960,  including  the  firm's   first  advertisements   of  the 

208  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

A  rare  American  porcelain  vase,  ot  a  type  especially  produced  for  the  1876 
Centennial  by  the  Union  Porcelain  Works  of  Greenpoint,  Long  Island.  Height: 
21%  inches.  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

Model  A  Ford.  A  selection  of  early  telecommunications  and  com- 
puting devices  and  electronic  components  was  presented  to  the 
Division  of  Electricity  by  Akio  Morita,  founder  and  president  of 
Sony  Corporation,  among  them  the  first  transistor  radio  manufac- 
tured in  Japan  and  the  world's  first  transistorized  portable  video- 
tape recorder. 

The  Division  of  Medical  Sciences  obtained  a  large  collection  of 
obstetrical  forceps  representing  two  centuries  of  development,  and 
a  large  variety  of  American  dental  office  equipment  and  tools  as 
well  as  a  homeopathic  pharmacy  including  fixtures.  The  Division 
of  Electricity  and  Modern  Physics  acquired  a  nuclear  adiabatic 
demagnetization  apparatus  and  an  atomic  beam  apparatus,  soon  to 
be  exhibited,  while  the  Division  of  Mechanical  and  Civil  Engineer- 
ing's acquisitions  ranged  from  Helen  Keller's  gold  touch  watch 
to  a  collection  of  approximately  14,000  drawings  from  the  former 
Southwark  Machine  Works  of  Philadelphia,  representing  that  firm's 
activities  as  a  major  nineteenth-century  machine  builder  from 
circa  1880  to  1910. 

During  the  past  year,  the  Museum  has  branched  out  more 
actively  into  academic  realms  with  the  establishment  of  new 
centers  of  learning  and  fellowship  opportunities  designed  to  make 
it  a  living  museum.  With  the  decentralization  of  the  staff  of  the 
National  Armed  Forces  Museum  Advisory  Board,  two  of  its 
members  have  joined  the  staff  of  the  recently  established  Dwight 
D.  Eisenhower  Institute  for  Historical  Research,  which  has  spon- 
sored several  important  conferences  and  meetings. 

In  April  the  Institute  served  as  host  at  the  Smithsonian  for  a 
conference  with  representatives  of  various  Federal  agencies  and 
services  to  establish  the  historic  vessel.  Monitor,  as  a  marine 
sanctuary.  In  April  a  meeting  sponsored  by  the  Institute  and  held 
in  the  Museum  brought  together  representatives  of  the  Ford 
Foundation,  leading  television  corporations,  telecommunications  ex- 
perts, historians,  representatives  of  the  Library  of  Congress,  the 
National  Archives,  and  the  National  Education  Association.  The 
purpose  of  the  meeting,  which  was  chaired  by  Dr.  Eric  Barnow, 
was  to  suggest  guidelines  for  preserving  television  footage  which 
would  save  vital  materials  for  future  historical  purposes. 

The  Institute  will  sponsor  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Interna- 
tional Commission  of  Military  History,  to  be  held  at  the  Smith- 

210  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Helen  Keller's  gold  touch  watch  and  case. 
National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

sonian  in  August  1975.  Dr.  Pogue,  chairman  of  the  committee  on 
organization  that  wrote  the  constitution  of  the  United  States 
Commission,  has  served  as  a  member  of  the  executive  committee, 
and  was  one  of  the  trustees  to  sign  the  charter  for  the  United  States 
Commission  in  the  spring  of  1975. 

The  Institute  has  announced  plans  for  three  conferences  on 
United  States  occupation  poUcies  to  be  held  under  its  sponsorship 
at  the  MacArthur  Memorial  Library,  in  Norfolk,  Virginia;  the 
Marshall  Research  Foundation  of  Lexington,  Virginia;  and  at  the 
Smithsonian  Institution.  Dr.  Pogue  has  been  working  with  planning 
committees  of  the  cooperating  institutions. 

A  new  position  of  Visiting  Scholar  was  created  to  bring  to  the 
Museum  a  succession  of  eminent  historians  and  individuals  of  dis- 
tinction in  the  museum  world  to  pursue  their  own  research  and  to 

History  and  Art  I  211 

serve  the  Museum  in  an  advisory  capacity.  The  first  appointee  was 
Dr.  A.  Hunter  Dupree,  on  sabbatical  leave  from  Brown  University, 
where  he  has  been  the  George  L.  Littlefield  Professor  of  History 
since  1968.  Prior  to  his  appointment  to  the  Brown  University 
faculty.  Dr.  Dupree  was  a  Fellow  of  the  Center  for  Advanced  Study 
in  the  Behavioral  Sciences  at  Stanford,  California,  and  previously 
in  the  History  Department  of  the  University  of  California  at 
Berkeley.  Author  of  Science  in  the  Federal  Government  (1957)  and 
of  a  biography  of  Asn  Gray  (1959),  Dr.  Dupree  is  Secretary  of  the 
American  Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences.  During  his  six-month 
appointment  at  the  Museum,  Dr.  Dupree  continued  his  research 
on  the  history  of  premetric  measurement,  and  served  as  an  advisor 
on  the  Museum's  plans  for  a  new  Hall  of  American  Science. 

In  1974  Dr.  Robert  P.  Multhauf,  former  Director  of  the  Museum 
and  presently  Senior  Scientific  Scholar,  was  elected  by  the  National 
Academy  of  Sciences  to  chair  the  American  delegation  to  the  XlVth 
International  Congress  of  the  History  of  Science  held  in  Tokyo 
and  Kyoto,  Japan,  in  August. 

Seven  Smithsonian  fellows  were  appointed  in  the  National 
Museum  of  History  and  Technology  during  fiscal  year  1975,  and 
developed  research  on  various  projects  related  to  the  Museum's 
interests.  Among  the  predoctoral  candidates,  James  A.  Borchert 
of  the  University  of  Maryland  conducted  research  on  American 
mini-ghettoes,  alleys,  alley  dwellings  and  alley  dwellers  in  Wash- 
ington during  the  period  from  1850  to  1970.  Mark  Lindley  of 
Columbia  University  has  been  at  work  on  organological  aspects  of 
keyboard  temperament,  and  Philip  T.  Rosen  of  Wayne  State  Uni- 
versity conducted  a  study  on  the  search  for  order:  radio  broadcast- 
ing in  the  1920s.  The  postdoctoral  fellows  included  Stanley  Gold- 
berg of  Harvard  University  who  is  conducting  research  on  the 
social  character  of  science  in  Germany  and  America  in  the  late 
nineteenth  and  early  twentieth  centuries;  Kenneth  J.  Hagan  of 
Claremont  College  who  worked  on  American  naval  diplomacy 
1845-1861;  and  Bernard  Mergen  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania 
whose  work  is  on  shipbuilding  and  shipbuilding  labor  1917  to 
1933.  William  J.  Simon  of  the  City  University  of  New  York  devel- 
oped a  study  of  the  Ferreira  Expedition  in  Brazil  and  its  contribu- 
tions on  the  natural  history  of  Brazil  in  the  late  eighteenth  century. 

A  Committee  on  Academic  Activities,  under  the  chairmanship 

212  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

of  Walter  F.  Cannon,  has  been  established  and  is  charged  with 
responsibility  for  developing  the  Museum's  Fellowship  program 
and  plans  for  a  variety  of  professional  relationships,  including 
teaching  activities  by  staff  members  in  colleges  and  universities, 
scheduling  of  seminars  in  the  Museum,  and  staff  exchange  pro- 
grams with  other  museums. 

One  of  the  most  important  academically  related  events  was  the 
gift  to  the  Museum  of  the  Dibner  Library  of  the  History  of  Science 
and  Technology.  This  collection  contains  from  20,000  to  25,000 
published  works,  including  a  great  number  of  rare  books,  more 
than  300  incunabula,  and  a  large  number  of  historic  manuscripts 
and  letters  of  important  scientists.  Included  also  in  the  gift  are 
approximately  800  portraits  in  the  form  of  prints  and  engravings, 
as  well  as  collections  of  science  medals  and  scientific  instruments 
and  apparatus. 

The  Dibner  Library  will  be  temporarily  housed  in  a  special 
faciUty  under  construction  on  the  Museum's  first  floor,  where  it 
will  be  used  by  visiting  scholars  and  students  and  the  Museum 
staff.  The  Museum  foresees  future  expansion  of  the  Dibner  Library 
as  other  collections  in  specialized  aspects  in  the  history  of  science 
and  technology  are  acquired.  The  Dibner  Library  represents  the 
major  holdings  of  the  Burndy  Library  in  Norwalk,  Connecticut, 
which  will  continue  to  function  as  a  resource  for  study  for  the 
Connecticut-New  York  region  with  a  full  collection  of  research 
materials,  consisting  primarily  of  duplicates  presently  in  the  collec- 
tion and  copies  of  the  more  important  materials  transferred  to  the 

The  core  of  the  collection  consists  of  the  200  books  which  were 
epochal  in  the  history  of  the  physical  and  biological  sciences,  and 
which  proclaimed  new  truths  or  hypotheses  which  redirected 
scientific  thought,  brought  understanding  of  natural  laws,  and  at 
times  introduced  industrial  change.  Notable  among  the  treasures 
are  a  manuscript  copy,  circa  1385,  of  the  Physics  of  Aristotle, 
several  manuscripts  of  Sir  Isaac  Newton's  including  a  quarto  on 
chemistry,  and  a  large  manuscript  leaf  of  Darwin's  Origin  of 
Species,  one  of  only  ten  that  have  survived.  The  copy  of  Coper- 
nicus's  Narratio  Prima  (1540)  sent  by  Rheticus  to  Schoener  is 
featured  in  the  collection,  as  well  as  a  copy  of  Pliny's  Historia 
Naturalis  (Venice  1469),  which  was  the  first  book  on  science  to 

History  and  Art  I  213 

be  printed.  Among  the  treasures  are  also  a  manuscript  of  Cecco 
d'Ascoli  dated  1461  presenting  his  views  on  the  natural  history 
of  the  world,  an  autograph  letter  from  Galileo  Galilei  to  Nicolas 
Claude  de  Peiresc  dated  1635  describing  the  invention  of  a  mag- 
netic water  clock,  and  forty  letters  written  by  Michael  Faraday. 
Included  also  is  the  Armin  Weiner  Collection  of  more  than  1000 
manuscripts  and  correspondence  of  many  of  the  world's  foremost 
scientists,  including  Regiomontanus,  Kepler,  Boyle,  Euler,  Priestley, 
Frauenhofer,  Mach,  and  Planck.  Featured  is  a  collection  of  more 
than  100  of  Louis  Pasteur's  own  copies  of  his  publications,  numer- 
ous autographed  scientific  notes  and  letters,  and  his  laboratory 

The  donor  of  the  Library,  Dr.  Bern  Dibner,  founded  the  Burndy 
Corporation  in  1924  and  the  Burndy  Library  in  1936.  He  has  long 
been  recognized  as  a  leading  collector  of  source  material  on  the 
history  of  science,  and,  as  Director  of  the  Burndy  Library  since  its 
founding,  has  patiently  assembled  the  more  than  40,000  works 
which  form  its  collections  and  which  make  it  one  of  the  largest 
single  collection  of  books  in  this  subject  field. 

214  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Facing  page: 

Rembrandt  Peale,  Martha  Washington 
and   Gtorge   Washington,   ca.    1853,   oil 
on  canvas.  Height:  36  inches;  width:  29 
inches.  Gift  of  an  anonymous  donor  to 
the  National  Portrait  Gallery. 


Elisha  Hammond,  Frederick  Douglass, 

oil  on  canvas.  Height:  26  inches; 

width:  I7V2  inches. 

National  Portrait  Gallery. 

National  Portrait  Gallery 

The  affairs  of  the  National  Portrait  Gallery  (npg)  revolve  around 
acquisitions  and  exhibitions.  Although  the  Gallery's  permanent 
collection  (which  now  includes  more  than  800  portraits)  has  grown 
significantly  since  acquisitions  were  first  actively  pursued  a  decade 
ago,  the  primary  objective  of  the  Gallery  continues  to  be  the 
building  of  a  collection  worthy  of  this  Nation's  history. 

During  the  past  year,  sixty  portraits  came  to  the  Gallery  by  gift 
and  purchase.  Clearly  the  most  important  of  the  gifts  were  "port- 
hole" portraits  of  George  and  Martha  Washington  (so-called  be- 
cause they  were  painted  within  trompe  I'oeil  architectural  ovals) 
by  Rembrandt  Peale,  presented  by  an  anonymous  donor.  Also 
worthy  of  special  mention  are  a  pastel  portrait  of  Gouverneur 
Morris  by  James  Sharpies,  given  by  Miss  Ethel  Turnbull;  an  oil 
sketch  of  Cyrus  McCormick  by  Charles  Loring  Elliott,  the  gift  of 
The  Chauncey  and  Marion  Deering  McCormick  Foundation  and 
Mrs.  Anne  B.  Harrison;  and  a  bust  of  William  Lloyd  Garrison  by 
Anne  Whitney,  presented  by  Lloyd  Kirkham  Garrison. 

History  and  Art  I  215 

The  most  noteworthy  acquisitions  by  purchase  were  portraits  of 
two  great  Chief  Justices  of  the  United  States;  a  three-quarter- 
length  oil  of  John  Jay,  begun  by  Gilbert  Stuart  and  finished  by 
John  Trumbull;  and  a  small,  cabinet-size  canvas  of  John  Marshall 
by  William  J.  Hubard.  The  Gallery  also  acquired  by  purchase  one 
of  only  two  known  life  portraits  of  Frederick  Douglass.  The  por- 
trait was  painted  in  1844  by  Elisha  Hammond,  a  member  of  a 
Utopian  community  in  Florence,  Massachusetts,  visited  by  Douglass. 
Extraordinarily  evocative  life  masks  of  Helen  Keller  and  her 
teacher  Ann  Sullivan  Macy,  made  in  1916  by  the  sculptor  Onorio 
Ruotolo,  also  were  acquired  by  purchase. 

The  Gallery's  exhibition  program  focused  primarily  on  the  Bi- 
centennial with  two  extensive  displays,  "In  the  Minds  and  Hearts 
of  the  People,  1760-1774"  and  "The  Dye  is  Now  Cast,  1774- 
1776,"  each  containing  some  250  portraits  and  objects  of  other 
kinds.  Full-scale  catalogues  (of  240  and  344  pages,  respectively) 
accompanied  each  of  these  exhibitions,  and  materials  specially  in- 
tended for  secondary  school  students  were  prepared  by  the 
Gallery's  Education  Department.  The  Gallery  also  mounted  a 
special  exhibition  for  the  Archives  of  American  Art  entitled  "From 
Reliable  Sources,"  consisting  of  letters,  documents,  and  photo- 
graphs from  the  Archives'  collections.  The  761  St.-Memin  portrait 
engravings  given  the  Gallery  last  year  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Paul 
Mellon  were  installed  in  a  gallery  permanently  set  aside  for  the 
collection.  A  number  of  small  exhibitions  were  also  mounted,  in- 
cluding one  on  John  Brown  and  two  devoted  to  the  centennials  of 
the  births  of  Herbert  Hoover  and  Winston  Churchill. 

A  replica  by  Gardner  Cox  of  his  portrait  of  Dean  Acheson  in  the 
State  Department  was  presented  to  the  Gallery  by  Secretary  Ache- 
son's  former  law  partners.  Secretary  of  State  Kissinger  and 
Averell  Harriman  were  among  the  speakers  on  that  occasion. 

The  long-anticipated  work  on  the  Papers  of  Charles  Willson 
Peale  and  his  Family  was  begun  this  year  under  the  editorship  of 
Dr.  Lillian  B.  Miller  and  with  an  initial  two-year  grant  from  The 
National  Endowment  for  the  Humanities. 

Finally,  through  the  generosity  of  an  anonymous  donor,  the 
Gallery  acquired  a  British  double-decker  bus,  which  transports 
visitors  to  the  National  Portrait  Gallery  from  the  front  door  of  the 
National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  on  the  Mall,  hourly, 
seven  days  a  week. 

216  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Stuart  Trumbull,  John  Jay,  oil  on  canvas.  Height:  50 V2  inches;  width: 
41 V2  inches.  National  Portrait  Gallery.  Below:  Secretary  of  State  Henry 
Kissinger  addressing  the  guests  on  the  occasion  of  the  presentation  of 
Gardner  Cox's  portrait  of  Dean  Acheson  to  the  National  Portrait  Gal- 
lery, September  17,  1974.  The  portrait  is  the  gift  of  Covington  &  Burling 
to  the  Gallery. 

Office  of  Academic  Studies 

The  Office  of  Academic  Studies,  with  policy  direction  of  the  Insti- 
tution's Board  of  Academic  Studies,  develops  and  administers 
Smithsonian  programs  in  higher  education.  These  programs  are 
designed  to  provide  a  regular  flow  of  ideas  and  information  be- 
tween the  research  faculty  of  the  Institution  and  the  international 
academic  community.  Students  at  all  postsecondary  levels  are 
offered  the  opportunity  to  receive  individual  training  and  guidance 
in  the  Smithsonian's  research  centers. 

Predoctoral  and  postdoctoral  fellows  are  appointed  to  pursue 
advanced  research  training  in  those  scientific  and  scholarly 
disciplines  studied  by  the  faculty  of  the  Smithsonian.  They  bring 
with  them  a  provocative  and  stimulating  enthusiasm,  providing  a 
constant  leaven  in  the  intellectual  life  of  the  Institution.  Pre- 
doctoral fellows  usually  spend  one  year  consulting  the  faculty 
and  collections  while  completing  dissertations  for  the  doctorate. 
Postdoctoral  fellows  study  closely  with  their  advisors  to  expand 
and  strengthen  their  university  training.  During  the  year  1974- 
1975,  twenty-two  predoctoral  and  twenty-three  postdoctoral 
fellowships  were  awarded  to  advance  the  Institution's  research 
and  the  intellectual  development  of  the  fellows. 

Graduate  and  undergraduate  fellowships  are  awarded  each  year 
to  students  who  require  an  opportunity  to  spend  two  to  three 
months  of  directed  research  at  the  Institution.  These  shorter  term 
fellowships  are  awarded  primarily  to  graduate  students  who  have 
not  yet  begun  work  on  a  dissertation.  A  period  of  consultation  and 
exposure  to  research  methods  allows  students  to  comprehend  the 
broader  discipline  within  which  they  are  studying  and  to  focus 
their  interests  toward  individual  research  projects.  In  1974-1975, 
seventeen  students  were  awarded  fellowships  under  this  program. 
Three  of  these  students  were  supported  under  a  grant  from  the 
National  Science  Foundation. 

An  increasing  number  of  colleges  and  universities  recognize  the 
value  of  off-campus  study  at  the  undergraduate  level.  This  recogni- 
tion is  most  often  given  in  the  form  of  academic  credit  awarded  at 
the  completion  of  a  successful  work  project.  Students  conducting 
such  projects  are  able  to  learn  fundamental  principles  of  scholarly 
and  scientific  disciplines  while  working  under  the  direction  of  a 
Smithsonian   staff   member.   The   mutual   benefit  of   such   an   ex- 

218  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

periential  education  program  attracts  a  growing  number  of  students 
each  year.  In  1974-1975,  twenty  students  from  across  the  country 
studied  under  this  Museum  Study  Program  at  the  Smithsonian. 

To  complement  these  programs  the  Office  of  Academic  Studies 
attempts  to  assist  other  individuals  who  desire  a  shorter  period 
of  study  at  the  Institution.  A  Short-Term  Visitor  Program  offers 
modest  financial  support  to  visitors  at  all  academic  levels  who  wish 
to  consult  staff  members  for  a  few  days  or  weeks  in  the  pursuit  of 
their  research  problems.  By  offering  this  modest  support  to  supple- 
ment the  visitor's  own  resources,  this  program  provides  many 
opportunities  for  individuals  to  conduct  necessary  research  at  the 
Institution.  In  1974-1975,  twenty-seven  visitors  were  offered  sup- 
port under  this  program.  Additionally,  a  Seminar  Program  offers 
Smithsonian  research  faculty  the  opportunity  to  organize  seminars 
at  the  Institution.  These  seminars  are  designed  to  bring  together 
distinguished  scientists  and  scholars  and  students  from  around  the 
world  to  discuss  ideas  and  concepts  of  common  interest.  During 
fiscal  year  1975  two  such  seminars  were  supported.  Dr.  Olga 
Linares  conducted  a  seminar  on  Barro  Colorado  Island  on  the  social 
transition  from  hunting-gathering  to  agriculture  in  the  tropics  as 
inferred  from  present-day  replication  experiments.  The  ten  partici- 
pants included  two  scientists  from  Venezuela  and  one  from 
Colombia.  Dr.  Richard  Baumann,  entomologist  at  the  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History,  organized  and  chaired  The  Fifth 
International  Symposium  on  Plecoptera.  The  thirty  participants  in- 
cluded visitors  from  Germany,  Canada,  Norway,  New  Zealand, 
Yugoslavia,  India,  and  Japan. 

In  addition  to  Institution-wide  programs  in  higher  education 
described  above,  the  Office  of  Academic  Studies  frequently  assists 
in  planning  and  administering  programs  developed  by  the  research 
bureaus  of  the  Institution  to  meet  their  special  needs,  and  offers 
advice  on  a  wide  range  of  higher  education  matters. 

A  decade  has  passed  since  the  inception  of  these  formal  educa- 
tion programs.  During  this  exciting  formative  period  some  950 
students  have  been  appointed  to  study  in  the  Institution's  research 
centers.  Many  more  have  been  supported  for  short-term  research 
and  seminar  participation.  The  impact  of  these  students  upon  the 
intellectual  life  here  is  evidenced  by  the  continuing  professional 
relationships  which  have  developed.  Undergraduate  and  graduate 
students  have  frequently  returned  to  the  Institution  both  formally 

History  and  Art  I  219 

and  informally.  Many  predoctoral  and  postdoctoral  fellows  have 
established  a  close  collaborative  relationship  with  their  Smithsonian 
colleagues,  often  co-authoring  papers  with  them  and  spending 
extended  periods  of  research  at  the  Smithsonian.  These  on-going 
collaborative  efforts  have  assisted  in  the  continuing  expansion  of 
the  Institution's  international  network  of  scientific  and  scholarly 

Office  of  American  Studies 

The  American  Studies  Program  continued  its  association  with  The 
George  Washington  University,  the  University  of  Maryland,  and 
other  institutions  in  the  Washington  area.  Twenty-five  graduate 
students  participated  in  the  fall  seminar  in  "Material  Aspects  of 
American  Civilization,"  taught  by  the  Director  with  the  assistance 
of  Arthur  Townsend,  Executive  Secretary  of  the  Maryland  Histor- 
ical Trust,  and  Smithsonian  staff  members. 

In  the  spring  semester,  twelve  graduate  students  enrolled  in  the 
seminar  in  "Vernacular  Architecture  of  Colonial  America"  taught 
by  Smithsonian  Research  Associate  Cary  Carson,  Coordinator  of 
Research  and  Architectural  Historian  of  the  St.  Mary's  City  Com- 
mission; nine  students  enrolled  in  the  seminar  in  "Early  American 
Decorative  Arts"  taught  by  Research  Associate  Patrick  Butler; 
seven  students  enrolled  in  "Studies  in  American  Art  and  History" 
taught  by  Lillian  B.  Miller,  Smithsonian  Historian  and  Editor  of  the 
Charles  Willson  Peale  Papers;  and  five  students  enrolled  in  "The 
Art  and  Architecture  of  Washington,  D.  C,  1791-1929"  taught  by 
Michael  Richman  of  the  National  Trust  for  Historic  Preservation. 

As  in  past  years,  a  Work-Study  Program  in  Historical  Archeol- 
ogy, offered  by  the  St.  Mary's  City  Commission  in  cooperation 
with  the  American  Studies  Program  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution, 
The  George  Washington  University,  and  St.  Mary's  College  of 
Maryland,  was  held  from  June  16  to  August  22,  1975.  In  addition 
to  these  formal  seminars,  supervision  of  individual  reading  and 
research  projects,  thesis  direction,  and  preparation  of  comprehen- 
sive examinations  were  undertaken  by  the  Director  and  cooperating 
Smithsonian  staff  members. 

220  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Students  in  Dr.  Cary  Carson's  American  Studies  Program  class,  "Material 
Aspects  of  American  Civilization:  Vernacular  Architecture,"  taking  measured 
drawings  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution's  Belmont  House  during  weekend 
field  trip,  March  21-23,  1975. 

The  Director  spent  the  month  of  February  as  Regents'  Lecturer 
at  the  University  of  California,  Riverside.  While  in  California,  he 
presented  a  paper  on  "The  Clash  of  Morality  in  the  American 
Forest"  at  a  conference  on  "The  First  Images  of  America:  The 
Impact  of  the  New  World"  at  the  21st  Annual  Meeting  of  the 
Renaissance  Society  of  America  which  was  held  at  the  University 
of  California,  Los  Angeles. 

History  and  Art  I  221 

The  bronze  portrait  statue  of  Secretary  Joseph  Henry  as  it  appeared  about  1885,  shortly 
after  it  was  erected  in  front  of  the  west  wing  of  the  Smithsonian  "Castle"  in  the  Insti- 
tution's park.  The  Conservation-Analytical  Laboratory  is  concerned  with  the  problems 
of  combatting  the  deterioration  of  such  statues. 

Smithsonian  Year  •  1975 


It  HAS  BEEN  A  TEMPTING  CLICHE  in  the  last  few  years  to  refer  to  the 
changing  roles  of  museums  and  to  suggest,  by  inference,  that 
somehow  museums  in  the  past,  if  they  had  not  betrayed  their  con- 
temporary pubhc,  at  least  had  been  woefully  deficient  in  providing 
a  meaningful  service  to  society.  True,  since  World  War  II,  museums 
have  gone  through  a  period  of  tremendous  growth.  Their  numbers 
have  proliferated,  their  audiences  have  doubled,  redoubled,  and 
doubled  again,  and  they  have  been  called  upon  to  provide  new  and 
different  services  to  the  general  public.  They  have  become  increas- 
ingly aware  of  the  key  and  unique  role  they  can  and  indeed  do 
have  within  the  educational  fabric  of  society.  Through  increasingly 
flexible  programs  they  have  been  able  to  reach  segments  of  our 
population  for  whose  forefathers  museums  were  often  unapproach- 
able monuments.  Increasingly,  they  have  become  vehicles  in  which 
the  self-motivated  can  explore  new  horizons,  and  refresh  dim 
memories  of  early  school  days.  They  now  provide  building  blocks 
for  an  understanding  of  new  relationships  between  ideas,  things, 
phenomena,  and  facts.  In  the  most  meaningful  sense,  museums 
have  become  the  ideal  vehicles  for  continuing  education.  They 
create  a  milieu  in  which,  with  no  other  compulsion  than  curiosity 
and  delight,  new  meanings  can  be  found  for  the  commonplace 
and  where  a  constantly  shifting  society  can  somehow  graft  itself 
to  a  historic  continuum  which  bridges  the  centuries  and  spans 

Hence  we  can  commend  ourselves  for  the  progress  that  museums 
have  made  and  the  acceptance  they  are  receiving  from  society,  but 


as  we  do  so  it  is  easy  to  overlook  that  unless  museums  continue  to 
be  museums  in  the  most  traditional  sense  of  the  word  their  ability 
to  provide  these  other  services  will  atrophy. 

What  then  is  a  museum?  In  essence  it  is  an  institution  which 
collects  and  studies  the  tangible  remains  of  the  past,  presents  and 
interprets  them  for  the  information  and  delectation  of  the  present, 
and  conserves  and  transmits  them  for  the  future.  If  this  definition 
is  accepted,  it  follows  that  the  museum  is  above  all  an  institution 
concerned  with  the  past  whose  primary  relevance  to  the  present  is 
that  it  makes  the  past  come  to  life  in  such  a  way  that  the  present 
will  leave  a  richer  legacy  for  the  future. 

The  capacity  of  the  museum  to  transmit  this  legacy  is  predicated 
on  a  variety  of  factors:  (1)  the  manner  in  which  it  cares  for  its 
collections;  (2)  the  system  it  develops  for  their  registration,  for 
assembling  and  cross-referencing  the  information  that  is  either 
contained  in  the  objects  or  which  has  been  accumulated  about 
them;  (3)  the  care  with  which  it  houses  them,  researches  their 
material  nature  and  develops  the  necessary  conservation  measures 
designed  to  mitigate  the  unavoidable  effects  of  time;  (4)  the  re- 
search and  interpretive  materials  that  bolster  these  investigative 
processes,  i.e.,  libraries  and  archives;  and  (5)  the  steps  it  takes  to 
present  the  collections  in  the  most  successful  way  so  as  to  educate 
the  largest  public  to  the  importance  of  a  past,  which  enriches  the 
present  for  the  benefit  of  the  future. 

It  is  to  these  more  traditional,  but  indispensable,  aspects  of 
museum  management  that  the  Office  of  Museum  Programs  is 

In  virtually  all  areas  the  task  is  monumental.  The  Smithsonian 
has  huge  collections,  virtually  all  of  which  are  important  not  only 
because  they  are  good  but  because  they  are  large — their  variety 
enables  the  scholar,  in  many  cases,  to  study  the  varients  and  char- 
acteristics which  are  key  elements  in  developing  scientific  classifi- 
cations, and  in  understanding  stylistic  evolutions.  The  larger  the 
collections,  the  greater  are  the  problems  of  conservation,  classi- 
fication, retrieval,  study,  and  storage  and  the  larger  the  task  for 
those  units  that  provide  the  tactical  or  logistic  support. 

Yet  in  their  areas  of  prime  concern.  Office  of  Museum  Program 
units,  in  spite  of  budgetary  leanness,  have  made  progress.  Fiscal 
year  1975  was  marked  by  improved  cataloguing,  ordering,  and 

224  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

retrieval  procedures  in  the  Libraries.  This  has  resulted  in  shrinking 
a  backlog  accumulation  of  several  years'  duration.  A  program  was 
developed  to  care  more  efficiently  for  rare  books  and  plans  were 
made  to  house  the  scholarly  rich  and  visually  spectacular  Dibner 

The  Smithsonian  Archives  have  developed  plans  to  attain  and 
maintain  intellectual  control  over  the  tremendous  outpouring  of 
documents  which  must  be  retained  for  historical  purposes.  Oral 
history  has  become  part  of  the  data-gathering  arsenal  and  im- 
portant personal  insights  have  been  gained  by  interviews  of  senior 
Smithsonian  personnel. 

The  Conservation-Analytical  Laboratory,  still  facing  thousands 
of  man-years  of  work,  has  been  given  additional,  if  still  inadequate, 
space,  and  has  recruited  actively  additional  conservators  from  the 
very  few  that  come  into  the  profession  annually.  The  foundations 
are  laid  for  smoother  and  more  speedy  output  in  1976. 

The  Smithsonian  Traveling  Exhibition  Service  virtually  doubled 
in  size  and  is  readying  about  fifty  new  exhibitions  a  year  in  addition 
to  coordinating  an  important  series  of  exhibitions  being  lent  to  the 
United  States  under  the  "International  Salute  to  the  States"  pro- 
gram, funded  by  the  American  Revolution  Bicentennial  Admin- 
istration. By  1976  over  two  hundred  exhibitions  of  all  kinds  will 
be  in  circulation  to  museums  and  other  organizations  throughout 
the  Nation  and  it  is  expected  that  the  number  and  quality  will  con- 
tinue to  grow  as  demands  and  needs  from  all  parts  of  the  country 
show  no  sign  of  abating. 

The  Office  of  Exhibits  Central,  after  a  time-consuming  re- 
organization, was  consolidated  in  new  facilities,  without  substantial 
loss  of  productivity,  and  from  its  specialized  facilities  made  major 
contributions  to  the  exhibit  efforts  of  nmht,  nmnh,  sites,  and 
nearly  all  bureaus.  The  Motion  Picture  Unit  again  received  awards 
for  the  excellence  of  its  productions. 

The  Office  of  Museum  Programs  strengthened  its  coordinating 
and  training  capabilities  by  adding  a  highly  experienced  member  to 
its  staff.  Mrs.  Jane  Glaser,  former  Director  of  the  Charleston  (West 
Virginia)  Children's  Museum,  was  named  Manager  of  Training 
Activities.  Under  her  direction  the  workshops  on  museum  manage- 
ment will  be  expanded,  and  special  training  programs  will  be  de- 
veloped, with  emphasis  on  the  special  needs  of  the  Indian  com- 

Museum  Programs  I  225 

munity.  This  office  will  also  serve  as  the  focus  for  rendering 
assistance  to  museum  professionals  who  seek  guidance  and/ or 
training  from  the  Institution.  The  long  announced  series  of  slide- 
tape  lectures  on  conservation  practice  were  put  successfully  into 
circulation  and  the  finishing  touches  completed  on  over  one-half 
of  the  series  of  video-taped  lectures  on  the  chemistry  of  conserva- 
tion by  Dr.  Robert  Organ,  Chief  of  the  Conservation-Analytical 

A  study  on  visitor  orientation  at  nmht,  conducted  by  Dr.  Gary  H. 
Winkel,  of  the  City  University  of  New  York,  with  staff  assistance, 
was  completed,  and  the  first  part  of  an  analysis  of  The  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History  as  a  Behavioral  Environment  by  staff 
member  Robert  Lakota  was  readied. 

The  renovation  of  the  Arts  and  Industries  Building  entered  in  its 
decisive  phase  during  the  year.  An  extensive  air-conditioning  plant 
was  installed  and  work  started  on  restoring  the  main  halls  to  the 
colorful,  uncluttered  appearance  they  had  when  the  building  opened 
in  1871.  Simultaneously  the  nmht  staff  completed  the  design  of  the 
special  exhibition  commemorating  the  Philadelphia  Centennial  Ex- 
position of  1876,  and  which  is  expected  to  open  in  the  Arts  and 
Industries  Building  on  May  10,  1976.  Both  the  building  and  the 
exhibition  will  give  visitors  a  unique  opportunity  to  gain  an  insight 
into  the  boundless  energy  and  happy  exuberance  which  char- 
acterized the  Centennial  and  the  following  decades. 

The  well-known  architect,  Hugh  Newell  Jacobsen,  was  retained 
as  consultant  for  the  aesthetic  aspects  of  the  renovation. 

The  National  Museum  Act  administrative  staff  was  reorganized 
and  new  procedures  developed  to  better  serve  a  growing  number  of 
applicants  and  grantees.  The  strengthened  program  in  conservation, 
research,  and  training  was  well  received.  As  in  years  past,  the  num- 
ber of  applications  found  worthy  of  funding  was  considerably 
larger  than  the  funds  available.  The  increasingly  large  numbers  of 
reports  and  research  papers  produced  by  grantees  were  examined 
and,  wherever  this  seems  of  use  to  the  museum  community,  the 
results  will  be  issued  in  summary  form.  New  and  more  explicit 
guidelines  were  prepared  to  announce  the  1976  grant  programs. 

From  an  administrative  standpoint,  a  major  and  felicitous  event 
occurred  in  the  Office  of  Museum  Programs  when  Mr.  William  N. 
Richards  became  Executive  Assistant  to  the  Assistant  Secretary. 

226  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Mr.  Richard's  long  experience  in  museum  and  governmental  matters 
as  Director  of  the  Bureau  of  Museums  for  the  State  of  Pennsyl- 
vania has,  in  the  short  time  he  has  been  with  this  office,  already 
proved  invaluable,  and  his  guidance  has  been  especially  helpful  in 
developing  the  revised  procedures  for  the  National  Museum  Act. 
In  the  management  of  the  activities  reported  on  above  and  in 
others,  the  Assistant  Secretary  for  Museum  Programs  participated 
actively.  In  addition,  he  served  as  the  Institution's  designee  on  the 
Advisory  Council  for  Historic  Preservation,  as  Vice  President  of 
the  American  Association  of  Museums,  Vice  President  of  the  Inter- 
national Council  on  Museums,  and  Vice  President  of  the  Interna- 
tional Centre  for  Conservation  in  Rome  and  United  States  Delegate 
to  its  General  Assembly. 

Conservation- Analytical  Laboratory 

The  activities  of  the  Conservation-Analytical  Laboratory  (cal)  sup- 
port conservation  and  research  in  many  areas  of  the  Smithsonian. 
An  average  of  thirty  Divisions  in  any  one  year  call  on  cal  for 
conservation  and  analytical  services.  This  year  these  services  have 
been  severely  hampered  by  construction  work  in  the  Laboratory 
and  by  delays  in  refining  new  computerized  methods  for  more 
expeditious  usage. 

A  joint  project  with  the  Brookhaven  National  Laboratory  has  re- 
solved a  long-standing  analytical  difficulty  in  radiocarbon  dating 
from  small  samples. 

Equipment  for  thermoluminescence  dating  of  ceramics  has  been 
acquired  and  a  scientist  is  being  sought  to  operate  it. 

A  large  variety  of  projects  were  carried  out.  A  few  examples 
follow.  For  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History:  A  string 
of  eleventh-century  a.d.  marbled  beads,  said  to  be  from  Mauritania, 
was  found  to  be  made  of  pyroxene  mineral  when  examined  by 
x-ray  diffraction  and  other  techniques. 

For  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology:  Mortar 
from  a  brick  cookstove  of  the  privateer  brigantine  Defense,  a  war- 
ship of  the  period  1776,  was  analyzed  by  microscopy  and  infrared 
spectroscopy  to  determine  its  composition  for  comparison  with 
mortars  found  in  other  comparable  ships. 

Museum  Programs  I  227 

The  Arts  and  Industries  Building  . 

Careful  restoration  is  returning  the  interior  of  the  Arts  and  Industries  Building 
to  its  original  1881  appearance,  preparatory  to  the  recreation  of  the  Phila- 
delphia Centennial  as  a  Smithsonian  exhibition  celebrating  the  Bicentennial  of 
our  Nation's  birth. 

A  major  phase  of  the  restoration  work  in  the  Arts  and  Industries  Building  is 
completed  as  plans  go  forward  for  the  Bicentennial  exhibition,  "1876:  A  Cen- 
tennial Exhibition,"  which  will  be  shown  there. 

Analytical  studies  of  pottery  from  Spanish  Colonial  sites  and  of 
medieval  glass  by  neutron  activation  methods,  evaluated  by  multi- 
variate statistical  analysis,  are  still  in  progress. 

Activities  in  conservation  have  been  numerous.  Methods  for  the 
cleaning  and  consolidation  of  the  ceremonial  mace  of  the  House 
of  Representatives  were  recommended,  and  a  considerable  contribu- 
tion was  made  toward  the  cleaning,  polishing,  and  preparation  of 
over  thirty  bronze  and  marble  sculptures  for  the  opening  of  the 
Hirshhorn  Museum. 

An  imitation  bronze  plaster  cast  sculpture,  donated  in  1919  by 
the  Yugoslav  artist  Branko  Oeskovic  (1883-1939)  to  President 
Woodrow  Wilson,  has  been  restored  for  the  National  Collection 
of  Fine  Arts.  As  a  good-will  gesture,  it  is  soon  to  be  given  by  the 
United  States  Government  to  the  town  in  Yugoslavia  where  the 
artist  lived. 

In  collaboration  with  the  Conservation  Coordinators  of  the 
National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  and  others,  work  is 
continuing  on  innumerable  objects — documents  and  furniture — for 
their  several  Bicentennial  exhibits. 

National  Museum  Act  Program 

The  National  Museum  Act,  a  specially  funded  grant  program 
administered  by  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  is  intended  to  provide 
assistance  to  museums  and  their  professional  organizations,  and 
to  colleges,  universities,  and  institutions  of  higher  learning  who 
wish  to  develop  curricula  in  museum  management  or  offer  oppor- 
tunities for  professional  enhancement.  The  Act  also  funds  research 
in  museum  management,  conservation,  exhibitions,  and  teaching 
techniques  which  can  enable  museums  to  render  more  effective 
service  to  the  public  and  better  protect  that  part  of  the  national 
heritage  which  is  in  their  care. 

Authorized  in  1966,  the  Act  was  first  funded  in  1972.  In  1975 
it  was  reauthorized  for  another  three  years.  Grant  applications 
from  individuals  or  organizations  are  reviewed  by  an  Advisory 
Council  consisting  of  museum  professionals   from   various   parts 

230  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

of  the  country  and  representing  different  aspects  of  the  museum 
field:  art,  science,  history,  education,  conservation,  and  exhibition. 

Council  members  in  1975  were: 

William  T.  Alderson,  Director, 

American  Association  for  State  and  Local  History 
Joseph  M.  Chamberlain,  President,  American  Association 

of  Museums,  and  Director,  The  Adier  Planetarium 
W.  D.  Frankforter,  Director,  Grand  Rapids  Public  Museum 
Lloyd  Hezekiah,  Director,  Brooklyn  Children's  Museum 
Philip  S.  Humphrey,  Director, 

Museum  of  Natural  History,  University  of  Kansas 
Lawrence  J.  Majewski,  Chairman,  Conservation  Center, 

Institute  of  Fine  Arts,  New  York  University 
Taizo  Miake,  Director  of  Programs,  Ontario  Science  Center 
Arminta  Neal,  Curator  of  Graphic  Design, 

Denver  Museum  of  Natural  History 
Bonnie  Louise  Pitman,  Curator  of  Education, 

New  Orleans  Museum  of  Art 
Barnes  Riznik,  Vice  President  for  Museum  Administration, 

Old  Sturbridge  Village 
Mitchell  Wilder,  Director,  Amon  Carter  Museum  of  Western  Art 
Paul  N.  Perrot,  Chairman,  National  Museum  Act, 

Assistant  Secretary  for  Museum  Programs,  Smithsonian  Institution 

In  1975  available  funding  amounted  to  $802,000.  A  total  of  149 
applications  were  received,  and  the  Advisory  Council  recommended 
funding  for  56.  They  are  divided  as  follows: 

The  Travel/Exchange  Program,  intended  to  assist  younger 
museum  professionals  to  broaden  their  knowledge  of  the  museum 
field  by  visiting  other  institutions  and  studying  their  methods:  16. 

Stipend  Support  for  Graduate/Professional  Training  and  Fellow- 
ships: 7. 

Seminar/Workshop  Training  Program  organized  by  professional 
museums  or  history-related  organizations  in  various  communities 
across  the  Nation:  15.  These  will  be  attended  by  approximately 
1210  persons. 

Special  Studies  and  Research  Program:  7. 

Professional  Assistance  Program,  which  includes  consultation 
services  and  technical  training,  especially  in  conservation:  10. 

Museum  Programs  I  231 

In  the  second  half  of  fiscal  year  1975  the  administrative  structure 
of  the  National  Museum  Act  was  reorganized  and  most  operating 
procedures  were  refined.  This  will  result  in  more  expeditious 
handling  of  grant  applications.  New  programs  will  be  announced 
in  the  Guidelines  for  fiscal  year  1976,  which  will  be  distributed  in 
September  1975. 

Office  of  Exhibits  Central 

More  varied  and  more  complete  participation  in  the  exhibition  and 
exhibit-related  programs  of  its  clients,  more  international  awards 
for  its  motion-picture  productions,  and  the  relocation  and  consoli- 
dation of  most  of  its  shops  highlighted  fiscal  year  1975  for  the 
Office  of  Exhibits  Central  (oec).  Shops  formerly  located  at  the 
24th  Street  facility  and  in  the  Natural  History  building  are  now 
in  full  operation  at  the  new  Smithsonian  Institution  Service  Center 
at  1111  North  Capitol  Street.  The  move,  efficiently  planned  and 
executed  in  coordination  with  other  Smithsonian  staff,  promises 
greatly  improved  working  conditions  and  increased  productivity. 
Early  in  fiscal  year  1976  certain  design  staff  will  relocate  from  the 
Arts  and  Industries  building  to  the  Service  Center.  The  consolida- 
tion of  the  Design  and  Production  staffs  will  improve  the  super- 
vision of  personnel  and  the  coordination  of  work  in  progress;  the 
consolidation  of  shop  spaces,  equipment,  supplies,  etc.,  will  allow 
more  efficient  and  economical  management. 

The  Exhibits  Motion  Picture  Unit  of  the  oec  was  awarded  a  Gold 
Plaque  at  the  Chicago  International  Film  Festival  for  its  original 
three-screen  motion  picture,  "Survival  Depends  on  Man's  Use  of 
the  Earth,"  produced  for  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 
A  30-second  television  "spot,"  developed  by  Karen  Loveland, 
Director  of  the  Unit,  for  the  Smithsonian  Resident  Associates  re- 
ceived a  CLIO  award.  The  work  of  oec's  inhouse  film  unit  has  now 
been  recognized  by  thirteen  awards  for  a  variety  of  museum- 
oriented  film  presentations. 

The  Editor's  Office  of  the  oec  received  an  award  from  the 
National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  for  its  efforts  on  the 
exhibition  "We  the  People."  This  office  had  a  most  active  year 

232  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Bicentennial  exhibition,  "In  the  Minds  and  Hearts,"  being  crated  for  travel  in 
the  United  States.  The  original  exhibition,  at  the  National  Portrait  Gallery,  was 
translated  into  a  traveling  version  by  the  Office  of  Exhibits  Central  Editorial 
and  Design  Staff;  then  six  copies  were  produced  in  oec  shops.  The  exhibit  is 
being  circulated  by  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service. 
The  photo  appeared  in  a  special  article  on  the  bicentennial  in  U.S.  News  and 
World  Report  and  is  reproduced  here  through  its  courtesy. 

working  on  traveling  exhibitions  and  the  special  exhibits  associated 
with  the  Festival  of  American  Folklife.  oec  designers,  Smithsonian 
Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service  exhibit  coordinators,  and 
cognizant  curatorial  staff  cooperated  on  translating  two  exhibits 
presented  in  Smithsonian  galleries  into  traveling  exhibitions  to  be 
reproduced  in  multiple  copies.  These  were  "In  the  Minds  and 
Hearts,"  a  Bicentennial  presentation  of  the  National  Portrait 
Gallery,  and  "News  Reporting,"  a  permanent  exhibit  at  the 
National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology. 

Museum  Programs  I  233 

The  Museum  Lighting  Unit,  in  addition  to  working  on  new  in- 
stallations and  maintenance,  participated  in  energy  conservation 
planning.  Recommendations  which  included  important  modifica- 
tions in  architectural  and  exhibition  lighting  have  resulted  in  con- 
siderable energy  savings  and,  in  some  instances,  in  improved 
lighting  effects. 

Planning  and  preliminary  production  work  for  the  Bicentennial 
programs  of  several  Smithsonian  museums  and  offices  were  carried 
out  and  this  work  will  continue  through  fiscal  year  1976.  In  1975 
the  OEC  participated  in  106  projects  small  and  large,  long  range 
and  short.  Programs  completed  in  fiscal  year  1975  in  which  the  oec 
contributed  heavily  included  "In  the  Minds  and  Hearts"  (npg/ 
sites),  "News  Reporting"  (nmht/sites),  "We  the  People"  (nmht), 
"Ice-Age  Mammals  and  the  Emergence  of  Man"  (nmnh),  "Blacks 
and  the  Westward  Movement"  (anm/sites),  "Zoo/100"  (nzp/ 
sites),  "Pandas"  (nzp),  "Bicycles"  (sites),  and  signs  and  learning 
centers  for  the  Festival  of  American  Folklife.  dec  staff  have  also 
participated  in  a  successful  series  of  workshops  run  by  the  Office 
of  Museum  Programs  and  consulted  with  and  for  several  govern- 
ment and  private  museums  and  exhibiting  organizations. 

Office  of  Museum  Programs 

The  Office  of  Museum  Programs  is  primarily  responsible  for 
coordinating  a  variety  of  activities  relating  to  training  in  museum 
management,  disseminating  information  on  conservation  principles 
and  practices,  and  developing  methods  to  assess  the  effectiveness 
of  the  museum  as  a  learning  environment.  To  achieve  these  aims, 
three  distinct  departments  have  been  formed. 

The  Museum  Workshop  Series  takes  advantage  of  the  unique 
human  resources  of  the  various  museums  and  research  depart- 
ments of  the  Institution.  The  training  office  coordinates  lectures, 
seminars,  and  workshops  on  various  aspects  of  museum  manage- 
ment. This  program,  which  has  been  in  existence  for  a  number  of 
years,  has  been  reorganized  in  the  past  few  months  and  will  be 
presenting  more  frequent  and  a  larger  choice  of  offerings.  Under 
the   direction   of   Mrs.   Jane   R.   Glaser,   former    Director   of   the 

234  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Children's  Museum  in  Charleston,  West  Virginia,  new  subjects 
will  be  introduced,  and  a  special  program  will  be  developed  to 
meet  the  needs  of  special  constituencies,  and  particularly  to  offer 
training  opportunities  for  the  personnel  of  the  various  museums 
and  cultural  centers  which  are  now  under  development  in  Indian 

This  training  department  will  also  coordinate  programs  specially 
tailored  to  the  individual  needs  of  foreign  museum  personnel  who 
wish  to  acquaint  themselves  with  the  methods  in  use  at  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  and  at  other  museums  in  the  United  States. 

The  Conservation  Information  Program  prepares,  in  cooperation 
with  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Conservation-Analytical  Labora- 
tory, and  with  the  assistance  of  other  museum  laboratories  and 
research  organizations  when  required,  video  tapes  and  slide  pro- 
grams intended  to  demonstrate  the  basic  principles  of  chemistry 
that  apply  to  conservation  and  up-to-date  methods  in  the  handling 
of  artifacts.  Seventeen  slide  presentations,  accompanied  by  taped 
narrations,  have  been  announced,  and  others  are  in  various  stages 
of  completion.  These  slide/tape  presentations  are  available  free-of- 
charge  to  museums,  historical  societies,  training  and  research 
organizations  throughout  the  United  States  and  abroad.  Editing 
has  been  completed  on  a  series  of  eighty  video-taped  lectures,  a 
half-hour  to  an  hour  in  duration,  presented  by  Dr.  Robert  M. 
Organ,  Chief  of  the  Conservation-Analytical  Laboratory.  Copies  of 
these  will  be  available  in  cassettes  or  reel-to-reel  form.  They 
present  a  unique  panorama  of  the  basic  principles  of  chemistry 
and  of  conservation  practice.  The  first  twenty  are  now  being 
distributed,  and  it  is  expected  that  the  entire  series  will  be  available 
by  the  fall  of  1975. 

A  constant  riddle  to  museum  directors  and  their  senior  staffs 
has  been  the  evaluation  of  exhibits  and  their  effectiveness  with  the 
visiting  public.  The  fact  that  museums  are  key  elements  in  the 
learning  apparatus  of  an  enlightened  citizenry  is  no  longer  ques- 
tioned, but  there  is  still  much  uncertainty  concerning  the  quantifi- 
cation of  their  effectiveness.  Museums  are  experimenting  with  a 
wide  variety  of  new  exhibition  techniques.  These  often  combine 
sound,  moving  images,  push  buttons,  and  various  other  devices 
intended  to  attract  the  attention  of  the  visitor  and,  in  many  cases, 
physically  engage  him^   in   an   interactive   mode.   How   these   new 

Museum  Programs  I  235 

-a^      /?,    /97l 

The  story  told  by  the  letters  on  this  and  the  facing  page  is  indicative  of  a 
growing  nationwide  interest  in  and  support  of  the  Smithsonian.  The  concern 
and  generosity  of  these  children  at  Onate  Elementary  School,  Albuquerque, 
New  Mexico,  gives  encouragement  to  the  Institution  as  it  attempts  to  carry 
out  its  many  programs. 

techniques  add  to  the  learning  quotient,  and  which  are  most  effec- 
tive in  transmitting  information,  is  still  a  matter  of  considerable 

In  an  attempt  to  provide  museum  administrators  with  more 
precise  information  upon  which  to  base  their  decisions,  the  Office 
of  Museum  Programs  has  embarked  on  a  multi-year  psychological 
study  of  "The  Museum  as  a  Learning  Environment."  A  small 
resident  staff  of  professionals  and  para-professionals  has  been 
supplemented  by  expert  consultants  who  have  cooperated  in 
developing  new  testing  methods.  Professor  Chandler  Screven,  of 
the  University  of  Wisconsin,  Milwaukee,  completed  a  study  on 
the  effectiveness  of  various  audio  devices  in  enriching  the  contents 
of  what  was  an  entirely  visual  presentation.   The   results  of  his 

236  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

r-,  ^ ^ 


experiments  with  "The  Glass  of  Frederick  Carder"  exhibition  at 
the  Renwick  Gallery  are  soon  to  be  published  in  a  professional 
journal.  His  major  monograph.  The  Measurement  and  Facilitation 
of  Learning  in  the  Museum  Environment:  An  Experimental 
Analysis,  announced  in  1974,  will  be  printed  and  available  for  dis- 
tribution in  early  October  1975. 

Dr.  Gary  H.  Winkel,  Associate  Professor,  Environmental  Psy- 
chology Program,  City  University  of  New  York,  was  retained  as  a 
special  consultant  to  study  the  visitor  flow  and  orientation  patterns 
at  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  His  study, 
completed  in  June  1975,  will  be  carefully  analyzed  prior  to  the 
introduction  of  new  orientation  devices  at  the  National  Museum 
of  History  and  Technology.  Other  studies  conducted  in  the  last 
few  months  are  attempting  to  gauge  the  effectiveness  of  nonuni- 
formed  attendants  in  providing  information  and  security  in  an  art 
museum  environment.  Studies  of  Visitor  Behavior  in  Museums  and 
Exhibitions:  An  Annotated  Bibliography  of  Sources  Primarily  in 
the  English  Language,  by  Dr.  Ross  J.  Loomis,  of  the  University  of 
Colorado,  and  Miss  Pamala  Elliott,  was  also  completed. 

Office  of  the  Registrar 

Registration  is  an  important  aspect  of  the  overall  care  and  docu- 
mentation of  the  national  collections.  Each  museum  within  the 
Smithsonian  complex  has,  or  is  developing,  its  own  registration  capa- 
bility, responsive  to  the  peculiar  needs  of  that  bureau.  The  Central 
Registrar  and  the  Council  of  Registrars  provide  coordination  of 
registration  activities.  The  Council  also  provides  a  forum  for  pro- 
fessional discussion. 

During  1975,  the  Office  of  the  Registrar  focused  its  attention  on 
the  information  management  aspect  of  collections  management  on 
the  Institutional  level.  Special  attention  was  given  to  problems  of 
development  of  Institution-wide  information  systems  for  access  to 
the  national  collections.  As  each  museum  develops  its  registration 
and  cataloguing  information  system,  an  Institutional  system  must 
emerge  which  provides  information  on  related  specimens  wherever 
they  may  exist  within  the  Smithsonian.  Development  of  off-Mall 

238  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 


buildings  for  care  of  specimens  emphasizes  the  requirements  for 
coordinated  registration  systems.  Beyond  this  lies  the  potential  for 
intermuseum  computer  networks. 

A  major  information  management  effort  by  the  Registrar's  Office 
began  in  the  summer  of  1975.  A  study  of  existing  information 
systems,  computerized  and  manual,  was  undertaken  as  a  pilot 
project  to  test  application  of  information  science  techniques  to 
the  Smithsonian  on  an  Institutional  level.  A  report  resulting  from 
this  study  will  be  submitted  to  the  Assistant  Secretary  for 
Museum  Programs  during  fiscal  year  1976. 

Meanwhile,  the  Office  of  the  Registrar  continued  its  traditional 
function  of  registrar  for  the  National  Museum  of  History  and 
Technology  and  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History.  More 
than  2400  accession  and  4500  transactions,  involving  the  movement 
of  about  550,000  specimens  or  objects,  were  processed  during  fiscal 
year  1975.  The  Shipping  Office  dispatched  and  received  shipments 
for  NMNH  and  nmht  and  for  several  other  bureaus  as  well. 

The  Council  of  Registrars  met  regularly  during  fiscal  year 
1975.  Major  topics  included:  insurance,  packing,  security  during 
exhibits,  intra-Smithsonian  movement  of  objects,  cataloguing  pro- 
cedures throughout  the  Smithsonian,  decentralization  of  the 
Central  Registrar's  Office,  computerization  of  registration  processes 
in  several  Smithsonian  bureaus,  development  of  forms,  and  Silver 
Hill  and  other  storage  facilities. 

The  Council  also  reevaluated  its  own  functions  and  objectives, 
with  the  result  that  its  members  now  have  a  better  sense  of  the 
common  goals  to  be  pursued  to  improve  registration  at  the 

Smithsonian  Institution  Archives 

During  fiscal  year  1975  the  Smithsonian  Archives  continued  its 
effort  to  gain  intellectual  control  of  archives  spread  throughout 
the  Institution.  Work  on  the  archives  of  natural  history  continued 
as  did  work  with  records  of  the  National  Museum  of  History  and 
Technology.  The  computer  index,  which  gives  name  and  subject 
access  to  all  processed  collections  in  the  Archives   and  to   some 

Museum  Programs  I  239 

materials  that  have  remained  in  the  National  Museum  of  Natural 
History,  was  completed. 

A  major  effort  was  made  to  establish  archival  programs  for  the 
Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory  and  the  National  Collec- 
tion of  Fine  Arts.  Two  archivists  spent  a  week  at  the  Astrophysical 
Observatory  in  December  surveying  records,  and  a  large  accession 
from  that  bureau  resulted.  In  addition,  researchers  from  the 
National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Administration  are  finding  old 
Astrophysical  Observatory  data,  housed  in  the  Archives,  valuable 
for  their  current  atmospheric  research.  Records  of  the  National 
Collection  of  Fine  Arts  are  being  processed  and  serviced  by 
Archives  staff,  but  are  remaining  in  the  custody  of  the  National 
Collection  of  Fine  Arts. 

The  Archives'  Oral  History  program  was  continued  through  a 
series  of  interviews  with  distinguished  curators  on  the  staff  of  the 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History.  During  fiscal  year  1975  the 
program  concentrated  on  documenting  the  history  of  the  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Arrangement  and  microfilming  of  the  accession  records 

Smithsonian  Institution  Libraries 

Nineteen  hundred  and  seventy-five  was  notable  because  of  the  sig- 
nificant increase  in  the  Libraries'  staff.  Priority  in  new  personnel 
assignments  was  placed  upon  on-site  service  to  users.  New  posi- 
tions were  added  to  the  bureau  libraries  in  the  National  Air  and 
Space  Museum,  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology, 
and  to  the  teams  that  serve  the  National  Museum  of  Natural 
History,  the  Radiation  Biology  Laboratory,  and  the  National 
Zoological  Park.  The  key  positions  of  bureau  librarians  for  the 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History  and  the  Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum  were  established,  and  the  Libraries  assumed  responsi- 
bility for  funding  the  personnel  assigned  to  the  Smithsonian 
Tropical  Research  Institute  library.  The  creation  of  the  rare  book 
cataloguing  and  the  hand  binding  positions  testify  to  the  im- 
portance of  collection  preservation  and  management  as  a  vital 
library  service. 

240  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

This  increase  in  staff  size,  and  the  concomitant  growth  of  service 
responsibilities  and  funding  for  collection  development  heightened 
the  need  to  attend  to  management  issues.  Implementation  of  the 
recommendations  of  the  Management  Review  and  Analysis  Pro- 
gram (mrap),  begun  in  the  preceding  year,  continued,  under  the 
watchful  eye  of  an  Implementation  Assessment  Group  composed 
of  Libraries'  staff  members.  Special  studies  were  conducted  of  the 
Libraries  Technical  Services  operation,  and  a  survey  of  users' 
services  was  begun.  The  Libraries'  experiences  continued  to  be 
shared  with  several  other  major  research  libraries  undergoing  the 
MRAP  process,  chiefly  through  seminars  and  lectures  given  by 
Dr.  Elaine  Sloan,  chairperson  of  the  team  that  conducted  the 
Smithsonian's  study.  The  Libraries  also  conducted  a  one-day  work- 
shop in  cooperation  with  the  Consortium  of  Universities  in 
Washington  and  the  Association  of  Research  Libraries  Office  of 
Management  Studies  on  the  issues  and  problems  of  implementation 
of  management  change.  In  addition,  the  Director  was  appointed  to 
the  Management  Commission  of  the  Association  of  Research 
Libraries  under  whose  aegis  mrap  was  developed.  As  part  of  the 
implementation  process,  the  Administrative  Conference  of  the 
Libraries,  composed  of  the  managers  of  library  units  and  Libraries' 
administrative  staff,  met  at  regular  intervals  to  exchange  informa- 
tion and  to  discuss  management  and  operational  concerns.  A 
program  was  established  to  document  policies  and  procedures  for 
library  management. 

For  the  first  time  the  Libraries  were  funded  sufficiently  well  to 
establish  a  base  for  a  continuing  budget  for  the  acquisition  of 
library  materials,  although  the  gains  were  somewhat  muted  by  the 
severe  inflation  of  book  prices.  The  most  significant  event  in 
collection  development,  however,  was  the  acquisition  by  gift  of 
the  major  titles  in  the  Burndy  Library  devoted  to  the  history  of 
science  and  technology.  The  collections  in  this  noted  research 
library  have  been  gathered  by  Dr.  Bern  Dibner,  a  manufacturer  of 
electrical  products  in  Norwalk,  Connecticut.  The  Dibner  collection 
matches  precisely  the  programs  of  research  in  the  National 
Museum  of  History  and  Technology  and  will  be  housed  in  that 
bureau.  Mr.  William  Leugoud  was  recruited  from  the  staff  of  the 
Rare  Books  Department  of  the  Library  of  Congress  to  be  the 
librarian  of  the  collection.  The  Libraries  received  other  important 

Museum  Programs  I  241 

gifts  from  Smithsonian  staff  members  and  other  friends,  many  of 
which  are  hsted  in  Appendix  13. 

The  experiment  in  cooperative  cataloguing  with  other  federal 
libraries,  spearheaded  by  the  Smithsonian  Institution  last  year,  was 
extended  for  a  second  year.  Approximately  65  percent  of  the  titles 
catalogued  for  the  Libraries  were  processed  through  this  system, 
which  is  based  on  computer  facilities  and  machine-readable  biblio- 
graphic records  at  the  Ohio  College  Library  Center  (oclc)  in 
Columbus.  By  year's  end  twenty-eight  federal  libraries  with  thirty- 
six  computer  terminals  were  joined  in  the  network.  An  evaluation 
of  the  experiment,  conducted  for  the  Federal  Library  Committee, 
clearly  indicates  that  the  oclc  system  does  decrease  the  rate  of 
rise  of  the  cost  of  processing  library  materials,  and  that  preorder 
searching  for  bibliographic  information  and  the  location  of  titles 
for  interlibrary  loan  are  important  byproducts  of  the  system.  A 
small  group  of  federal  libraries,  including  the  Smithsonian  Institu- 
tion, has  begun  to  examine  additional  products  that  might  be 
obtained  through  cooperation  in  automation. 

The  Libraries'  contribution  to  the  library  profession  included  in- 
volvement of  the  staff  in  local,  national,  and  international  activities. 
Catherine  Scott  continued  her  service  as  a  member  of  the  National 
Commission  on  Libraries  and  Information  Science.  The  Commis- 
sion's program  statement  for  national  library  information  service 
was  completed  during  the  year.  The  Director  represented  the 
Smithsonian  Institution  as  an  observer  at  the  unesco  Conference 
on  national  planning  of  library,  archive,  and  documentation  serv- 
ice in  Paris.  The  Smithsonian  Institution  held  a  reception  for  the 
nearly  1000  delegates  of  the  International  Federation  of  Library 
Associations  at  its  first  United  States  meeting.  The  National  Copy- 
right Conference,  convened  by  the  Register  of  Copyrights  and  the 
Chairman  of  the  National  Commission  on  Libraries  and  Informa- 
tion Science,  met  twice  at  the  Smithsonian  Institution  as  pub- 
lishers and  librarians  attempted  to  resolve  issues  raised  by  the 
proposed  copyright  law  revision.  The  Director  was  elected  to  the 
Board  of  Directors  of  the  Association  of  Research  Libraries  and  the 
Executive  Board  of  the  American  Library  Association,  and  assumed 
the  office  of  President  of  the  United  States  Book  Exchange  of  which 
the  Institution  is  a  sponsoring  member.  Dr.  Elaine  Sloan  served 
as  a  consultant  to  the  American  Library  Association's  Collection 

242  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Development  Committee  and  as  a  member  of  a  joint  American 
Library  Association/Association  of  American  Publishers  Task 
Force  on  the  Selection  of  Library  Materials.  William  Walker  be- 
came National  Chairman  of  the  Art  Library  Society  of  North 
America  and  served  as  program  chairman  for  the  Society's  annual 
conference  in  Washington,  D.  C.  Jack  Goodwin  was  Chairman- 
Elect  of  the  Museum,  Arts  and  Humanities  Division  of  the  Special 
Libraries  Association,  and  editor  of  the  Division's  Bulletin. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service 

Major  expansion  characterized  the  twenty-third  year  of  the 
Smithsonian  Traveling  Exhibition  Service's  (sites)  program.  New 
services  were  made  possible  by  Bicentennial  funds  awarded  by 
Congress  and  by  the  American  Revolution  Bicentennial  Adminis- 
tration. These  funds,  together  with  income  from  rental  fees,  grants, 
and  contracts,  have : 

1.  Developed  a  department  for  the  coordination  of  Bicentennial 
Exhibitions  drawn  from  the  Smithsonian  and  other  United  States 

2.  Initiated  an  "International  Salute  to  the  States"  program  of 
exceptional  exhibitions  loaned  by  other  nations  to  honor  our  200th 
birthday  as  a  republic. 

These  two  additions  have  greatly  enriched  sites'  diverse  offerings 
of  science,  history,  and  art  exhibitions;  doubled  the  number  of  its 
staff;  and  greatly  increased  sites'  ability  to  serve  an  ever-growing 

The  planning  of  a  program  to  interpret  sites'  exhibitions  was 
completed  this  year.  Two  full-time,  and  two  part-time  program 
coordinators,  and  three  interns  are  now  assisting  exhibitors  of 
sites  shows  in  making  the  viewing  experience  more  meaningful  to 
their  visitors.  The  programs  take  many  forms  and  vary  from  small 
give-away  brochures,  to  grant-assisted  lecturers.  These  efforts 
have  helped  in  keeping  sites  focused  on  the  needs  of  their 

A  new  format  was  developed  to  improve  the  usefulness  of  the 
reports  received  in  Washington  from  exhibitors.  The  comments  on 

Museum  Programs  I  243 

"Ride  On!"  The  bicycle  exhibit  was  viewed  for  the  first  time  at  the  First  Na- 
tional City  Bank  of  New  York,  December  16,  1974,  to  January  12,  1975.  "Ride 
On!"  was  made  possible  by  a  grant  to  sites  from  the  Charles  E.  Merrill  Trust. 

exhibition  quality  and  the  summaries  of  interpretive  programs 
undertaken  by  borrowers,  as  well  as  their  audience-building  efforts, 
provide  a  base  for  determining  future  directions  for  sites 

Fiscal  and  administrative  systems  were  improved,  sites'  registrar 
was  joined  by  an  assistant  to  cope  with  ever-enlarging  responsi- 
bilities. An  audit  by  the  Smithsonian's  Office  of  Audits  produced  a 
more  consistent  method  for  determining  exhibition  rental  fees. 

Staff  travel  to  important  museum  meetings  and  in  the  develop- 
ment of  shows  continued.  A  workshop  on  the  circulation  of  exhibi- 
tions was  sponsored  by  sites  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  American 

244  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Dr  Henry  E  Wenden  lectures  on  coverlets  at  the  University  of  Cincinnati 
in  December.  "American  Coverlets"  is  the  prototype  for  sites'  information 
core  shows— shows  that  are  expressly  designed  for  the  addition  of  local  arti- 
facts. SITES  will  produce  no  less  than  fifty  exhibitions  for  the  Bicentennial, 
several  in  multiple  copies. 

Association  of  State  and  Local  History,  sites'  representatives  at 
several  regional  meetings  and  at  the  national  meeting  of  the 
American  Association  of  Museums  gained  important  insights  of 
the  concerns  of  museums  and  galleries.  Staff  members  traveled  to 
Yugoslavia,  Italy,  Austria,  Norway,  Finland,  Sweden,  Denmark, 
Great  Britain,  Egypt,  Cyprus,  and  Austraha  to  work  on  the  devel- 
opment of  new  shows  originating  in  those  countries.  Most  foreign 
trips  were  taken  to  implement  the  "International  Salute  to  the 
States"  program  announced  to  Washington's  diplomatic  corps  at 
a  reception  in  the  Smithsonian  Building's  Great  Hall  in  October. 

Museum  Programs  I  245 

At  year's  end,  six  exhibitions  in  this  program  were  committed  for 
tours  beginning  in  1976.  Twenty  additional  nations  are  participat- 
ing in  negotiations  that  will  most  Ukely  result  in  tours  of  other 
unique  shows  created  for  United  States  audiences. 

sites'  plan  to  place  fifty  exhibitions  relating  to  the  Bicentennial 
(many  in  several  copies)  on  tour  made  great  progress.  It  appears 
that  this  number  will  be  exceeded. 

There  are  two  types  of  Bicentennial  exhibition:  (1)  those  that 
contain  original  objects  and  (2)  panel  shows.  Exhibitions  with 
original  objects  are  made  up  and  borrowed  for  tour  from  the 
Smithsonian,  other  United  States  lenders,  and  from  collections  in 
other  countries.  Panel  exhibitions  are  of  two  types:  (1)  those  that 
stand  alone — without  the  addition  of  artifacts  (e.g.,  "Blacks  in  the 
Westward  Movement,"  beginning  its  tour  this  year);  and  (2)  the 
so-called  "information  core"  exhibitions — shows  that  prompt  ex- 
hibiting institutions  to  add  objects  from  collections  in  their  area, 
thus  providing  a  conceptual  framework  which  can  be  fleshed  out 
from  local  resources.  Information  core  exhibitions  (e.g.,  "Suiting 
Everyone,"  beginning  its  tour  this  year)  are  a  new  dimension  in  the 
travel  of  shows.  They  save  transportation  costs  and  begin  a  new 
era  of  cooperation  between  the  Smithsonian  and  museums  through- 
out the  United  States. 

Year-End  Totals 

Number  of  Bookings    498 

Number  of  States  Served    45 

Estimated  Audience    3,984,000 

Institutions  Receiving  Data  on  Show  Availability 3,700 

Exhibitions  (including  copies)  listed  in  last  UPDATE 

(catalogue  of  sites  exhibitions)    199 

Exhibitions  Produced  for  Tour  During  the  Year 53 

Exhibitions  Refurbished  for  Extended  Tour 4 

Exhibitions  Beginning  Tours  in  Fiscal  Year  1975 

American  Dolls 

Australia  Goes  Metric 

The  Black  Presence  in  the  Era  of  the  American  Revolution, 

1770-1800  (6  copies) 
Blacks  in  the  Westward  Movement  (5  copies) 
Contemporary  Textile  Art  from  Austria 

246  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Delacroix  and  the  French  Romantic  Print 

Edwin  Janss,  Jr.,  Underwater  Photography 

Egyptian  Tapestries  from  the  Workshop  of  Ramses  Wissa  Wassef, 

an  Experiment  in  Creativity 
Folk  Baroque  in  Mexico:  Mestizo  Architecture  Through  the  Centuries 
Graphics  by  Rolf  Nesch 
In  the  Minds  and  Hearts  of  the  People:  Prologue  to  the 

American  Revolution,  1760-1774  (6  copies) 
Jack  Tar:  Profiles  of  American  Merchant  Seafarers,  1794-1803  (3  copies) 
Lion  Rugs  from  Fars 

The  Magnificent  West:  American  Heritage  (2  copies) 
Manuscripts  of  the  American  Revolution  (5  copies) 
New  Zealand:  A  Nation's  History  in  Stamps 
Population :  The  Problem  Is  Us  (4  copies) 
The  Poster  in  Puerto  Rico 
Revival ! 

Ride  On!  The  Bicycle  Exhibit  (original  version  with  artifacts) 
Ride  On!  The  Bicycle  Exhibit  (3  copies) 
Stephen  Parrish:  19th-century  Picturesque 
Suiting  Everyone  (5  copies) 

Exhibitions  Refurbished  for  Extended  Tours 

Indian  Images  (2  copies) 
Story  of  a  Goblet 
Victorian  Needlework 

Museum  Programs  I  247 

Mr.  Joseph  H.  Hirshhorn  being  interviewed  by  WTTG's  Channel  5  newscaster  Maury 
Povich  (left)  and  Frank  Getlein  (right),  art  critic  of  the  Washington  Star. 

Smithsonian  Year  •  7^75 


Over  the  past  year  the  activities  of  the  Smithsonian's  pubUc  service 
bureaus  reached  out  to  an  unprecedentedly  numerous  and  far-flung 
audience.  In  terms  of  statistics,  several  of  our  programs  were  im- 
mensely successful.  By  the  end  of  the  year,  however,  the  Assistant 
Secretary  for  Public  Service  and  his  staff  were  engaged  in  a  careful 
reassessment  of  where  these  successes  were  leading  us  in  terms  of 
the  Smithsonian  mandate  for  the  diffusion  of  knowledge,  and  to 
what  extent  the  Public  Service  bureaus  were  equipped  and  organized 
to  sustain  such  a  level  of  activity.  The  experience  gained  from  this 
first  year  of  the  popular  Smithsonian  Television  Specials,  profes- 
sionally produced  and  presented  on  prime  time  with  the  backing  of 
a  major  sponsor,  revealed  to  us  clearly  the  extent  to  which  "knowl- 
edge" must  be  diluted  in  favor  of  "entertainment"  to  make  it  ap- 
pealing to  the  millions  of  viewers  whom  sponsors  and  networks 
require  to  justify  their  major  investments  in  time  and  money.  The 
three  programs  presented  fulfilled  these  requirements.  The  first 
Smithsonian  Special  drew  the  highest  audience  rating  ever  achieved 
by  a  television  "documentary" — over  50  million  viewers — and  the 
second  and  third  programs  maintained  gratifyingly  high  appeal  by 
commercial  television  standards. 

Many  Smithsonian  curators  and  staff  members,  however,  were 
disturbed  over  the  content  of  the  shows — feeling  that  they  did  little 
to  inform  or  educate  their  audiences  as  to  what  the  Smithsonian 
was  really  about.  Similarly,  it  was  found  necessary  during  the  year 
to  make  a   thorough  reappraisal   of   some  of  the  highly  popular 


Resident  Associates'  offerings,  and  to  refocus  the  lecture  programs, 
in  particular,  away  from  the  purely  popular  and  toward  topics 
more  directly  relevant  to  Smithsonian  collections  and  interests. 

In  the  same  context,  the  Secretary  has  asked  the  Assistant  Secre- 
tary for  Public  Service  and  the  Director  of  the  Division  of  Per- 
forming Arts  to  consider  carefully  the  post-Bicentennial  future  of 
our  very  popular  summer  Folklife  Festival  on  the  Mall,  which  will 
reach  a  crescendo  in  popular  appeal  with  the  elaborate  eight  to 
twelve  weeks  of  presentations  during  the  summer  of  1976.  These 
folklife  programs  are  carefully  and  academically  researched  and 
designed  by  the  Division  of  Performing  Arts  staff  to  deliver  a 
thoughtful,  cultural  message,  but  again  there  is  legitimate  concern 
that  the  majority  of  the  people  who  attend  them  regard  them 
primarily  as  free  public  entertainment,  and  perhaps  absorb  little 
of  the  "knowledge"  they  are  planned  to  convey. 

The  educational  efforts  of  other  public  service  bureaus  have  been 
more  fruitful  in  a  less  sensational  way.  The  central  Office  of  Ele- 
mentary and  Secondary  Education  has  made  great  strides  forward 
this  year  in  bringing  the  educational  value  of  Smithsonian  exhibits 
and  collections  to  the  attention  of  teachers  throughout  the  greater 
Washington  area  through  well-attended  workshops  and  a  strong 
publication  program.  The  Resident  Associate  Program  has  devel- 
oped an  adult  education  effort  which  has  become  a  model  for 
universities  and  colleges  in  the  area.  Over  7778  participants  were 
enrolled  in  Resident  Associates'  classes,  workshops,  and  seminars 
during  the  year.  The  Smithsonian  Visitor  Information  and  Asso- 
ciates' Reception  Center  continues  to  improve  our  ability  to  pro- 
vide invaluable  guidance  to  the  millions  of  visitors  to  our  museums 
and  galleries,  thanks  to  capable  staff  direction  and  the  dedication 
of  the  250  volunteers  who  participate  in  the  program. 

Construction  of  the  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum's  Ex- 
hibits and  Design  Laboratory  building  was  completed  during  the 
year  and  it  will  open  in  the  fall  of  1975.  The  Anacostia  staff 
focused  on  equipping  and  staffing  the  Laboratory  in  order  to  pre- 
pare for  the  museum's  exhibit  needs  in  its  Bicentennial  program, 
which  includes  developing  and  conducting  a  Ford  Foundation- 
sponsored  design  and  exhibits  training  program  for  minority  young 
people.  The  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum  also  scored  a  major 
popular  success  during  the  early  months  of  1975  with  the  exhibit 

250  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

entitled  "Blacks  in  the  Westward  Movement."  The  success  of  this 
exhibit  too  gave  pause  for  thought.  Is  it  appropriate  for  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution,  as  our  national  museum  complex,  to  continue  a 
museum  operation,  essentially  focused  on  one  local  community, 
when  public  interest  is  so  clearly  responsive  to  far  broader  exami- 
nations of  the  national  experience  of  American  racial  and  ethnic 
minority  groups? 

Continuing  deficits  on  the  trade  book  side  of  the  Smithsonian's 
publishing  efforts  stimulated  the  Publications  Review  Board  to 
recommend  to  the  Secretary  early  in  1975  a  careful  survey  of  pub- 
lishing operations  at  the  Smithsonian  by  a  very  reputable  firm  of 
management  consultants.  The  consultants'  report,  in  turn,  gen- 
erated a  major  reappraisal  of  the  Smithsonian's  publishing  effort, 
including  a  reorganization  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Press, 
itself.  A  major  decision  taken  by  Secretary  Ripley  toward  the  end  of 
fiscal  year  1975  was  to  terminate,  for  the  present,  private-side  pub- 
lishing, and  to  confine  the  work  of  the  Press  to  publication  of  fed- 
erally funded  series  and  nonseries  manuscripts  produced  or  directly 
sponsored  by  a  Smithsonian  museum  or  gallery.  This  policy  will 
be  adhered  to  pending  appointment  of  a  new  Publications  Director- 
Coordinator  with  substantially  broadened  responsibiUties. 

In  sum,  fiscal  year  1975  has  been  a  year  of  success  and  of  experi- 
ment and  appraisal  in  the  public  service  area.  We  have  walked  in 
the  bright  glare  of  the  popular  spotlight,  and  learned  the  price 
for  the  applause  of  a  huge,  but  not  necessarily  discriminating 
audience.  In  the  coming  year  we  must  draw  on  this  experience  to 
determine  what  manner  and  what  level  of  public  appeal  best  fulfills 
the  Smithsonian  mandate  for  the  diffusion  of  knowledge. 

Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum 

Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum  on  September  15,  1975,  will 
have  completed  eight  years  of  service,  education,  and  special  pro- 
gramming for  the  Anacostia  community.  In  that  time  span,  this 
museum,  which  began  as  a  "store-front"  operation  in  the  com- 
munity of  Anacostia  with  particular  emphasis  on  neighborhood  in- 
volvement and  on  the  history  and  culture  of  its  immediate  environs. 

Public  Service  I  251 

has  grown  into  a  nationally  recognized  center  of  black  history  and 
culture.  Indeed,  visitors  have  come  from  art  communities  in  Africa 
and  Europe  to  learn  more  about  this  unique  center. 

Over  thirty-five  major  exhibitions  have  been  produced  by  the 
Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum  since  its  inception.  The  variety 
of  these  shows  is  typified  by  the  five  exhibits  produced  this  past 

The  first  was  an  exhibition  of  over  one  hundred  pieces  of  art  in 
various  media,  including  oil,  watercolor,  silk  screen,  etching, 
ceramics,  stitchery,  clay,  and  papier  mache,  by  students  in  the 
elementary,  junior,  and  senior  high  schools  of  the  District  of 
Columbia.  For  most  of  the  participants,  it  was  the  first  time  their 
work  had  been  displayed.  The  next  exhibition,  "The  Message 
Makers,"  concerned  the  communication  media — television,  radio, 
newspaper,  and  film.  It  examined  the  decision-making  process  uti- 
lized by  the  media  in  determining  the  selection  of  a  message  and 
in  its  influence  on  the  lives  of  people  in  general,  and  black  people  in 

The  fifth  annual  exhibition  of  works  by  members  of  the  D.C.  Art 
Association  was  presented  in  November.  These  art  exhibitions  not 
only  celebrate  the  creative  efforts  of  members  of  the  Washington 
community  but  also  encourage  young  artists  who  view  the  exhibi- 
tion. With  this  in  mind,  the  last  exhibit  this  fiscal  year  was  "East 
Bank  Artists,"  a  display  of  work  by  student,  nonprofessional,  and 
professional  artists  living  east  of  the  Anacostia  River.  Many  of  the 
sixty  participating  artists,  representing  a  wide  variety  of  talent  and 
background,  were  exhibiting  in  a  public  museum  for  the  first  time. 

In  celebration  of  this  year's  Black  History  Week,  the  Museum 
opened  its  first  Bicentennial  exhibition,  "Blacks  in  the  Westward 
Movement."  This  exhibition  tells  the  story  of  the  blacks  who  ex- 
plored, conquered,  and  settled  the  western  portion  of  America,  a 
story  of  interest  to  every  citizen  of  the  United  States,  but  one  that 
has  long  been  neglected.  Five  copies  of  this  rich  and  colorful  ex- 
hibit are  traveling  throughout  the  United  States  under  the  auspices 
of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  TraveHng  Exhibition  Service.  Three 
other  Bicentennial  exhibitions:  "The  Frederick  Douglass  Years," 
a  traveling  show  only;  "The  Black  Woman,"  to  open  at  the  Museum 
in  January  1976;  and  "The  Anacostia  Story,"  to  open  at  the 
Museum  in  July  1976,  will  also  be  traveling  throughout  the  Nation 
under  the  auspices  of  sites. 

252  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

John  Kinard,  Director  of  the  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum,  gives  a  talk  for  visiting 
members  of  the  international  museum  community.  Below.  Mr.  Kinard  greets  visitors 
from  Togo.  Shown  (from  left)  are  Kikou  Mathias  Aithnard,  Director  of  Culture  and 
Scientific  Research;  William  Adojyi,  Cultural  Attache,  Togo  Embassy;  Agbenowossi 
Kodjo  Koffi,  Minister  of  Youth,  Sports,  Culture  and  Scientific  Research.  The  Togolese 
officials  were  interested  in  the  role  of  the  Smithsonian  in  the  cultural  life  of  the  United 
States  and  Washington,  particularly  in  seeing  how  the  neighborhood  museum  works 
with  young  people. 

Roy  Blade,  Director  of  the  Corcoran  Gallery  of  Art,  and  Peggy  Cooper,  founder 
of  Workshops  for  Careers  in  the  Arts-High  School  for  the  Arts,  look  over  a 
work  of  art  they  are  judging  for  the  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum's  D.C. 
Art  Association  Exhibition  1974-1975. 

During  fiscal  year  1975  nearly  70,000  persons  visited  or  were 
served  by  the  Museum  and  its  Mobile  Unit.  Most  of  these  were 
either  scheduled  tour  groups  or  participants  in  the  education 
department's  sponsored  programs  and  activities,  but  many  were 
scholars,  museologists,  and  representatives  of  organizations  such 
as  the  International  Council  of  Museums,  Congressional  Wives,  and 
Resident  Associates.  Highlights  of  these  sponsored  programs 
included  the  arrival  of  Santa  Claus  in  Anacostia,  witnessed  by  over 
3000  children,  and  the  eighth  annual  Young  People's  Festival  of 
the  Arts,  a  program  that  included  performances  by  local  school 
groups  as  well  as  by  the  United  States  Navy  Band-Port  Authority, 
the  Howard  University  Children's  Theatre,  the  Dance  Project,  and 
Jones-Haywood  School  of  Ballet. 

An  exciting  cultural  achievement  this  year  was  the  creation  of 
the  Anacostia  Historical  Society.  With  a  membership  of  140  con- 

254  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

cerned  citizens,  the  Society  is  interested  in  promoting  community 
pride  through  the  study  and  appreciation  of  Anacostia's  history. 
In  the  coming  year  Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum  looks 
forward  to  producing  its  Bicentennial  exhibitions  in  the  new  Ex- 
hibits Design  and  Production  Laboratory  to  be  opened  in  the  fall 
of  1975. 

Division  of  Performing  Arts 

Carrying  out  the  Institution's  role  as  cultural  conservator,  the 
Division  of  Performing  Arts  is  responsible  for  planning,  producing, 
and  presenting  performing  arts  events,  with  an  emphasis  on  pro- 
grams that  relate  to  and  enhance  the  Institution's  collections. 

The  Division  has  achieved  national  outreach  and  international 
participation  with  several  of  its  programs :  the  eighth  annual  Festival 
of  American  Folklife,  the  Smithsonian  Collection  of  Classic  Jazz, 
and  an  extensive  winter  concert  program.  In  addition,  the  Division 
of  Performing  Arts  shares  the  American  experience  in  its  many 
creative  forms  with  people  across  the  Nation  through  touring  per- 
formances of  its  concert  series,  and  tours  of  ethnic  performers 
from  the  Festival. 

The  winter  concerts,  organized  around  nine  different  series,  made 
a  statement  about  musical  diversity.  Jazz,  Chamber  Music,  Ameri- 
can Popular  Song,  and  Women  in  Country  Music  were  some  of  the 
themes.  The  cultural  contributions  of  a  number  of  leading  Ameri- 
can artists  were  honored  at  Smithsonian  presentations  including 
Dizzy  Gillespie,  John  Raitt,  Jan  DeGaetani,  Margaret  Whiting, 
Randy  Weston,  and  Maybelle  Carter.  The  Jazz  Heritage  concert 
series  and  free  public  workshops,  offered  for  the  third  year  under 
the  direction  of  Martin  Williams,  continued  at  the  Baird  Audi- 
torium; a  new  Jazz  Connoisseur  series  was  added  at  the  Hall  of 
Musical  Instruments.  A  new  series  of  contemporary  music  inaugu- 
rated the  auditorium  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture 
Garden.  "Man  and  His  Culture,"  a  new  series  at  the  Museum  of 
Natural  History,  presented  Malaysians,  Sri  Lankans,  and  Japanese 
in  performances  related  to  the  anthropological  collections.  With 
the  Division  of  Musical  Instruments,  a  dozen  events  featured  rarely 

Public  Service  I  255 





A  Scandanavian  broom  dance  in  the  Old  Ways  in  the  New  World  area  was  a  featured 
presentation  at  the  Festival  of  American  Folklife.  Below:  Calf-herding  techniques  were 
also  a  lively  part  of  the  Mississippi  presentation  at  the  Festival. 

f  'ItmiiiZ 



performed  music  played  on  original  instruments  from  one  of  the 
world's  largest  collections.  More  than  15,000  persons  attended  the 
more  than  fifty-five  events  offered. 

The  Touring  Performance  Service  during  the  1974-1975  season 
sent  fifty-four  performances  of  folk  music,  puppets,  and  theater  on 
tour  to  twenty-one  cities  in  twelve  states.  The  Smithsonian  Resi- 
dent Puppet  Theatre  attracted  3000  people  to  the  premiere  of  "The 
Book  of  Three"  as  well  as  3000  to  a  new  musical  version  of  the 
classic  Treasure  Island. 

Enlivening  the  mall  area,  the  Division  continued  to  operate  an 
old-time  popcorn  machine  and  an  authentic  carousel. 

Celebrating  the  cultural  vitality  of  America's  traditional  culture, 
the  Division  presents  the  annual  Festival  of  American  Folklife.  The 
1974  Festival  brought  900  performers  from  Tunisia,  Greece,  Ni- 
geria, Trinidad,  Norway,  Sweden,  and  Finland,  fifteen  Indian  tribes, 
nine  unions  and  organizations  representing  "Workers  in  Com- 
munications," and  the  state  of  Mississippi.  More  than  one  million 
visitors  attended  the  ten-day  Festival,  co-presented  by  the  Na- 
tional Park  Service. 

Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education 

The  Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education  (oese)  is 
charged  with  giving  assistance,  upon  request,  to  the  education 
offices  of  the  various  Smithsonian  museums  and  public  service 

A  primary  responsibility  of  oese  is  to  encourage  cooperation 
and  exchange  of  information  among  the  Smithsonian  education 
offices  and  between  those  offices  and  the  District  of  Columbia  area 
schools.  Toward  this  end,  a  number  of  efforts  are  currently  under- 
way. Two  publications — a  monthly  newsletter.  Let's  Co,  and  an 
annual  brochure,  Learning  Opportunities  for  Schools — inform 
teachers  of  Smithsonian  programs  and  other  activities  of  interest  to 
young  people  and  contain  suggestions  for  using  museums  as  edu- 
cational resources.  The  publications  are  sent  free  of  charge  to  over 
1300  area  schools.  In  addition,  an  annual  "Teacher's  Day"  brings 
teachers  and  education   staff  members  together   for  an  informal 

Public  Service  I  257 

program  of  conversation  and  special  activities.  In  1975,  more  than 
seventy  Washington-area  educators  took  part  in  this  event,  which 
featured  a  preview  of  Smithsonian  Bicentennial  plans  and  a  walking 
tour  of  the  Mall. 

Teachers  are  reached  also  through  an  oese  workshop  and  seminar 
program,  now  in  its  fourth  year.  During  fiscal  year  1975,  a  total  of 
2200  teachers  participated  in  seventy  workshops  and  seminars,  in- 
cluding a  summer  (1974)  course  enabling  the  development  of  cur- 
riculum units,  based  on  Smithsonian  resources,  for  use  in  the 
school  classroom.  Among  the  diverse  projects  in  art,  history,  and 
science  that  resulted  from  the  course  was  a  unit  on  Colonial  Life, 
developed  by  a  fourth-grade  teacher  from  Montgomery  County 
Public  Schools.  Through  visits  to  period  rooms  in  the  National 
Museum  of  History  and  Technology  and  a  variety  of  home  and 
classroom  activities — such  as  washing  and  carding  wool  and 
making  old-fashioned  gingerbread  and  sassafrass  tea — students 
taking  part  in  the  unit  were  able  to  discover  at  first  hand  some 
of  the  hardships  and  pleasures  of  colonial  living.  The  culminating 
activity  was  a  "Colonial  Day"  festival,  for  which  the  youngsters, 
dressed  in  period  costumes,  shared  the  results  of  their  labors  with 
their  schoolmates. 

In  fiscal  1976,  an  increasingly  varied  selection  of  teacher  train- 
ing and  orientation  programs  will  be  offered,  including  a  special 
Bicentennial  series,  "Tuesdays  at  the  Smithsonian,"  a  seminar  on 
museum  teaching  methods;  and  a  three-week  in-service  course 
sponsored  in  cooperation  with  the  Fairfax  County  Park  Authority 
and  the  Fairfax  County  Public  Schools. 

For  the  past  five  years,  a  learning-service  experience  for  teenage 
volunteers  has  been  provided  through  the  oese  "Summer  Info  Pro- 
gram." In  1974,  twenty-seven  Washington-area  high  school  stu- 
dents, selected  and  trained  by  oese,  conducted  visitors  through  the 
National  Air  and  Space  Museum  and  the  National  Museum  of  His- 
tory and  Technology. 

In  June,  July,  and  August  1975,  a  pilot  program  for  summer 
interns,  sponsored  by  oese,  will  carry  the  Info  idea  a  step  farther. 
Twenty-one  promising  high  school  seniors  from  rural  and  inner- 
city  communities  as  far  away  as  Maine  and  North  Carolina  will 
engage  in  learning-service  projects  in  various  parts  of  the  Institu- 
tion under  the  guidance  of  curatorial  and  other  professional  staff 

258  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

/•  No 

Montgomery  County  tourth  graders  use  old-fashioned  implements  to  card  and 
spin  wool  as  part  of  a  unit  on  "Colonial  Life,"  developed  by  their  teacher  under 
the  auspices  of  the  oese  teacher  workshop  program. 

members.  A  grant  from  the  DeWitt  Wallace /Reader's  Digest  Schol- 
arship Fund  has  made  this  effort  possible. 

Other  important  oese  services  include:  (1)  a  resource  center, 
which  loans  to  both  paid  and  volunteer  education  workers  through- 
out the  Institution,  printed  and  audiovisual  materials  relating  to 
museum  education  and  (2)  a  Docent  Roundtable,  established  in 
1974.  Through  monthly  meetings  and  other  activities  sponsored  by 
the  Docent  Roundtable,  the  volunteer  guides  (docents)  from  the 
various  Smithsonian  museums  are  able  to  learn  of  the  work  of 
their  colleagues  and  to  discuss  matters  of  common  concern. 

In  fiscal  1976,  oese  will  further  expand  its  services  through  a 
program  of  workshops  and  materials  designed  to  meet  the  needs 
of  a  national  teacher  audience.  As  a  first  step  in  this  direction,  a 
booklet  on  the  educational  uses  of  museums  is  in  progress.  In  addi- 
tion to  offering  advice  on  such  mundane  matters  as  lunchtime 
arrangements  and  scheduling  buses,  the  publication  will  contain 
suggestions  for  ways  of  structuring  museum  visits  to  fit  the  school 
curriculum  at  various  stages  and  grade  levels. 

VuhVxc  Service  I  259 

Through  workshops,  pubHcations,  and  related  activities,  the 
Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education  will  continue  to 
serve  the  Smithsonian's  education  offices,  while  seeking  to  meet  a 
growing  commitment  to  foster  the  educational  uses  of  museums  in 
the  Washington  area  and  throughout  the  Nation. 

Office  of  Public  Affairs 

The  central  mission  and  continuing  priority  of  the  Office  of  Public 
Affairs  are  to  support  and  augment  various  Smithsonian  programs 
concerned  with  the  increase  and  diffusion  of  knowledge  so  that 
there  will  be  a  greater  public  understanding  of  the  Institution's 
activities.  Basically,  the  Office  of  Public  Affairs'  main  functions  are 
those  of  popular  education  and  visitor  orientation  through  the  use 
of  diverse  media.  News  releases,  radio  and  television  productions, 
brochures,  periodicals,  filmstrips,  and  code-a-phones  are  among 
the  techniques  appropriately  employed  to  reach  the  many  audi- 
ences to  which  the  Institution  seeks  to  address  itself.  In  addition, 
the  staff  devotes  a  considerable  amount  of  its  time  and  skills 
to  employee  communication  in  a  daily  effort  to  keep  the  Institution's 
curatorial  and  administrative  leadership  aware  of  media  develop- 
ments, cultural  criticism,  museum  innovations,  and  other  societal 
trends  that  might  affect  Institutional  planning. 

One  satisfying  and  rewarding  result  deriving  from  the  Office  of 
Public  Affairs'  efforts  is  the  apparent  deeper  etching  of  the 
Smithsonian's  name  in  academic  and  museum  communities  around 
the  world  as  a  preeminent  center  of  intellectual  and  cultural  activi- 
ties. Smithsonian  is  a  familiar  word  in  the  libraries  and  the  living 
rooms  of  America.  More  and  more  public  attention  is  being  re- 
ceived by  research  programs,  informative  exhibits,  and  special 
academic  events  at  the  Smithsonian,  a  byproduct  of  the  Institution's 
continued  growth  and  further  encouragement  of  significant  and 
exciting  areas  of  scholarship  by  its  professional  staff. 

During  the  year,  the  Institution  moved  forward  on  several  fronts 
in  the  expanding  field  of  telecommunications,  including  television, 
film,  and  radio.  Through  a  trio  of  special  programs,  the  Smithsonian 
made  an  outstanding  showing  in  prime-time  commercial  network 
television.  Presented  on  the  Columbia  Broadcasting  System's  net- 

260  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Nazaret  Cherkezian,  Telecommunications  Coordinator,  Smithsonian  Office  of  Public 
Affairs,  and  Paul  E.  Desautels,  Smithsonian  Curator  of  the  Division  of  Mineralogy, 
with  the  Hope  Diamond.  The  famed  gem  was  the  subject  of  a  television  special  on 
March  27,  1975. 

At  the  Smithsonian  Institution  to  commemorate  the  fifth  anniversary  of  the  First 
Landing  on  the  Moon,  Buzz  Aldrin,  Mike  Collins,  and  Neil  Armstrong  stand  in  front 
of  Command  Module  Columbia,  July  20,  1974. 

work  as  part  of  the  DuPont  Cavalcade  of  Television,  the  programs 
concerr\ed  the  natural  sciences  and  flight.  The  programs  were 
titled:  "Monsters!  Mysteries  or  Myths?;"  "Flight:  The  Sky's  the 
Limit/'  a  look  at  flight  through  the  eyes  of  teenagers;  and  the 
"Legendary  Curse  of  the  Hope  Diamond/'  portraying  some  of  the 
legends  behind  the  Institution's  most  popular  artifact.  It  should  be 
noted  that  the  initial  program,  which  sought  to  use  the  scientific 
method  in  analyzing  the  worth  of  myths  concerning  the  Abominable 
Snowman,  the  Loch  Ness  Monster,  and  the  Bigfoot  Expeditions, 
scored  the  highest  rating  for  a  documentary  heretofore  presented 
on  American  television. 

With  the  approach  of  the  Bicentennial,  film-makers,  television 
producers,  audiovisual  companies,  and  radio  stations  have  increased 
their  already  heavy  demands  for  Smithsonian  participation.  Pro- 
grams such  as  the  National  Broadcasting  Company's  "Today"  show 
and  the  American  Broadcasting  Company's  "AM  America"  origi- 
nated "live"  film  and  videotape  reports  from  the  Institution.  They 
covered  a  variety  of  topics  ranging  from  the  life  of  America's  giant 
pandas,  Hsing-Hsing  and  Ling-Ling,  at  the  National  Zoological 
Park,  to  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology's  popu- 
lar "Whatsit"  exhibit. 

In  addition,  the  Telecommunications  Staff  coordinated  Smith- 
sonian participation  in  productions  by  many  outside  companies 
and  agencies  including  the  United  States  Information  Agency  for 
overseas  distribution,  the  Armed  Forces  Radio  Network,  and  the 
Congressional  radio-television  group. 

As  part  of  the  Institution's  "outreach"  effort,  the  Telecom- 
munications Staff  worked  with  the  Encyclopaedia  Britannica  Edu- 
cational Corporation  in  the  development  and  introduction  of  the 
first  five  in  a  series  of  educational  filmstrips  entitled  "Museums 
and  Man."  Designed  for  students  from  middle-school  level  up,  the 
filmstrips  provide  a  colorful,  richly  informative  overview  of  the 
world  of  museums.  Additional  filmstrips  in  the  series,  relating  to 
other  Smithsonian  interests,  are  being  prepared. 

A  forty-five-minute  film  covering  the  Institution's  many  bureaus 
and  activities  was  produced  by  the  telecommunications  staff  for  use 
by  Smithsonian  representatives  speaking  to  outside  audiences.  The 
silent  film  was  specifically  designed  for  use  with  the  speaker's  own 

262  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

"Radio  Smithsonian"  continued  to  present  half-hour  weekly 
programs  cutting  across  the  full  range  of  Smithsonian  interests.  As 
the  year  ended,  the  program  was  being  carried  by  sixty  radio 
stations  across  the  Nation  as  well  as  on  the  "Voice  of  America" 
overseas.  The  "Radio  Smithsonian"  staff  also  assisted  in  coordi- 
nating audio  records  of  significant  events  at  the  Smithsonian  as  part 
of  an  effort  to  develop  an  oral  archive.  In  this  area,  planning  was 
started  with  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum  on  the  develop- 
ment of  an  oral  history  program  concerning  the  development  of 
flight  around  the  world. 

The  Office  of  Public  Affairs'  Publications  Section  continued  to 
mirror  activities  at  the  Smithsonian  through  the  pages  of  the 
monthly  Smithsonian  Torch.  The  quarterly,  Smithsonian  Institution 
Research  Reports,  was  expanded  to  provide  an  improved  outlet  for 
news  of  research  in  various  disciplines — in  the  humanities  as  well 
as  in  the  natural  sciences — underway  in  the  "back  room"  labora- 
tories and  libraries  of  the  Institution.  Research  Reports  now  have 
an  expanding  international  circulation  which  includes  both  the  aca- 
demic community  and  the  general  public.  The  section  has  worked 
with  the  Bicentennial  coordinator  to  produce  a  new  general  leaflet 
about  the  Smithsonian  which  incorporates  information  about 
Bicentennial  exhibitions  and  events.  This  leaflet  is  being  translated 
into  several  languages  for  foreign  visitors.  Millions  of  copies  of 
both  the  English  and  foreign  language  versions  will  be  printed  for 
the  Bicentennial  visitors. 

The  following  leaflets  were  issued  by  the  Office  of  Public  Affairs 
in  fiscal  year  1975: 

References  to  North  American  Silver  and  Silver-Plated  74-7 

References  to  Fireplaces  and  Ovens  74-8 

Bibliography  on  Folk  Instruments  74-9 

American  Carousels  74-10 

References  to  Woodenware  74-11 

Bibliography  of  the  Civil  War  74-12 

Machines  and  Models  in  Suiting  Everyone  74-13 

References  on  North  American  Indian  Clothing  75-1 

References  on  Present  Day  Conditions  Among  75-2 

U.S.  Indians 

Public  Service  I  263 

References  on  Indian  War  and  Warfare  75-3 

References  on  Seminole  Indians  75-4 

Textiles  in  Suiting  Everyone  75-5 

Bibliography  on  Indian  Lore,  Crafts  75-6 

North  American  Indian  Periodicals  75-7 

18th  Century  Clothing  in  Suiting  Everyone  75-8 

18th  Century  Garments — Black  and  White  Photos  75-9 

The  Bermuda  Triangle  75-10 

Unidentified  Flying  Objects  75-11 

Caring  for  Wild  Birds  75-13 

The  Hope  Diamond  75-14 
note:  None  issued  under  #75-12. 

The  Publications  Section  also  has  been  concerned  with  the  re- 
search and  editing  required  by  numerous  reference  book  publishers 
planning  to  include  mention  of  all  or  some  of  the  Smithsonian's 
activities  in  their  various  publications.  Both  private  publishers  and 
governmental  agencies  are  represented  in  the  inquiries  for  ref- 
erence book  research. 

Major  events  such  as  the  opening  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and 
Sculpture  Garden,  the  Festival  of  American  Folklife,  dedications  of 
new  exhibits,  the  television  series,  and  pre-Bicentennial  planning 
occupied  much  of  the  time  of  the  News  Bureau.  During  the  year, 
340  news  releases  were  issued,  twenty-two  of  which  concerned 
Bicentennial  events,  and  thirty-nine  were  about  the  Hirshhorn's 
first  year  of  operation.  In  staffing,  the  effort  toward  decentraliza- 
tion continued  with  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  the  Na- 
tional Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  and  the  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History  taking  on  the  public  affairs  duties 
within  their  bureaus.  Meantime,  an  increased  effort  to  gain  public 
notice  for  scientific  research  activities  at  the  Institution  was  under- 
taken with  the  cooperation  of  the  Assistant  Secretary  for  Science. 

The  Special  Events  Staff  assisted  in  the  planning,  preparation, 
coordination,  and  completion  of  approximately  675  special  events 
during  the  year.  These  included  lectures,  presentations,  con- 
ferences, symposia,  meetings,  openings  of  permanent  or  tem- 
porary exhibitions,  concerts,  coffees  and  teas,  luncheons,  dinners 
and  receptions,  dances,  and  miscellaneous  events.  In  addition,  the 
Staff    also    distributed    some    600    Smithsonian-oriented    posters 

264  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

throughout  the  Institution  and  to  various  information  booths  op- 
erated by  the  National  Park  Service.  The  office  supervised  the 
production  and  distribution  of  about  75,000  printed  pieces,  includ- 
ing invitations,  announcements,  programs,  and  acceptances.  A 
major  event  was  the  formal  opening  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum 
and  Sculpture  Garden,  at  which  15,000  guests  were  received  over 
a  four-day  period.  Among  those  in  attendance  at  the  various  events 
at  the  Hirshhorn  were  Secretary  and  Mrs.  Ripley,  Ambassador 
Daniel  P.  Moynihan,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  Hirshhorn,  and  Mayor 
and  Mrs.  Walter  Washington. 

Special  tours  were  arranged  during  the  year  for  the  Empress  of 
Iran,  Mrs.  Nelson  Rockefeller  and  her  sons,  and  many  other  dis- 
tinguished visitors.  During  the  Festival  of  American  Folklife,  special 
tours  were  conducted  for  representatives  of  the  People's  Republic 
of  China,  George  Meany  of  the  AFL-CIO,  and  several  groups  of 
diplomats  posted  in  Washington.  Secreatry  of  State  Henry  Kissinger 
was  the  host  at  a  luncheon  at  Hillwood  for  the  Shah  and  Empress 
of  Iran.  Secretary  and  Mrs.  Ripley  were  the  hosts  at  a  luncheon  for 
the  Empress  of  Iran  at  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture 
Garden  and  at  a  luncheon  for  Sir  John  and  Lady  Llewellyn,  and  a 
dinner  for  the  Duke  of  Gloucester. 

The  Special  Events  Staff  also  worked  closely  with  the  Woodrow 
Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars,  the  Senate  of  Scientists, 
and  the  Office  of  Museum  Programs  in  arranging  various  special 
events  throughout  the  year. 

The  "Free  Film  Theatre"  continued  its  weekly  offers  of  motion 
pictures  relevant  to  Smithsonian  interests  with  heavy  attendance 
during  the  peak  periods  of  visitation.  Films  that  were  presented 
generally  concerned  themes  in  the  fields  of  history,  art,  and  the 
natural  sciences.  The  theater  program  was  held  in  cooperation  with 
the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  and  the  National 
Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Office  of  Smithsonian  Symposia  and  Seminars 

The  Office  of  Seminars,  formerly  responsible  for  the  Institution's 
advanced  studies  program  established  in  1967,  was  renamed  the 
Office  of  Smithsonian  Symposia  and  Seminars  to  reflect  its  pan- 

Public  Service  I  265 

Institutional  activities  and  outreach.  Under  its  new  name  it  con- 
tinues to  develop  broad  educational  programs  and  to  serve  as  a 
resource  facility  for  governmental  and  private  organizations,  as 
well  as  for  universities  and  scholars. 

Administration  of  the  Smithsonian's  international  symposia 
series  program  in  1975  included  publication  of  The  Nature  of 
Scientific  Discovery,  based  on  the  fifth  symposium  developed  in 
association  with  The  National  Academy  of  Sciences  as  the  major 
American  tribute  to  Nicolaus  Copernicus  celebrating^ in  1973^  the  five 
hundredth  anniversary  of  his  birth.  Edited  by  Owen  Gingerich, 
astrophysicist  at  the  Smithsonian's  Astrophysical  Observatory 
and  professor  of  astronomy  and  of  the  history  of  science  at  Har- 
vard University,  the  book  comprises  three  major  sections:  the 
papers  presented  at  the  symposium,  summaries  of  the  adjunct 
collegia,  and  the  Copernican  festival.  Supported  by  the  National 
Science  Foundation,  the  National  Endowment  for  the  Humanities, 
the  Copernicus  Society  of  America,  and  Exxon  and  other  corporate 
contributors,  the  symposium  provided  a  fresh  examination  of  those 
elements  conducive  to  scientific  achievement,  focusing  on  the 
Renaissance  and  on  contemporary  science  and  technology.  The  book 
is  but  one  educational  product  extending  the  life  and  audience  of  the 
original  activities  of  Copernicus  Week. 

Continuing  its  function  as  a  Smithsonian  resource  facility,  the 
office  organized  for  the  National  Aeronautics  and  Space  Admin- 
istration a  one-week  seminar  on  the  "Outlook  for  Space,"  designed 
to  provide  insight  into  the  social-political-economic-cultural  en- 
vironment foreseen  for  the  remainder  of  this  century,  to  assist  in 
planning  future  space  research  and  exploration.  Some  thirty  guest 
discussants  and  twenty-five  scientists  and  astronauts  from  nasa 
participated  in  the  meetings  at  Hammersmith  Farm,  the  summer 
estate  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hugh  D.  Auchincloss  at  Newport,  Rhode 
Island.  As  a  result  of  the  seminar,  the  office  has  been  approached 
by  the  Preservation  Society  of  Newport  County  and  other  civic 
groups  and  leaders  to  advise  on  ways  and  means  to  take  advantage 
educationally  of  the  architectural  resources  of  their  community  for 
seminar  and  symposium  activities.  For  example,  the  office  is  assist- 
ing in  the  planning  of  a  Bicentennial  symposium  on  the  history  of 
religious  toleration  and  freedom  in  the  United  States  which  will 
make  use  of  Touro  Synagogue,  Trinity  Church,  and  other  historic 
structures  as  settings  for  scholarly  dialogues. 

266  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Participants  in  the  "Outlook  for  Space"  seminar  take  a  break   to  enjoy  the  bracing 
October  air  at  Hammersmith  Farm,  overlooking  Narragansett  Bay. 

Owen  Gingerich,  editor  of  The  Nature  of  Scientific  Discovery,  and  His  Excellency 
Witold  Trampczynski,  Ambassador  of  the  Polish  People's  Republic,  exchange  felicita- 
tions at  the  May  pre-publication  party  in  the  National  Academy  of  Science's  Great  Hall. 

Joining  with  the  Institute  of  Psychiatry  and  Foreign  Affairs  and 
the  State  Department's  Foreign  Service  Institute,  the  office  de- 
veloped a  special  series  of  seminars  preparing  a  group  of  American 
doctors  and  medical  specialists  for  an  extended  visit  to  the  People's 
Republic  of  China,  in  which  members  of  the  Chinese  Delegation  to 
the  United  States  participated.  (In  1972  the  three  organizations 
were  hosts  to  a  medical  group  visiting  the  United  States  from 

Other  seminars  during  the  year  were:  a  cooperative  seminar  on 
the  Declaration  of  Independence,  in  association  with  Bryn  Mawr 
College  as  part  of  the  college's  1976  studies  program  for  high- 
school  newspaper  editors  throughout  the  United  States,  wherein 
students  examined  the  language  used  in  the  document,  relating  it 
to  the  Revolutionary  period  and  evaluating  their  own,  present-day 
sense  of  it;  "The  Preconditions  for  Voluntarism,"  with  discussion 
led  by  Robert  A.  Goldwin,  special  consultant  to  the  President;  and 
"Health  Services  and  Community  Participation:  Comparisons  in 
Two  Cultures"  (the  United  States  and  the  United  Kingdom), 
featuring  Julian  Knox,  distinguished  specialist  in  international 
health  care. 

The  office  also  collaborated  with  the  American  Universities  Field 
Staff  in  presenting  a  series  of  new  films  on  human  cultural  adapta- 
tion, "Faces  of  Change,"  to  the  Smithsonian's  new  National  Anthro- 
pological Film  Center.  The  series  was  developed  by  aufs  in  con- 
sultation with  the  Center  and  contains  126,000  feet  of  research 

Planning  continued  toward  the  Bicentennial  symposium,  "Kin 
and  Communities:  The  Peopling  of  America,"  sixth  in  the  Smith- 
sonian's symposia  series.  Scheduled  for  1977,  a  series  of  seminars, 
papers,  films,  workshops,  and  other  activities  will  reflect  on  the  role 
of  family  institutions  and  communities  in  shaping  the  Nation  during 
its  first  two  hundred  years  and  as  continuing  links  to  African,  Euro- 
pean, Asian,  and  other  cultures  (including  those  of  the  American 
Indian)  which  have  enriched  American  civilization.  The  Department 
of  History,  American  University,  is  assisting  in  program  planning 
and  is  developing  a  related  project  of  gathering  information  on  indi- 
vidual family  histories  for  computer  banking  and  data  retrieval  in 
subsequent  studies  by  historians,  anthropologists,  and  other 
scholars,  as  well  as  for  stimulating  self-knowledge  on  the  part  of 
those  writing  their  family  histories. 

268  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

An  international  conference  on  "The  United  States  in  the  World/' 
is  being  developed  jointly  by  the  Smithsonian,  the  American  Coun- 
cil of  Learned  Societies,  and  the  American  Studies  Association  as  a 
contemporary  study  of  American  influence  in  other  societies.  The 
conference  will  focus  on  how  we  have  affected — or  not  affected — 
others  in  science  and  technology,  in  politics  and  society,  and  in  the 
arts  and  media.  About  two  hundred  specialists  from  other  countries 
are  being  invited  to  come  to  Washington  in  September  1976  to  par- 
ticipate in  the  meetings  and  associated  activities,  along  with  an  equal 
number  from  the  United  States.  A  number  of  those  from  abroad  are 
being  asked  to  present  analytical  and  objective  papers,  no  attempt 
being  made  to  solicit  manuscripts  arguing  a  particular  point  of  view. 
The  conference's  goal  is  to  find  out  just  what  differences  two  hun- 
dred years  of  American  civilization  have  made  in  other  parts  of  the 

Reading  Is  Fundamental,  Inc. 

Reading  Is  Fundamental,  Inc.  (rif)  will  celebrate  its  tenth  anni- 
versary during  the  Bicentennial  year.  Founded  by  Mrs.  Robert  S. 
McNamara  as  a  national,  nonprofit,  tax-exempt  organization,  its 
program  is  designed  to  motivate  children  to  read. 

Its  goals  are:  (1)  to  demonstrate  that  books — in  the  home  as  well 
as  in  the  classroom — are  essential  to  a  child,  and  that  books  should 
be  available  to  all  children  to  own,  borrow,  and  buy,  and  (2)  to 
educate  the  American  public  to  the  fact  that  at  the  present  time 
this  is  not  the  case  and  to  show  through  rif  programs  the  exciting 
and  cohesive  force  produced  when  educators  and  communities, 
parents  and  children,  organize  their  resources  and  efforts  to  pro- 
duce a  more  literate  society. 

The  program  is  unique  in  that  it  stimulates  the  interest  of  children 
in  books  by  letting  them  choose  from  a  wide  variety  of  attractive, 
inexpensive  paperback  books  that  appeal  to  them,  and  by  letting 
them  keep  the  books  as  their  own. 

The  growth  of  interest  and  tastes  are  clearly  evident  as  rif  pro- 
grams go  on  from  year  to  year.  Faced  with  a  wide  choice  of  books 
at  their  first  distribution,  youngsters  tend  to  pick  up  what  is  familiar 

Public  Service  I  269 

— comic  books,  for  example,  like  Batman.  But  in  a  very  short  time, 
they  are  to  be  seen  browsing,  not  snatching  at  whatever  comes  to 
hand.  In  one  project  years  back,  the  children  all  selected  a  popular 
comic.  But  a  year  and  a  half  later,  the  majority  of  them  were  read- 
ing Charlotte's  Web. 

One  of  the  more  interesting  discoveries  was  the  enjoyment  by 
young  children  of  well-illustrated  Bible  stories.  A  project  director 
commented,  "It's  not  surprising.  After  all,  stories  like  David  and 
Goliath,  Joshua  at  the  Battle  of  Jericho,  and  others  are  really 
exciting.  The  children  love  them." 

Since  its  founding  in  1966,  more  than  two  million  children  have 
received  five  million  paperback  books.  Presently,  367  rif  programs 
are  operating  in  forty-six  states  (including  Alaska  and  Hawaii). 
They  are  locally  operated  and  funded  through  either  private 
sources  or  moneys  for  books  from  federally  funded  supplementary 
programs.  Seven  thousand  parents  and  community  leaders  have 
been  mobilized  as  volunteers  to  implement  rif  programs.  Teachers 
report  children  are  reading  more,  exchanging  books  with  their 
friends,  and  building  home  libraries.  Both  school  and  public  library 
circulations  have  increased  markedly  where  rif  operates.  Parents  are 
actively  involved  in  rif  programs  and  are  buying  books  for  their 
children,  reading  to  them  and  reading  themselves. 

The  impact  of  rif  on  libraries  alone  was  clear  this  year  and 
last  when  the  New  Mexico  State  Library  Commission  sponsored 
the  first  rif  project  to  be  funded  by  a  state  library. 

After  the  1974  summer  project,  the  Commission,  in  a  survey 
to  determine  rif's  impact,  found  that  "each  library  involved  with 
RIF  indicated  a  registration  increase  among  their  children." 

The  survey  also  showed  that  "other  benefits  from  the  program 
have  included  a  better  working  relationship  between  libraries  and 
schools;  increased  interest  in  the  library  by  parents;  expanded  par- 
ticipation of  children  in  other  library  programs." 

Public  demand  for  rif's  program  increased  dramatically  during 
the  past  year.  In  fiscal  year  1974  there  were  12,000  requests  for 
rif's  services,  and  by  May  1975  more  than  25,000  such  requests. 
The  number  of  rif  projects  increased  from  292  in  fiscal  year  1974 
to  367  as  of  June  1975. 

rif  projects  range  in  size  from  the  big  New  York  City  program 
that  gets  books  to  almost  80,000  youngsters  to  a  small  one  for 

270  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

This  photograph  is  eloquent  proof  of  the  success  of  RIF's  summer  Bookmobile 
Program  in  the  District  of  Columbia.  (Photo:  Courtesy  the  Washington  Star). 

130  Indian  youngsters  in  Mandaree,  North  Dakota.  Sister  Patricia 
Carroll,  of  Mandaree  School  District  #36,  reported,  "rif  has  been 
an  agent  of  joy  to  our  school.  The  teachers  have  been  so  en- 
thusiastic and  grateful  for  the  program  and  the  children  con- 
stantly beg  for  another  rif  day.  We  have  been  happier  people 
because  of  rif." 

With  the  prevailing  economic  situation,  rif  reduced  its  budget 
by  approximately  25  percent.  To  meet  the  paradoxical  situation  of 
a  reduced  budget  while  maintaining  quality  service  to  an  increasing 
number  of  projects,  rif  undertook  two  major  steps.  A  national 
corporate  fund  drive  was  successfully  developed  and,  to  serve  new 
programs,  rif  initiated  an  expanded  leadership  development  and 
training  program,  thus  assuring  the  most  economic  use  of  time 
of  its  small  field  staff  while  helping  to  multiply  their  effectiveness 
and  field  coverage.  Volunteers  were  trained  in  group  cluster  meet- 
ings to  develop  new  rif  project  leaders.  In  May  1975,  125  program 

Public  Service  I  271 

directors,  parents,  and  community  volunteers  from  twenty-one 
states  and  the  District  of  Columbia  attended  rif's  second  National 
Workshop  for  leadership  training  and  development. 

rif's  program  was  endorsed  by  the  United  States  Commissioner 
of  Education,  Dr.  Terrel  H.  Bell,  and  it  continued  its  cooperative 
activities  with  the  United  States  Office  of  Education's  Right  to  Read 
program.  The  United  States  Office  of  Education  awarded  rif  a  grant 
of  $80,000  for  the  establishment  of  a  National  Resource  and 
Training  Center  for  reading-motivational  programs. 

rif's  Board  of  Directors,  under  the  leadership  of  its  current 
Chairman,  Mrs.  Robert  S.  McNamara,  and  President,  Dr.  Sidney 
Nelson,  are  planning  a  special  Bicentennial  program  which  has  been 
endorsed  by  the  American  Revolution  Bicentennial  Administration. 
Its  goal  is  to  double  the  number  of  rif  projects  by  1977,  enabling 
it  to  serve  five  million  children  who  will  have  received  twenty-five 
million  books. 

Vice  President  Nelson  A.  Rockefeller  will  participate  in  the 
official  launching  of  rif's  Bicentennial  Program  which  will  be  held 
on  Citizenship  Day,  September  17,  1975,  at  the  National  Archives. 
Children  from  various  ethnic  backgrounds  who  have  made  sig- 
nificant progress  through  rif  reading  motivational  programs  and 
their  parents  will  be  invited  to  attend  and  read  portions  of  the 
Declaration  of  Independence,  the  Constitution,  and  the  Bill  of 

A  unique  book  entitled.  Our  Collective  Gift  to  this  Nation,  will 
be  published  for  rif  by  Doubleday.  Eliot  Wigginton,  President  of 
the  Board  of  the  Foxfire  Fund,  Rabun  Gap,  Georgia,  will  direct  the 
project  and  edit  the  book.  It  will  be  composed  of  interviews  con- 
ducted by  hundreds  of  high  school  students  representing  most  of 
the  cultural  groups  in  this  country.  The  subjects  for  their  inter- 
views will  be  older  people — in  many  cases  their  relatives — who 
live  in  their  communities.  Mr.  Wigginton  describes  the  book  as  an 
opportunity  for  our  grandparents  to  speak  from  their  special  per- 
spective— "a  forum  where  men  and  women  from  every  culture  can 
come  together  to  express,  through  their  grandchildren,  their  hopes 
and  fears  for  us  as  a  nation,  and  their  dreams  for  us  as  a  world." 

rif  will  also  publish  a  Bicentennial  rif  Guide  to  Book  Selection 
which  will  offer  a  comprehensive  list  of  annotated  paperback  books 
selected  from  the  offerings  of  approximately  one  hundred  pub- 

272  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Appropriate  Bicentennial  programs  will  be  undertaken  by  the 
local  RiF  projects  throughout  the  country  to  underscore  the  im- 
portance of  education  and  to  highlight  the  significance  of  reading 
achievement  in  securing  that  education. 

Reading  Is  Fundamental  is  based  in  the  Smithsonian  Institution 
with  offices  at  L'Enfant  Plaza.  The  Smithsonian  acts  as  rif's  fiscal 

Smithsonian  Associates 

The  Institution's  membership  program  of  the  Smithsonian  Asso- 
ciates was  essentally  designed  for  Washington  area  residents  until 
the  spring  of  1970  when  publication  of  the  Smithsonian  began. 
As  a  principal  benefit  of  membership,  the  monthly  magazine  so 
stimulated  interest  in  the  program  as  to  increase  the  Smithsonian 
Associates  to  more  than  900,000  members  across  the  country. 

A  developing  activity  for  Associates  is  the  travel  program.  Dur- 
ing fiscal  year  1975,  more  than  1400  members  took  a  foreign 
charter  or  domestic  study  tour  arranged  by  the  Associates  travel 
office,  and  some  12,500  were  interested  enough  in  the  plans  to 
ask  for  details. 

In  this  country  there  were  group  visits  to  such  places  as  Death 
Valley  to  study  the  geology  of  the  national  monument,  Arizona  to 
study  the  Hopi  and  Navajo  cultures,  and  to  Mississippi  to  tour 
antebellum  houses  in  Vicksburg,  Port  Gibson,  and  Natchez.  In  Janu- 
ary the  Washington  "Anytime"  Weekend  was  added  to  the  travel 
program  as  a  new  benefit,  and  was  designed  to  give  National 
Associates  the  opportunity  to  visit  Washington  and  the  Smith- 
sonian any  weekend  during  the  year. 

The  Smithsonian  Associate  Foreign  Charter  Program  was  estab- 
lished in  fiscal  year  1975.  One  charter  flight  was  sent  to  England 
and  two  flights  went  to  the  Soviet  Union.  In  the  Union  of  Soviet 
Socialist  Republics,  members  attended  lectures  with  curators  at  the 
Hermitage  and  Pushkin  museums  as  well  as  the  Tretyakov  Gal- 
lery before  breaking  into  small  guided  tours  of  the  facilities.  Addi- 

Public  Service  I  273 

tionally,  members  participated  in  many  small  group  discussions  at 
the  Leningrad-Tallinn  and  Moscow  Houses  of  Friendship.  In  Eng- 
land members  enjoyed  seminar  visits  at  the  Greater  Council  of 
London,  a  variety  of  museums,  and  a  number  of  the  great  houses 
and  archeological  sites. 

Another  innovation  of  the  year,  in  January,  was  the  first  regional 
programming  for  the  benefit  of  Associates  in  their  own  places  of 
residence.  In  collaboration  with  the  University  of  Houston,  7500 
Associates  from  the  Houston  and  Bellaire  areas  were  invited  to  see 
a  display  of  the  French  royal  jewels  from  the  collection  of  the 
National  Museum  of  Natural  History.  Nearly  3100  members  turned 
out  for  the  program,  and  Curator  Paul  E.  Desautels  lectured  four 
times  instead  of  the  scheduled  two  to  accommodate  the  unex- 
pected crowd. 

Later  in  the  spring,  a  similar  exhibit  was  presented  on  the 
premises  of  the  First  National  Bank  in  Palm  Beach,  Florida.  Several 
hundred  Associates  inspected  the  gems  and  were  guests  at  a  recep- 
tion for  Secretary  and  Mrs.  Ripley. 

On  the  strength  of  the  interest  shown  in  these  events  a  series 
of  others  were  planned  for  Associates  in  various  parts  of  the 

The  system  of  discounts  on  purchases  from  the  Smithsonian 
Museum  Shops  and  the  Smithsonian  Press  continued  to  be  widely 
used  by  the  Associates. 


The  Center's  Information  Volunteers  continue  to  act  as  the  Institu- 
tion's special  emissaries  of  goodwill,  providing  the  human  interface 
between  the  Smithsonian  and  visitors  or  potential  visitors  to  the 
national  collections  seven  days  a  week.  Whether  by  phone,  in  per- 
son, or  by  mail.  Volunteers  have  cheerfully  applied  themselves  to 
the  task  of  providing  the  most  explicit  and  thorough  directions, 
information,  and/or  data  requested. 

This  year  119  new  Volunteers  were  recruited  and  trained,  thirty- 
eight  of  whom  were  given  special  instruction  to  serve  the  new 
Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden.  Three  major  museums 
on  the  Mall  (mht,  mnh,  hmsg)  now  rely  on  the  Information  Volun- 
teer Desks  to  serve  as  the  place  where  individuals  with  staff  ap- 

274  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

pointments  may  have  their  appointments  confirmed  and  be  issued 
the  required  security  badges.  This  procedure,  as  well  as  being  the 
liaison  for  tour  groups  and  docents,  is  in  addition  to  assisting  the 
hundreds  of  thousands  of  visitors  seeking  aid.  Increased  duties 
as  well  as  preparation  for  the  Bicentennial  year  have  demanded 
double-  and  triple-staffing  numerous  Desks.  The  overall  percentage 
of  Desk  coverage  for  all  Mall  museums  (with  the  exception  of  the 
Freer  and  the  inclusion  of  the  off-campus  Renwick)  has  been  90 
percent  for  the  past  year. 

Telephone  traffic  continues  to  escalate,  up  38,000  or  30  percent 
over  1974's  125,000  calls. 

Mail  handled  through  the  Center  also  reflects  a  substantial  in- 
crease— 33,500  pieces  processed  over  last  year's  22,000.  National 
Associates'  mail  still  accounts  for  approximately  50  percent  of  all 
that  is  received.  Subject  matter  is  usually  multiple  in  nature,  taking 
a  substantial  amount  of  time  to  research  and  answer  properly.  All 
special  book  offerings  for  Associates  were  also  channeled  through 
the  Center,  as  well  as  maintenance  of  the  Smithsonian  Calendar 
of  Events  file. 

The  first  foreign-language  informational  tape  system  was  in- 
stalled at  both  entrances  of  the  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 
and  the  Mall  entrance  of  the  Museum  of  Natural  History.  The 
three-and-one-half-minute  orientation  is  available  in  German, 
French,  and  Spanish  as  indicated  by  color-coded  phones. 

A  visitor-orientation  slide-show  with  captions  in  English,  Ger- 
man, French,  and  Spanish  was  installed  in  the  Great  Hall  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution  Building.  This  visual  aid  is  intended  to  give 
visitors  a  directional  sense  of  the  Smithsonian's  Washington 

Volunteer  Certificates  of  Appreciation  and  Service  Pins  were 
distributed  through  the  Center  for  museums  or  galleries  requesting 
them  for  their  Volunteers.  The  most  impressive  program  by  far  was 
that  of  the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory  with  over  300 
International  Moonwatch  Volunteers,  some  of  whom  have  been 
working  since  1956. 

Some  10,300  National  Members  registered  in  the  Center  this 
year,  a  figure  that  is  somewhat  misleading  in  terms  of  the  actual 
number  of  member  families  served.  Our  space  for  the  majority  of 
the  year  was  so  restricted  that  many  Associates  simply  picked  up 
their  informational  literature  and  went  on  their  way.  This  situation 

Public  Service  I  275 

has  been  relieved  with  the  present  renovation  of  the  Smithsonian 
Institution  Lounge  as  an  Associates'  rest  and  relaxation  area. 

The  Commons,  at  long  last,  was  opened  for  Associates  on  week- 
ends, and  is  operating  quite  successfully. 

A  docent  program  was  established  to  provide  National  Members 
participating  in  the  Washington  Weekend  trip  package  an  exclusive 
tour  of  the  "Castle."  The  Weekend  package  and  the  tours  have 
proven  extremely  popular,  with  an  average  of  thirty  families  per 

Membership  registrations  were  not  as  numerous  as  expected, 
primarily  due  to  the  new  Resident  processing  procedure  which 
eliminates  on-the-spot  processing  in  the  Center.  The  Center  handled 
721  new  National  and  1207  new  Resident  memberships. 

A  handsome  informational  brochure  for  visiting  Associates  was 
introduced  this  year. 

The  Museum  Reference  Service  is  concentrating  on  the  compila- 
tion of  material  relative  to  the  thirteen  original  colonies  for  use  by 
Associates  traveling  the  Eastern  Seaboard. 

The  employee  National  membership  and  gift  file  continues  to 

Independent  Volunteer  placement  has  experienced  significant 
growth,  resulting  in  some  250  placements  for  42,000  hours  of 

Official  recognition  of  individual  Volunteer  service  throughout 
the  Institution  appears  this  year  for  the  first  time  in  this  report; 
see  appendix  14. 


The  Smithsonian  Resident  Associate  Program  was  established  in 
1965  by  Secretary  Ripley  to  provide  the  opportunity  for  residents 
of  the  Greater  Washington  area  to  participate  in  the  life  of  the 
Institution.  Through  its  educational  activities,  for  adults  and  young 
people,  it  has  attracted  a  local  membership  of  33,500  through  May 
1975  as  compared  with  22,000  in  May  1974,  and  over  four  times  the 
membership  of  May  1972.  The  membership  figure  represents  over 
75,000  individuals.  The  purpose  of  the  Program,  as  defined  by 
Secretary  Ripley,  is  to  "serve  as  a  link  between  what  the  Institu- 
tion does,  whether  in  museum  or  laboratory  or  art  gallery  pro- 

276  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Ora  Van  Beek,  Deputy  Director  of  the  Smithsonian  Archeological  Expedition 
Dig  at  Tell  Jemmeh  teaching  a  Young  Associates  archeology  class. 

grams  or  research  and  publications,  and  what  the  public  in  the 
Washington  area  can  do  to  participate."  It  seeks  to  achieve  this 
goal  with  classes  in  arts,  sciences,  humanities,  and  crafts;  study 
tours  within  the  Smithsonian  bureaus  and  nearby  complementary 
facilities;  special  lectures;  seminars;  film  series;  exhibition  previews; 
outdoor  festivals;  art  poster  projects;  and  performing  arts  events. 

In  recent  months,  increased  cooperation  with  Smithsonian 
bureaus  has  enabled  the  Resident  Associate  staff  to  conceive  and 
execute  a  program  broad  enough  to  accommodate  its  rapidly  ex- 
panding membership  with  differing  interests  and  aspirations.  The 
Associate,  the  monthly  newsletter  sent  to  all  members,  continues 
to  serve  effectively  as  the  Program's  communication  vehicle. 

In  proportion  to  the  membership  growth,  the  staff  has  grown 
from  twenty-six  at  the  end  of  fiscal  year  1974  to  thirty-one  by  the 
end  of  fiscal  year  1975,  primarily  in  support  personnel.  The  Pro- 
gram continues  to  make  a  sizable  contribution  to  the  unrestricted 

Public  Service  I  277 

Noted  violinist  Yehudi  Menuhin,  a  Resident  Associate  lecturer,  discussing  a 
composition  with  James  M.  Weaver,  Associate  Curator  of  the  Smithsonian's 
Division  of  Musical  Instruments. 

private  funds  of  the  Institution  while  the  membership  dues  and 
activity  fees  have  remained  constant.  With  the  reallocation  of  space 
in  the  Arts  and  Industries  Building,  the  Resident  Associate  Pro- 
gram has  moved  to  new  and  more  spacious  quarters,  refurbished 
with  its  own  funds.  Further,  to  replace  the  unsightly  wooden  struc- 
tures where  most  studio  classes  have  been  held  in  previous  years 
and  which  are  to  be  razed  in  the  summer  of  1975,  three  new  multi- 
purpose classrooms  for  Resident  Associate  classes  only  were  desig- 
nated in  the  Arts  and  Industries  Building.  The  National  Museum  of 
Natural  History  will  be  sharing  with  the  Program  four  other  new 
classrooms  now  under  construction.  These  new  spaces  should  en- 
able the  program  to  offer  instruction  in  more  attractive  and  appro- 
priate surroundings. 

278  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

During  fiscal  year  1975  the  Program  embarked  upon  a  number  of 
new  projects  or  continued  special  projects  recently  undertaken. 
With  the  cooperation  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture 
Garden,  the  Resident  Associate  Program  commissioned  and  pub- 
lished a  series  of  two  serigraphs  and  four  posters  commemorating 
the  opening  of  that  Museum.  Sold  through  the  membership,  the 
magazine  Smithsonian,  the  Museum  Shops,  and  government  agen- 
cies that  distributed  the  art  works  throughout  the  world,  the  enter- 
prise is  successful  financially  and  esthetically,  and  is  a  good  method 
of  furthering  public  awareness  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and 
Sculpture  Garden. 

From  the  proceeds  of  this  project,  (1)  415  scholarships  were 
awarded,  on  the  basis  of  need  and  interest,  to  inner-city  children, 
enabling  them  to  attend  Associate  classes  free  of  charge;  (2)  free 
tuition  was  provided  for  forty  docents  from  six  Smithsonian 
museums  to  attend  classes  in  the  field  of  their  special  interests; 
and  (3)  a  generous  contribution  was  made  to  the  Hirshhorn  Acquisi- 
tion Fund. 

The  Program  sponsored  a  three-day  festival  in  Video  Art  assisted 
by  a  grant  from  the  National  Endowment  for  the  Arts.  It  con- 
ducted a  four-day  seminar  at  the  request  and  under  the  sponsorship 
of  the  Office  of  Smithsonian  Museum  Programs  on  "Developing  a 
Museum-Oriented  Curriculum  for  Adults  and  Children,"  for 
twenty-three  museum  staff  members  from  museums  located 
throughout  the  United  States.  Follow-up  evaluation  indicated  that 
the  participants  found  the  experience  particularly  valuable. 

A  television  public  service  announcement  was  conceived  by  the 
staff,  produced  by  the  Smithsonian's  Exhibits  Motion  Picture  Unit, 
and  released  in  August  1974.  Widely  shown  on  local  television,  it 
was  declared  a  finalist  in  the  CLIO  awards  competition  of  the 
American  TV  and  Radio  Commercials  Festival.  The  Second  An- 
nual Photography  Contest  attracted  125  entries  from  members  in 
three  categories:  Adult,  Teen,  Under  12.  The  subject  matter  was 
limited  to  Smithsonian  buildings  or  collections;  the  judges  were 
appropriate  members  of  the  Smithsonian  curatorial  and  photo- 
raphic  staffs.  Three  prizes  were  awarded  in  each  category. 

The  number  of  lecture  classes  for  adults  in  the  arts,  sciences, 
and  humanities  increased  substantially  over  1974.  Taught  by 
Smithsonian  and  visiting  scholars,  105  classes  in  these  areas  were 

Public  Service  I  279 

scheduled  in  the  four  terms  this  fiscal  year.  A  total  of  215  adult 
classes,  including  studio  classes,  photography,  and  workshops,  were 
scheduled  for  adults  during  the  fiscal  year,  with  an  enrollment  of 
7778  students,  as  compared  with  179  classes  with  6405  students 
in  fiscal  1974.  Of  the  lecture  classes,  those  in  anthropology,  arche- 
ology, architecture,  and  graphic  and  interior  design  were  the  best 
attended.  Classes  in  photography  surpass  all  other  studio  classes 
in  enrollment. 

Through  the  Trips  and  Tours  section  of  the  Program,  members 
greatly  enjoyed  scholarly  tours  of  Smithsonian  exhibitions  and 
visits  to  nearby  cultural,  historical,  or  scientific  locales.  This  year 
there  were  354  on-site  learning  experiences,  100  of  which,  with 
6275  attendees,  carried  no  fee.  A  total  of  over  17,000  members  par- 
ticipated in  these  activities  led  by  Smithsonian  or  other  qualified 
scholars.  Among  the  most  popular  tours  were  those  that  enabled 
members  to  explore  facets  of  the  Institution:  a  "Behind  the  Scenes" 
tour  in  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History  attracted  over 
1500  members;  400  members  took  guided  tours  of  the  "fiearts  and 
Minds  of  the  People"  exhibition  at  the  National  Portrait  Gallery; 
125  enjoyed  luncheon-hour  talks  at  the  Freer  Gallery  of  Art,  and 
386  were  guided  through  the  fiirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture 
Garden.  All  tours  are  limited  in  size;  many  have  to  be  repeated 
as  often  as  twenty-four  times  to  accommodate  requests. 

The  Special  Events  component  of  the  Program  includes  lectures, 
seminars,  and  symposia  conducted  by  distinguished  Smithsonian 
and  visiting  scholars.  Outdoor  festivals,  film  series,  and  performing 
arts  are  also  integral.  During  fiscal  year  1975,  seventy-three  special 
events  were  attended  by  over  18,000  people.  The  Program  has  de- 
veloped a  new  cooperative  series  of  symposia  with  the  Woodrow 
Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars,  scheduling  four  per  year. 
It  is  also  offering  film  programs  in  cooperation  with  the  National 
Anthropological  Film  Center,  illustrated  lectures  in  cooperation 
with  the  Audubon  Naturalist  Society,  and  opportunities  for  mem- 
bers to  increase  their  appreciation  of  the  performing  arts  at  the 
John  F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts,  through  special 
lectures  arranged  in  conjunction  with  performances.  Twenty  special 
events  were  offered  free  to  members  only. 

The  Young  Associate  programs  extend  the  resources  of  the  Insti- 
tution to  members'  children  (as  well  as  the  scholarship  children 

280  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 





i     •                                          "^-^ 


A  popular  learning  trip  of  the  Resident  Associate  Program  is  a  walking  tour 

of  Georgetown. 

noted  above)  through  classes  and  special  activities.  The  programs 
offer  learning  experiences  appropriate  for  specific  age  groups;  the 
students'  ages  range  from  four  years  to  eighteen.  Over  twenty 
classes  are  offered  each  of  the  four  academic  terms.  This  year  the 
Program,  in  a  cooperative  venture  with  the  National  Museum  of 
Natural  History,  underwrote  a  Junior  Science  Club,  open  equally 
to  members'  children  and  pubUc  school  scholarship  participants. 
The  club  meets  weekly  to  work  intensively  on  projects  at  the 
Museum  under  the  supervision  of  a  curator.  Each  month  the  new 
Career  Workshops  offer  the  opportunity  for  high-school-age  mem- 
bers to  learn  about  museum  careers.  Younger  Associates  enjoy 
the  monthly  free  films  and  other  performing  arts  programs  as  well 

Public  Service  I  281 

as  courses  and  workshops.  The  annual  holiday  party  attracted  over 
1000  youngsters.  Over  11,000  young  people  have  participated  in 
the  Young  Associate  activities  this  past  year. 

There  are  over  4500  family  memberships,  and  special  activities 
are  regularly  geared  to  family  participation.  The  annual  Zoo  nights, 
and  the  Boomerang  and  Kite  Festivals  are  eagerly  anticipated  in 
addition  to  mushroom  hunts,  train  trips,  fossil  digs,  visits  to  Chesa- 
peake Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Study,  Silver  Hill,  farm 
excursions,  and  other  appropriate  indoor  and  outdoor  tours.  Forty- 
four  family  events  were  scheduled  in  fiscal  1975,  not  including  spe- 
cial activities  for  the  children  of  family  members. 

In  addition  to  the  activities  mentioned  above,  members  are 
offered  many  intrinsic  benefits.  During  fiscal  1975,  the  opening  of 
the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden  provided  the  oppor- 
tunity for  two  gala  special  Associate  openings.  Two  other  special 
exhibition  viewings  were  held  at  the  National  Collection  of  Fine 
Arts  and  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  A  free 
lecture  given  by  a  Smithsonian  curator  is  offered  monthly,  as  well 
as  other  free  special  lectures.  Over  42,000  attendees  were  re- 
corded at  free  membership  events  in  fiscal  1975.  The  Smithsonian 
magazine,  the  monthly  newsletter  the  Associate,  and  the  Smith- 
sonian calendar  are  membership  benefits,  as  well  as  the  privilege  of 
eating  in  the  Commons  of  the  "Castle,"  discounts  in  the  Museum 
Shops,  and  parking  in  the  Smithsonian  parking  lots  on  weekends, 
holidays,  and  evenings.  Members  obtain  reduced  fees  on  all 

Two  hundred  and  eighteen  Volunteers  work  for  the  Resident 
Associate  Program  on  a  regular  basis.  Their  responsibilities  vary 
from  office  duties  to  monitoring  classes.  This  June  these  Volunteers 
were  feted  at  a  reception,  to  express  appreciation  of  their  work  on 
behalf  of  the  Program  and  the  Institution.  Certificates  were 

During  fiscal  year  1975  staff  members  of  the  Program  received 
Certificates  of  Award  from  the  Institution  in  "official  recognition, 
and  appreciation  of  exceptional  services  rendered  in  the  perform- 
ance of  duty." 

282  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Smithsonian  Magazine 

The  magazine  Smithsonian  celebrated  its  fifth  year  of  publication 
with  the  issue  of  March  1975.  The  extent  to  which  the  reading 
public  and  the  advertising  community  have  responded  to  the 
unique  offering  of  scientific  and  cultural  articles  which  Smith- 
sonian presents  have  made  it  the  fastest  growing  of  all  monthly 
magazines  in  the  country,  according  to  recent  articles  in  the 
Wall  Street  Journal  and  The  New  York  Times.  Circulation  during 
the  year  increased  from  600,000  to  900,000;  advertising  pages  in- 
creased from  450  to  600.  Thanks  to  this  growth,  the  magazine 
again  made  a  substantial  contribution  to  the  unrestricted  private 
funds  of  the  Institution. 

In  a  recent  issue  of  The  Neio  York  Times,  Philip  H.  Dougherty 
in  his  media  column  pointed  out  that  Smithsonian  was  among  the 
top  six  of  100  national  consumer  magazines  to  show  an  increase 
of  more  than  10  percent  in  advertising  pages  during  the  first  six 
months  of  1975  over  the  year  earlier  period.  To  quote  Mr. 

Thomas  H.  Black,  ad  director  of  Smithsonian,  a  publication  of 
the  Smithsonian  Institution,  is  accustomed  to  being  asked  "How 
come  you're  doing  so  good?"  because  the  magazine  has  been 
growing  steadily  since  it  started  in  1970  and  is  up  47.8  percent 
in  the  first  half. 

Asked  to  give  a  speech  on  the  subject  last  January,  he  chose 
for  his  title,  "It's  amazing  what  happens  when  you  go  back  to 
the  basics." 

"The  basic  basic,"  he  said  the  other  day  in  his  office,  is  a 
good  editor  and  he  is  convinced  his  magazine  has  a  great  one, 
Edward  K.  Thompson,  previously  managing  editor  of  Life. 

"First  the  editor  does  his  job  well,"  Mr.  Black  said.  "Then 
the  circulation  department  does  its  job  well.  And  then  the  adver- 
tising department  does  its  job  well,  and  you  can't  speed  up 
that  function." 

His  pitch  and  the  pitch  of  the  rest  of  the  six-person  New  York 
sales  team  is  that  the  900,000  or  so  who  buy  the  magazine 
monthly  have  an  average  annual  income  of  $33,793  and  are 

Among  the  editorial  innovations  of  the  year  were  a  pair  of  two- 
part  articles.  The  first  of  these,  by  Russell  Lynes,  celebrated  the 

Public  Service  I  283 


\  >U*  jv.* 


>:-',•■, -H'-:. 


An  illustration  from  Smithsonian  magazine  article  by  Don  Moser,  "Barro  Colorado  is  a 
Noah's  ark  in  the  rain  forest,"  shows  college  student  Gary  Martini  climbing  a  gigantic 
ceiba  tree  toward  forest  canopy.  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute  has  head- 
quarters on  Barro  Colorado  Island  in  the  Panama  Canal.  (Photo:  Courtesy  George  Silk) 

opening  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden.  The 
second,  by  Tom  Alexander,  was  an  up-to-date  report  on  the  revolu- 
tion in  geology  stemming  from  the  theories  of  plate  tectonics  and 
continental  drift.  Elaborately  illustrated  with  maps  and  diagrams 
created  especially  for  Smithsonian  by  Richard  Edes  Harrison  and 
Antonio  Petrucelli,  this  two-part  article  has  been  combined  into 
a  single  twenty-four-page  pamphlet  and  made  available  to  schools, 
libraries,  and  the  general  public. 

The  magazine's  prelude  to  the  Bicentennial,  the  monthly  column 
called  "200  years  ago,"  ended  with  the  eruption  of  the  revolution 
in  Concord  and  Lexington.  The  eighteen  installments  of  the  column 
have  also  been  combined  into  a  booklet  for  sale  to  the  pubhc,  and  a 
new  regular  feature  inaugurated:  A  monthly  column,  "On  the  Mall 
and  Beyond,"  which  takes  readers  to  behind-the-scenes  events  in 
the  Institution's  many  bureaus  here  and  abroad. 

Spectacular  color  photographs  of  Scythian  gold  objects  were 
made  in  the  Soviet  Union  by  Lee  Boltin  in  order  that  a  Smithsonian 
article  could  appear  just  before  the  collection  went  on  display  in  the 
Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art  in  New  York.  In  another  international 
effort.  Photographer  Ernst  Haas  traveled  to  remote  Bhutan  to  show 
the  historical  aspect  of  the  coronation  of  its  teenage  king. 

The  magazine  continued  its  coverage  of  the  related  subjects  of 
energy,  environment,  and  technology.  An  earlier  article  on  solid- 
waste  management — particularly  the  currently  controversial  subject 
of  bottle-and-can  recycling — won  first  prize  in  the  media  awards  of 
the  National  Association  of  Recycling  Industries.  A  discussion  of 
waterless  water  closets  stirred  up  a  small  flood  of  response  from 
readers.  A  timely  and  balanced  story  on  ozone,  its  effects  in  the 
atmosphere  and  on  the  earth's  surface,  helped  guide  readers  through 
the  later  conflicting  governmental  and  press  reports  on  the  subject. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Press 

Since  the  mid-1950s,  the  proliferation  of  Smithsonian  pubHshing 
activities  has  enjoyed  a  Topsy-like  growth.  In  1965  the  Press'  work 
drew  from  twenty  separate  bureaus  and  departments;  by  1975, 
seventy-one  units  were  availing  themselves  of  editorial  and  pro- 

Public  Service  I  285 

duction  services  for  everything  from  simple  folders  to  catalogues 
and  monographs  of  several  hundred  printed  pages.  This  increase 
in  demand  for  Press  services  has  been  welcomed  as  an  indication 
of  the  Smithsonian's  growing  role  in  the  diffusion  of  knowledge, 
but  it  has  inevitably  led  to  problems  of  overtaxing  the  Press' 
capacity  to  perform  to  everyone's  satisfaction.  Over  the  years, 
more  and  more  Smithsonian  staff  members  have  been  publishing 
independently  of  the  Press,  while  at  the  same  time  the  annual 
deficit  for  privately  funded  Press  publications  has  increased.  Under 
the  chairmanship  of  the  Assistant  Secretary  for  Public  Service,  the 
Publications  Review  Board — overseers  of  Press  policy — began  fiscal 
year  1975  determined  to  take  a  hard  look  at  where  we  are  and 
where  we  are  going.  It  hired  the  management  consulting  firm  of 
Boutwell  Crane  Moseley  Associates,  specialists  in  publishing  man- 
agement, to  come  in  and  survey  the  workings  of  the  Press  and  the 
Institution's  publishing  programs. 

Boutwell  Crane  Moseley  Associates'  major  conclusions,  reported 
in  late  spring  after  three  months  of  intensive  study,  are: 

1.  All  publishing  activity  within  the  Institution  needs  to  be  co- 

2.  The  Smithsonian  Institution  Press  is  not  staffed  or  funded  ade- 
quately to  conduct  a  financially  profitable  trade-book  publishing 

3.  The  Smithsonian  should  be  making  available  to  its  visitors 
and  the  general  public  a  much  wider  diffusion  of  information  per- 
taining to  its  collections  and  research,  and  this  should  be  accom- 
plished through  attractively  presented,  moderately  priced  publica- 
tions. Since  the  Press  is  not  organized  or  funded  to  produce  such 
materials,  arrangements  should  be  initiated  for  partnership  agree- 
ments with  interested  commercial  publishers  who  have  the  capa- 
bility and  the  interest  to  carry  out  these  possibilities. 

4.  The  Smithsonian  Institution  Press  should  confine  its  activity 
to  providing  design,  editing,  production,  warehousing,  and  dis- 
tribution services  for  federally  funded  manuscripts  (serials  and 
general  publications)  that  are  sponsored  by  Smithsonian  museums 
and  galleries. 

Within  the  next  fiscal  year,  the  Press  will  be  reorganized  to  re- 
flect these  recommendations.  An  anticipated  move  of  quarters  into 
the  Natural  History  Building  will  take  place  during  the  summer. 

286  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

with  office  space  allotted  in  conformance  with  overall  plans  for  new 
staffing  requirements. 

In  the  year  just  past,  the  Press  continued  to  provide  editorial, 
design,  and  production  services  for  a  wide  range  of  publications. 
The  output,  listed  in  Appendix  5,  represents  9  trade  books,  16  art 
and  exhibition  catalogues,  84  booklets,  pamphlets,  and  folders,  plus 
58  monographs  published  in  the  scientific  and  technical  series. 

Favorable  critical  reviews — an  all-important  factor  in  a  book's 
success — have  contributed  to  sell-out  first  editions  of  The  Outdoor 
Sculpture  of  Washington,  D.C.  (paperback)  by  James  M.  Goode, 
Curator,  Smithsonian  Institution  Building,  and  The  Peoples  and 
Cultures  of  Ancient  Peru  by  Luis  G.  Lumbreras,  translated  by  Dr. 
Betty  Meggers  of  the  Department  of  Anthropology,  National  Mu- 
seum of  Natural  History. 

Further  recognition  of  the  Press'  role  in  its  publications  has 
come  again  in  annual  awards  for  editing  and  design.  For  the  second 
year  in  a  row,  Smithsonian  publications  were  among  the  top  win- 
ners in  awards  presented  by  the  Federal  Editors  Association.  Ap- 
propriate certificates  for  differing  categories  were  presented  to 
Nancy  Link  Powars  for  The  Outdoor  Sculpture  of  Washington, 
D.C.  and  A  Standard  of  Excellence  by  David  G.  Finley;  Hope 
Pantell  for  Suiting  Everyone:  The  Democratization  of  Clothing  in 
America  by  Claudia  Kidwell  and  Margaret  C.  Christman  (National 
Museum  of  History  and  Technology);  Joan  Horn  for  The  Peoples 
and  Cultures  of  Ancient  Peru;  John  S.  Lea  for  First  Steps  Toward 
Space  by  Frederick  C.  Durant  (National  Air  and  Space  Museum); 
and  Mary  Frances  Bell  for  The  Burroioing  Sponges  of  Bermuda  by 
Klaus  Ruetzler.  Smithsonian  Year,  1974,  designed  by  Crimilda 
Pontes,  won  special  recognition  in  the  American  Association  of 
University  Presses  1975  Book  Show;  also  in  the  show  was  Stein- 
berg at  the  Smithsonian,  designed  by  Stephen  Kraft. 

During  the  year,  production  costs  of  176  publications  were 
funded  by  federal  appropriations  in  the  amount  of  $298,000;  9 
trade  publications  were  supported  wholly  by  Smithsonian  private 
funds  in  the  amount  of  $130,100.  The  Press  and  the  Superin- 
tendent of  Documents  shipped,  on  order  and  subscriptions,  a  total 
of  166,873  publications  and  104  records.  In  addition,  10,000  art 
catalogues  and  miscellaneous  items  were  distributed. 

Public  Service  I  287 

Five  greenhouses  leased  from  the  United  States  Soldiers'  and  Airmen's  Home  by 
the  Horticultural  Services  Division,  Office  of  Plant  Services,  Support  Activities. 

Smithsonian  Year  •  1975 


Underlying  the  success  of  the  many  projects  and  programs  of  the 
Smithsonian  Institution  is  a  vast  network  of  supportive  activities 
and  general  administrative  functions.  The  timely  and  efficient 
execution  of  these  undergirding  operations  enables  the  Institution 
to  fulfill  its  mandate  to  increase  and  disseminate  knowledge.  The 
following  reports  for  fiscal  year  1975  of  the  organizations  which 
make  up  "Administrative  Management"  encompass  an  impressive 
array  of  on-going  activities. 

Support  Activities 

This  past  year  Support  Activities  progressed  steadily  toward  its 
goal  of  providing  timely  and  quality  support  for  all  Smithsonian 
programs.  The  year  brought  the  first  significant  increase  in  budget 
resources  allocated  to  Support  Activities  units,  in  line  with  recom- 
mendations developed  at  the  first  Institutional  Priorities  Conference 
held  at  Belmont  in  February  1973.  Management  studies  begun 
in  fiscal  year  1974  continued  this  year  in  the  central  support  units, 
to  determine  whether  the  organization,  functions,  systems,  and 
procedures  of  these  units  are  structured  to  provide  the  desired 
service.  Management  studies  were  initiated  and/or  completed  in 
the  Office  of  Supply  Services,  Office  of  Printing  and  Photographic 
Services,  Office  of  Personnel  Administration,  Travel  Services  Office, 
and  the  Office  of  Computer  Services  (formerly  Information  Sys- 
tems Division).  In  addition,  special  direction  and  attention  were 
provided  the  Office  of  Facilities  Planning  and  Engineering  Services 


and  the  Office  of  Plant  Services  in  completing  the  establishment  of 
their  units  as  a  result  of  the  reorganization  of  the  former  Buildings 
Management  Department  in  fiscal  year  1974. 

In  summary,  fiscal  year  1975  saw  Support  Activities  ap- 
praising and  redefining  itself  in  order  to  find  new  and  better 
methods  to  build  on  its  traditional  strengths.  The  success  of  the 
Smithsonian  in  1975  in  meeting  its  mission  "to  increase  and 
diffuse  knowledge"  is  an  indication  that  Support  Activities  is  meet- 
ing its  goal  of  providing  timely  and  quality  support. 

The  central  support  group  is  comprised  of  the  following  twelve 
organizations:  Management  Analysis  Office,  Office  of  Equal  Oppor- 
tunity, Office  of  Computer  Services,  Office  of  Facilities  Planning 
and  Engineering  Services,  Office  of  Personnel  Administration, 
Office  of  Plant  Services,  Office  of  Printing  and  Photographic  Serv- 
ices, Office  of  Protection  Services,  Office  of  Supply  Services,  Con- 
tracts Office,  Travel  Services  Office,  and  the  International  Exchange 
Service.  Brief  summaries  of  the  major  activities  and  accomplish- 
ments of  these  organizations  are  given  below. 

The  Management  Analysis  Office  provides:  (1)  research  and 
analysis  of  policy  and  procedures  and  administration  of  man- 
agement improvement  programs;  (2)  a  central  point  for  the 
operation  of  a  system  of  review,  control,  and  coordination  of 
management  issuances  before  and  after  publication;  and  (3)  eco- 
nomical and  efficient  management  and  acquisition  of  printed  forms. 

A  commendable  number  of  significant  projects  completed  or 
initiated  during  the  year  included  publishing  new  staff  handbooks 
on  correspondence,  automatic  data  processing,  and  identification 
credentials,  and  a  second  edition  of  the  requisitioning  handbook.  At 
year's  end,  the  handbook  on  travel  is  in  final  draft  with  publication 
anticipated  early  next  fiscal  year. 

In  March,  one  of  the  two  management  analysts  available  in  the 
Office  for  special  management  studies  was  assigned  to  work  with 
the  Office  of  Audits  on  a  review  of  the  system  for  purchasing, 
receiving,  and  paying  for  goods  and  services.  This  effort  is  expected 
to  continue  into  the  next  fiscal  year. 

The  Administration's  concern  regarding  reports  management 
caused  an  appreciable  increase  in   the  Office's  work,  which  was 

290  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

particularly  evident  in  the  areas  of  reports  required  by  federal 
agencies  and  the  Congress,  as  well  as  in  Smithsonian  reports  in- 
volving members  of  the  public. 

During  the  year,  the  Management  Analysis  Office  gave  careful 
scrutiny  to  all  management  materials  to  assure  their  compliance 
with  the  Freedom  of  Information  and  the  Privacy  Acts  of  1974. 

These  activities,  accomplished  without  an  increase  in  staff,  are 
indicative  of  the  continued  expansion  of  the  work  load  and  re- 
sponsibilities of  the  Office. 

The  Equal  Employment  Opportunity  Program  continued  to  grow 
over  the  past  year.  Clear  visibility  was  maintained  by  distributing 
and  posting  the  new  eeo  Plan  of  Action,  eeo  publications,  informa- 
tion about  training  programs,  and  memoranda  about  various  eeo 
matters,  including  rights  and  remedies  existing  under  the  1968 
Fair  Housing  Act.  A  capstone  was  reached  when  the  United  States 
Civil  Service  Commission's  Director  of  Federal  Equal  Employment 
Opportunity  congratulated  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Equal 
Opportunity  Office  on  the  130-day  average  processing  time  of 
complaints  and  noted  ".  .  .  the  timeliness  of  your  complaints 
processing."  The  federal  average  for  processing  was  21  days 
above  the  prescribed  180-day  limit.  The  complaints  system  has 
been  highly  responsive  to  employee  needs.  Some  200  inquiries  were 
handled  in  1974,  with  8  formal  complaints  being  filed. 

Upward  Mobility  Programs  now  are  operating  in  the  Freer 
Gallery  of  Art,  National  Air  and  Space  Museum,  National  Museum 
of  Natural  History,  the  Office  of  Plant  Services,  and  two  are  at 
National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  These  programs  give 
participating  employees  the  opportunity  to  achieve  their  highest 
potential  and  productivity. 

Seven  new  counselors  were  appointed — one  at  the  National 
Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  two  at  the  National  Museum  of  History 
and  Technology,  two  at  the  National  Zoological  Park,  and  two  at 
the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory.  Eight  new  eeo  officers 
were  appointed  which  brings  to  eighteen  the  number  of  individuals 
responsible  for  the  respective  eighteen  major  organizations.  All  of 
the  officers  received  one  full  day  of  concentrated  training  at  a 
seminar  conducted  by  the  Office  of  Equal  Opportunity  and  the 

Administrative  Management  I  291 

Office  of  Personnel  Administration.  Since  May  1973,  over  168 
supervisors  have  received  training  pointed  toward  a  better  under- 
standing of  their  respective  eeo  responsibiUties. 

The  Women's  Program  continued  its  uninterrupted  growth.  The 
Smithsonian  Institution  Women's  Coordinator  was  appointed  as 
Smithsonian  representative  to  International  Women's  Year,  a 
United  Nation's  observance,  and  the  Institution  held  its  second 
successful  Women's  Week  in  August  1974.  The  Women's  Council 
elected  and  had  appointed  its  first  and  second  males  to  member- 

A  new  Sixteen-Point  Program  Coordinator  was  appointed  and 
trained  to  serve  as  the  focal  point  for  advising  Smithsonian  man- 
agement and  the  Director  of  Equal  Opportunity  on  the  special 
concerns  of  our  Spanish-speaking  staff.  Assistance  was  provided 
in  assessing  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Spanish-surnamed  employ- 
ment situation,  and  information  about  participation  in  eliminating 
systemic  barriers  for  Spanish-speaking  citizens  was  promulgated. 

The  first  federal  female  supergrade  was  appointed.  There  were 
other  appointments  of  minority  and  female  managers  and  super- 
visors, as  well  as  other  key  staff  persons.  A  total  of  1094  racial 
minorities,  employed  at  the  end  of  June  1973  out  of  a  work  force 
of  3050,  increased  to  1252  by  the  end  of  March  1975,  out  of  a  work 
force  of  3584.  Racial  minorities  and  women  each  currently  com- 
prise over  one-third  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution's  work  force. 
Women  comprise  12.1  percent  of  all  Smithsonian  Institution  em- 
ployees at  GS-13  and  IS-13  and  above,  and  this  is  far  above  the 
government  average.  Minorities,  however,  comprise  4.5  percent  of 
all  employees  at  that  level,  and  this  is  slightly  below  government 
averages.  Of  361  permanent  professional  core  positions  of  Curator 
or  Curator  equivalent  (Anthropologist,  Biologist,  Zoologist,  etc.), 
only  13  are  minority  (3.6  percent). 

The  Information  Systems  Division  has  been  renamed  the  Office  of 
Computer  Services  (ocs).  While  both  designations  are  applicable 
in  the  area  of  automatic  data  processing  and  its  associated  services, 
the  new  designation  will  define  more  accurately  the  responsibilities 
and  functions  of  that  office  within  the  Institution. 

Progress  continues  to  be  made   through   the   use   of  computer 

292  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

technology  in  the  areas  of  administration,  management  of  the 
national  collections,  and  scientific  research. 

DCS  recently  installed  a  computer  communications-processor  to 
give  the  Institution  the  capability  of  remote  job  entry  processing 
to  and  from  various  locations.  A  remote  terminal  was  installed  at 
the  Fort  Pierce  Bureau  to  service  their  data-processing  needs  for 
scientific  research.  Plans  are  underway  to  expand  this  remote 
terminal  capability  to  the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Several  key-to-disk  video  terminals  were  installed  during  the 
year  to  be  used  primarily  for  interactive  data  conversion.  The  use 
of  optical  reading  devices  and  services  continues  to  expand  as 
another  way  to  reduce  the  data  conversion  problem. 

The  Smithsonian's  automated  collections  management  system 
called  SELGEM  continues  to  arouse  attention  within  and  outside  the 
Institution  because  of  its  potential  as  a  standard  for  computerized 
management  of  collections.  Fifty  data  managers  use  it  to  process 
more  than  200  various  Smithsonian  collections  and  about  110 
persons  at  40  other  museums  or  universities  also  use  it.  The  ocs 
publishes  information  about  the  selgem  system  in  its  technical 
bulletin  Smithsonian  Institution  Information  Systems  Innovations. 
The  Innovations  series  acquaints  the  reader  with  automated 
systems  and  procedures  specifically  designed  to  solve  collection  and 
research  problems  in  museums  and  herbaria. 

Individual  research  assistance  to  curators  and  scientists  continues 
to  be  expanded  and  broadened  as  they  become  more  aware  of  the 
feasibility  of  applying  mathematical/statistical  analysis  and  com- 
puter technology  to  their  research  problems. 

Fiscal  year  1975  marked  the  first  full  year  of  operation  for  the 
Office  of  Facilities  Planning  and  Engineering  Services  (ofpes).  A 
major  effort  was  made  to  improve  staff  capability  in  the  architec- 
tural and  engineering  disciplines  to  meet  the  increasing  demand  for 
professional  services.  Improvements  were  made  in  contract  ad- 
ministration, estimating,  and  planning  functions. 

Based  on  construction  dollar  value,  office  services  in  fiscal  year 
1975  increased  over  fiscal  year  1974  by  100  percent.  Project 
volume  showed  a  38  percent  increase  over  the  preceding  fiscal  year. 
Several  major  projects  started  or  constructed  during  the  year  in- 

Administrative  Management  I  293 

eluded:  Carnegie  Mansion  renovation;  Natural  History  Building's 
West  Court  facility  and  East  Court  Osteology  Laboratory;  Ana- 
costia  Neighborhood  Museum  Exhibit  Production  Laboratory; 
dormitory  facilities  at  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environ- 
mental Studies;  Natural  History  Building's  escalator  and  North 
Foyer  alterations;  Arts  and  Industries  Building  renovation;  major 
fire  detection  systems  for  five  museums;  Jefferson  Island  bulk- 
heading;  Buildings  #24  and  #25  at  the  Silver  Hill  facility;  South 
Yard  development;  and  Third  Floor  renovation  at  the  Fine  Arts 
and  Portrait  Galleries.  In  addition,  ofpes  provided  consulting  and 
professional  services  for  eighty-five  projects,  including  major 
exhibit  installations. 

Preliminary  action  has  been  taken  to  initiate  long-range  planning 
studies  for  the  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies 
in  Maryland,  the  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute  in 
Panama,  and  the  Mt.  Hopkins  Observatory  in  Arizona.  Efforts  also 
were  directed  to  assisting  in  basic  planning  for  the  Museum  Sup- 
port Facility  to  be  located  at  Suitland,  and  consideration  was  given 
to  the  needs  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden  and 
the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum.  A  continuing  effort  also  was 
made  with  program  units  to  develop  procedures  tailored  to  their 
special  needs. 

With  the  substantial  demands  for  services,  ofpes  is  directing  its 
efforts  to  improving  communication  with  museums  and  bureaus 
and  to  providing  more  effective  management  of  its  activities. 

The  Office  of  Personnel  Administration  is  responsible  for  recruit- 
ment and  placement,  position  classification,  training  and  career 
development,  employee  relations,  labor-management  relations,  and 
equal  opportunity  as  it  relates  to  personnel  management.  The 
Office  also  has  the  responsibilities  for  implementing  new  laws  and 
policies  and  making  contributions  to  Smithsonian-wide  efforts, 
such  as  reducing  personnel  costs. 

Activity  increased  in  virtually  every  program.  More  than  1200 
recruitment  requests  and  8000  job  inquiries  and  applications  were 
received,  and  1789  accessions  and  1342  separations  processed. 

Negotiations  with  the  United  States  Civil  Service  Commission 
resulted  in  the  issuance  of  a  police  officer  examination  announce- 

294  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

ment  for  the  Smithsonian  Institution.  This  announcement — a  new 
method  of  announcing  recurring  vacancies — significantly  reduced 
the  time  lag  between  advertising  vacancies  and  filling  the  posi- 

As  a  result  of  the  implementation  of  the  formal  position  classi- 
fication program,  position  descriptions  for  the  Institution  were 
reviewed  and  new  descriptions  were  prepared  where  necessary. 

Labor-management  relations  continued  to  reflect  mutual  respect 
and  cooperation.  Negotiations  for  a  multi-unit  labor  agreement 
were  concluded  after  difficult  bargaining,  and  consultations  were 
held  with  the  unions  on  a  number  of  subjects  in  accordance  with 
existing  agreements.  Also,  formal  grievance  and  complaint  pro- 
cedures were  utilized  in  several  instances,  and  these  problems  were 
resolved  subsequently. 

Ten  new  courses  were  offered  by  the  Training  Office  for  both 
professional  and  support  staff.  These  courses  ranged  from  Labor 
Management  Relations  to  English  Usage  Refresher  and  Filing  for 
Secretaries.  In  addition,  courses  of  a  more  general  nature  were 
offered,  such  as  General  Education  Development  (leading  to  a  High 
School  Equivalency  Certificate),  and,  for  female  employees,  the 
Sexual  Assault  Prevention  Program  was  conducted  by  the  Smith- 
sonian Office  of  Protection  Services.  Another  new  course  was  the 
Career  Planning  Workshop  which  was  open  to  professionals  and 
nonprofessionals  alike.  These  courses,  coupled  with  the  regular 
courses,  enabled  us  to  offer  training  to  1433  employees  in  the  last 
year:  591  in  courses  offered  in-house,  828  in  courses  outside  of  the 
Smithsonian,  and  14  in  executive  development  courses. 

The  Office  of  Personnel  Administration  initiated  action  to 
develop  a  Guide  for  Private-Roll  Personnel  Management.  Policies 
are  being  assembled  and  updated,  personnel  procedures  and  prac- 
tices reviewed,  and  the  needs  and  problems  of  the  various  activities 
identified  and  evaluated.  The  objective  is  to  promote  more  effective 
personnel  program  operations  by  providing  a  comprehensive  source 
of  authentic  information  and  guidance  on  private-roll  personnel 
management  and  administration. 

The   Office   of   Plant   Services    (oplants)    has   basic    responsibility 
for  the  operation  and  maintenance  of  Smithsonian  physical  plant 

Administrative  Management  I  295 

and  associated  utilities  distribution  systems;  support  of  bureau  re- 
search, exhibition,  and  educational  programs;  local  and  long  dis- 
tance telephone  and  teletype  communications;  transportation  of 
personnel,  freight,  museum  specimens,  and  art  requiring  special 
handling;  off-Mall  storage  of  the  Smithsonian  collections;  grounds 
and  pavement  maintenance;  landscaping  and  greenhouse  opera- 
tion in  the  development  of  horticultural  exhibit  areas;  housekeep- 
ing services  and  building  management  for  various  off-Mall  owned 
and  leased  facilities,  oplants  is  responsible  for  requisitioning,  pro- 
curing, shipping,  receiving,  and  warehousing  custodial  and  indus- 
trial supplies,  materials,  and  equipment  for  building  manager  and 
Craft  Shops  operations.  It  provides  program  support  and  plant 
services  annually  for  the  Festival  of  American  Folklife.  It  dissemi- 
nates advice,  guidance,  plans,  methodology,  and  standards  to  all 
major  offices  and  bureaus  of  the  Smithsonian  and  monitors  the 
quality  of  accomplishment  in  the  area  of  its  responsibilities. 

A  new  division.  Management  Services  Division,  was  established 
in  the  Office  of  Plant  Services  in  June  1974.  A  major  program 
initiated  during  1974  was  the  compilation  of  utilities  bills  for  past 
years  and  year-to-date  and  the  comparison  with  known  degree  day 
(heating  and  cooling)  information  from  the  United  States  Depart- 
ment of  Commerce  National  Climatic  Center.  This  information  has 
proved  invaluable  in  formulating  budget  data  and  will  be  used  in 
future  utilities  cost  projections. 

A  work  management  program  was  developed  to  increase  pro- 
ductivity of  work  force  by  the  application  of  industrial  engineering 
techniques.  To  bolster  this  program  a  highly  specialized  training 
course  in  use  of  engineering  performance  standards  was  attended 
by  the  planner-estimators  in  the  Work  Coordination  Branch. 

An  ADP  system,  reflecting  the  flow  of  work  requests  through  the 
Work  Coordination  Branch,  was  developed.  Printouts  showing 
status  of  all  work  requests  are  provided  on  a  weekly  basis. 

A  work  request  priority  procedure,  developed  by  the  Manage- 
ment Services  Division,  assists  in  the  timely  accomplishment  of 
urgent  work  in  support  of  museums'  exhibition  programs.  The 
Division  established  oplants'  supply  controls  to  include  ordering, 
inventory,  supply  levels,  reorder  points,  and  proper  storage 

Custodial  maintenance  inspections  were  conducted  by  the  new 
Inspections  Branch.  This  inspection  program  is  designed  to  assure 

296  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

high  standards  of  cleanHness  throughout  all  Smithsonian  museums. 

The  Crafts  Services  Division  completed  the  following  major 
projects  during  the  year:  constructing  a  health  unit  in  the  Natural 
History  Building  and  a  retention  room  for  the  safekeeping  of 
artifacts  to  be  exhibited  in  the  History  and  Technology  Building; 
assisting  in  the  three-day  opening  of  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and 
Sculpture  Garden;  and  providing  support  to  the  Festival  of  Ameri- 
can Folklife.  The  Division  also  undertook  maintenance  of  the 
Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum. 

A  preventive  maintenance  program  was  implemented  in  February 
1975  in  the  Fine  Arts  and  Portrait  Galleries  building,  the  Hirshhorn 
Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  the  Renwick  Gallery,  and  the 
Freer  Gallery  of  Art.  The  preventive  maintenance  administration 
system  was  implemented  by  the  Preventive  Maintenance  Branch  of 
this  division.  The  system  is  geared  to  maintain  physical  plant 
equipment  in  an  economical  manner  and  an  operational  condition 
consistent  with  the  age  of  each  machine.  It  is  the  intention  of 
OPLANTS  to  extend  this  program  to  other  museum  buildings. 

An  IBM  System  7,  a  computerized  electrical  demand  and  con- 
sumption monitoring  and  control  system,  was  placed  in  operation 
in  January  1975.  This  system,  designed  to  reduce  utilities  consump- 
tion/demand while  maintaining  vital  temperature  and  humidity 
levels  in  museum  buildings,  was  installed  and  implemented  by 
operating  engineers  of  the  Crafts  Services  Division.  Early  indica- 
tions are  that  substantial  savings  in  energy  demand  and  consump- 
tion will  exceed  expectations. 

The  mission  of  the  Communications  and  Transportation  Services 
Division  continued  to  expand  as  the  responsibility  for  the  manage- 
ment of  the  Smithsonian  parking  program  was  delegated  to  this 
unit  in  December  1974.  In  addition,  the  Division  began  operation 
of  an  authentic,  vintage,  double-decker  London  bus  in  early  May. 
This  vehicle,  operated  seven  days  a  week,  transports  visitors  to 
various  museums  and  galleries  and  has  proven  to  be  immensely 

Division  personnel  successfully  conducted  a  program  to  raise  the 
level  of  mail  consciousness  of  Smithsonian  staff.  Particular  em- 
phasis was  placed  on:  proper  classification  and  preparation  of  mail, 
postal  cost  reductions,  and  realistic  pickup  and  delivery  schedules. 
Over  500  persons  attended  two  sessions  of  a  mail-consciousness 
program,  which  has  resulted  in  a  reduction  in  postage  costs. 

Administrative  Management  I  297 

Red  double-decker  London  bus  (an  anonymous  gift  to  the  National  Portrait 
Gallery)  transports  visitors  between  the  Gallery  at  its  off-Mall  location  and 
the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  on  the  Mall. 

On  January  1,  1975,  the  Horticultural  Services  Division  leased 
a  greenhouse-nursery  complex  from  the  United  States  Soldiers' 
and  Airmen's  Home,  Washington,  D.C.  This  area  consists  of:  five 
production  houses  with  a  total  of  24,000  square  feet,  a  400-square- 
foot  propagation  house,  and  over  an  acre  of  nursery  space.  This 
greenhouse-nursery  will  supply  much  needed  space  for  production 
and  rotation  of  plant  material  for  various  educational,  scientific,  and 
display  projects.  This  complex  also  provides  a  location  for  produc- 
tion of  summer  annuals  and  seasonal  plantings. 

The  Horticultural  Services  Division  undertook  the  landscaping 
of  various  museum  buildings  in  1975.  Major  projects  included  the 

298  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  Cooper-Hewitt  Museum 
in  New  York,  and  the  G  Street  entrance  to  the  National  Collection 
of  Fine  Arts.  The  division  also  installed  35,000  summer  annuals, 
8000  fall  chrysanthemums,  100,000  tulips,  and  holiday  decorations 
in  most  museums. 

In  an  effort  to  consolidate  several  off-Mall  offices  and  ware- 
houses, the  Smithsonian  leased  a  four-story  building  at  1111  North 
Capitol  Street.  The  Warehousing  Services  Division  commenced 
the  move  of  material  in  December  1974.  By  the  end  of  the  month 
the  entire  contents  of  Building  #3  warehouse  in  Alexandria  were 
transferred  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Service  Center  (sisc). 
Space  now  is  provided  for  various  Smithsonian  units  and  the 
building  is  approximately  40  percent  occupied  at  present. 

The  Metro  Group  Branch  of  the  Warehousing  Services  Division, 
based  at  the  sisc,  provides  building  manager  services  to  off-Mall 
buildings  and  to  the  sisc.  Building  manager  supplies  are  being 
warehoused  at  the  sisc.  The  Receiving  and  Shipping  Branch,  which 
handles  office  moves  and  freight  transfers  for  Smithsonian  units, 
now  is  located  at  the  sisc. 

The  pattern  of  growth  by  the  Office  of  Printing  and  Photographic 
Services  continued  during  the  year  with  the  implementation  of  ex- 
panded capabilities  and  services  both  to  the  Institution  and  the 

In  the  Duplicating  Branch,  the  purchase  of  additional  equipment 
allowed  the  Branch  to  maintain  its  position  of  providing  responsive 
reproduction  services  to  the  Institution.  A  new  tandem-head  press 
was  placed  in  operation,  enabling  simultaneous  printing  of  both 
sides  of  a  page.  This  not  only  saves  time  in  printing  but  also  allows 
for  better  utilization  of  paper  supplies  during  this  period  of  rising 
costs.  New  collating  and  binding  equipment  also  was  added  during 
the  year. 

In  the  area  of  Photographic  Services,  the  Color  Laboratory  be- 
came fully  operational  during  the  year,  processing  approximately 
120,000  35mm  color  slides  and  duplicates,  as  well  as  high  quality 
4"  X  5"  and  8"  x  lO"  color  transparencies.  The  personnel  and 
equipment  utilized  in  this  operation  have  made  it  one  of  the  best 
color  units  in  the  Washington  area. 

Administrative  Management  I  299 

The  Black  and  White  Photographic  Laboratory  produced  more 
than  200,000  prints  during  the  year,  the  vast  majority  of  which 
were  to  meet  requirements  of  Institution  staff.  Of  this  figure, 
sHghtly  more  than  10,000  prints  were  produced  to  fill  requests  from 
the  public. 

Recognizing  the  need  to  continue  providing  photographic  sup- 
port to  the  public,  the  Customer  Services  Branch  developed  a  num- 
ber of  black-and-white  print  and  35mm  color  slide  sets  represent- 
ing the  most  popular  areas  for  which  requests  are  received. 
Through  mass  production,  these  sets  now  can  be  offered  to 
teachers,  museum  associates,  and  others  at  costs  below  that 
charged  for  individual  orders.  For  the  first  time,  the  availability  of 
these  sets  was  advertised  in  the  Smithsonian  magazine  with  a  good 

Sets  produced  to  date  include  prints  of  popular  American  Indian 
photographs  from  the  Smithsonian  Institution  National  Anthro- 
pological Archives  and  slide  sets  on  Postal  Rarities,  the  First  Ladies 
Gowns,  and  the  Suiting  Everyone  exhibit.  Coupled  with  this  was 
the  production  of  slide  sleeves  with  highlights  from  the  National 
Museum  of  History  and  Technology  and  the  National  Museum  of 
Natural  History.  Slides  also  were  produced  for  the  National  Collec- 
tion of  Fine  Arts  and  the  National  Portrait  Gallery.  All  these  mate- 
rials now  are  available  for  sale  through  the  Museum  Shops. 

A  slide  lecture  on  Musical  Instruments  of  the  Baroque  and  Early 
Classical  Eras  is  being  prepared  under  a  grant  from  the  Women's 
Committee  of  the  Smithsonian  Associates.  Final  approval,  produc- 
tion, and  distribution  are  anticipated  during  the  coming  year. 

During  1975,  final  tests  were  completed  on  the  adp  program  for 
cataloguing  photographic  caption  data.  Input  was  begun  on  an 
initial  catalogue  of  approximately  10,000  photographs  covering  all 
aspects  of  the  Institution.  This  catalogue  will  be  available  for  world- 
wide distribution  to  educators,  scientists,  publishers,  and  other 
interested  parties. 

The  Office  of  Protection  Services  began  operating  a   sentry  dog 
program  in  the  spring.  Six  dogs,  donated  to  the  Smithsonian  Insti- 
tution by  private  citizens,  and  six  canine  handlers,  selected  from  the 
existing    protection    force,    completed    a    comprehensive,    14-week 

300  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

training  program.  The  training  was  conducted  primarily  at  Andrews 
Air  Force  Base,  through  the  cooperation  of  the  United  States  Air 
Force.  Supervising  this  training  program  was  a  member  of  our 
training  unit  in  the  Protection  Division,  who  formerly  was  a  K-9 
trainer  for  the  Metropolitan  D.  C.  Police  Department.  Use  of  the 
K-9  teams  started  on  April  14,  1975,  primarily  to  patrol  the 
grounds  around  our  Mall  facilities,  the  interior  of  areas  such  as  the 
Silver  Hill  Facility,  Lamont  Street,  the  new  Service  Center  on  North 
Capitol  Street,  and  to  provide  a  limited  amount  of  internal  patrol 
in  the  Natural  History  Building  during  nonpublic  hours.  Dogs  are 
kept  on  leash  by  their  handlers  throughout  patrol  duty. 

A  significant  reduction  was  realized  in  the  rate  of  increase  in 
crimes  during  1974.  Whereas  the  rate  of  increase  was  90  percent 
in  1972  over  1971  and  51  percent  in  1973  over  1972,  the  rate  rose 
by  only  4  percent  in  1974  over  1973.  Much  of  the  credit  for  reduc- 
ing the  rate  of  increase  belongs  to  our  expanded  plainclothes 
operations  in  our  Mall  facilities. 

A  new  health  unit,  opened  in  1974  in  the  new  Hirshhorn 
Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  serves  employees  of  our  south 
Mall  facilities.  The  unit  also  provides  first  aid  treatment  for  the 
public.  Present  plans  include  another  health  unit  in  the  new  Na- 
tional Air  and  Space  Museum  when  it  opens  to  the  public  next 

A  new  operational  element  was  established  to  provide  protection 
and  security  for  the  new  nasm.  The  first  increment  of  protection 
officers  was  placed  in  the  Museum  in  the  spring,  with  plans  for 
operation  to  reach  full  strength  as  the  Museum  nears  completion 
and  readies  for  public  opening. 

The  Office  of  Supply  Services  processed  approximately  20  percent 
more  procurement  and  contract  actions  this  year  than  in  fiscal 
year  1974.  This  was  accomplished  with  no  increase  in  personnel 
while  the  Institution  continues  to  expand  its  facilities  and  activities. 
The  Receiving  and  Storage  Sections  were  consolidated  and  moved 
to  larger  quarters  at  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Service  Center. 
The  new  facility  provides  for  much  needed  working  space  to  re- 
ceive, inspect,  inventory,  and  store  items  until  they  are  delivered. 
Standard  forms  and  printed  paper  items  are  the  only  items  stored 

Administrative  Management  I  301 

in  the  stock  room  in  the  Natural  History  Building.  All  other  items 
are  purchased  by  the  organization  units  through  the  General  Serv- 
ices Administration  Self-Service  Stores.  This  has  freed  supply 
personnel  to  form  inventory  teams  and  to  insure  that  proper  in- 
ventories are  taken  by  the  organization  units,  thus  accounting  for 
all  accountable  personal  property. 

Participation  in  the  Government  Property  Utilization  Program 
brought  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution  the  Humphrey  Diamond, 
valued  at  more  than  $100,000  and  the  sound  and  electronic  equip- 
ment from  EXPO  74,  Spokane,  Washington,  which  will  be  installed 
in  the  new  National  Air  and  Space  Museum  with  a  savings  of  over 
$150,000  to  the  Smithsonian. 


The  Travel  Services  Office  (tso),  responsible  for  the  accomplish- 
ment and  coordination  of  the  travel  plans  for  the  Smithsonian  In- 
stitution throughout  the  United  States  and  to  all  areas  of  the  world, 
again  this  year  experienced  growth  in  all  its  major  activities  such 
as  air  and  rail  reservations  and  travel  itineraries. 

In  addition  to  furnishing  travel  services,  advisory  services  and 
detailed  planning,  data  were  provided  for  the  annual  Festival  of 
American  Folklife;  for  national  and  international  conferences;  and 
for  meetings  and  archeological  expeditions  in  Yugoslavia,  Israel, 
Morocco,  and  Tunisia. 

Of  particular  interest  this  year,  in  connection  with  the  Eighth 
Annual  Festival  of  American  Folklife,  tso  assisted  in  planning  for 
and  providing  tickets  to  foreign  participants  from  Greece,  Nigeria, 
Scandinavia,  and  Tunisia,  including  a  tour  of  the  United  States. 

Working  closely  with  the  Accounting  Division,  the  Travel  Serv- 
ices Office  participated  in  the  implementation  on  October  16,  1974, 
of  the  new  Automatic  Payment  Procedure  System  for  the  purchase 
of  airline  tickets.  Also  working  with  the  Accounting  Division,  tso 
initiated  plans  for  a  similar  system  for  the  payment  of  certain  rail- 
way tickets,  and  implementation  of  these  procedures  will  occur 
early  next  fiscal  year. 

Close  liaison  was  maintained  with  the  airlines  to  accomplish  con- 
tinuing complex  travel  arrangements  performed  for  the  Foreign 
Currency  Program  of  the  Office  of  International  Programs. 

302  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

The  International  Exchange  Service  is  the  one  program  bureau 
included  in  the  Support  Activities  group.  Since  1851  the  Service 
has  provided  the  means  whereby  learned  societies  in  the  United 
States  can  exchange  their  scholarly  publications  for  those  of  foreign 

During  the  year  publications  were  received  from  approximately 
250  organizations  representing  every  state  in  the  Union  for  trans- 
mission to  over  100  countries.  Publications  were  forwarded  by 
ocean  freight  to  38  exchange  bureaus  in  32  countries.  Where  there 
are  no  exchange  bureaus,  the  publications  were  mailed. 

Approximately  100,000  packages  were  received  from  foreign 
institutions  for  distribution  in  the  United  States. 

Despite  the  rising  cost  of  shipping  and  supplies,  service  was 
maintained  at  the  level  of  the  previous  year. 

Events  of  note  for  the  period  were  the  retirement  of  J.  A.  Collins 
as  Director  after  nineteen  years  with  the  International  Exchange 
Service  and  forty-two  years  with  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  and 
the  move  of  the  Service  to  new  quarters. 

Financial  Services 

The  Treasurer  has  overall  responsibility  for  the  financial  assets  of 
the  Smithsonian  Institution.  Such  responsibility  includes  the  bud- 
geting and  accounting  of  federal  appropriations,  the  fiscal  adminis- 
tration of  grants  and  contracts,  and  the  monitoring  of  revenue- 
producing  activities.  Further  detail  on  these  activities  is  given  in 
the  following  five  reports  by  the  Office  of  Programming  and 
Budget,  the  Accounting  Division,  the  Investment  Accounting  Divi- 
sion, the  Grants  and  Insurance  Administration  Division,  and  the 
Business  Management  Office. 

Working  closely  with  the  Investment  Policy  Committee  of  the 
Board  of  Regents,  the  Treasurer  oversees  the  management  of  the 
endowment  funds  of  the  Institution  by  three  professional  advisory 
firms,  and  is  also  responsible  for  the  short-term  investment  of 
current  funds  excess  to  immediate  operating  needs.  Details  on  these 
funds  and  the  other  financial  resources  of  the  Institution  can  be 
found  in  the  Financial  Report  at  the  front  of  this  volume. 

Administrative  Management  /  303 

The  Office  of  Programming  and  Budget  participates  in  program 
planning  for  the  Institution  and,  to  carry  out  these  plans,  formu- 
lates, presents,  implements,  and  reviews  operating  and  construction 
budgets  of  appropriated  and  nonappropriated  funds.  About  $100 
million  from  many  different  sources  were  involved  this  year. 
Details  on  these  sources  and  on  the  application  of  the  funds  may 
be  found  in  the  Financial  Report.  The  Office  works  closely  with  all 
operating  and  managerial  levels  of  the  Institution  and  participates 
in  presenting  Federal  budgets  to  the  President's  Office  of  Manage- 
ment and  Budget  and  to  the  Congress. 

During  the  year,  detailed  operating  budgets  and  staffing  plans 
were  developed  with  some  seventy-five  organization  units  ranging 
from  the  major  program  activities,  such  as  museums,  research 
laboratories,  and  the  magazine  Smithsonian  to  the  supporting  ser- 
vice and  staff  offices.  Separate  budgets  also  were  prepared  on  a 
large  number  of  restricted  fund  projects  primarily  of  a  research  and 
collections  management  nature.  Construction  budget  matters  called 
for  frequent  work  with  the  Office  of  Facilities  Planning  and 
Engineering  Services  and  with  the  National  Zoological  Park. 

Several  actions  were  initiated  during  the  year  to  aid  in  the  devel- 
opment and  execution  of  the  budget  processes.  Planning  statements 
and  detailed  information  on  the  amounts  and  uses  of  currently 
available  financial  resources  were  requested  from  all  operating 
units  for  review  prior  to  their  submission  of  proposals  for  fol- 
lowing year  budgets.  Using  information  supplied  by  the  bureaus 
and  offices,  current  allocations  of  staff  and  dollar  resources  from 
all  sources  of  funds  to  Smithsonian  functions,  such  as  research, 
conservation  of  collections,  and  exhibitions,  were  compiled  to  show 
areas  of  strength  and  weakness.  The  purpose  of  this  effort  was  to 
allow  more  time  for  the  top  managers  of  the  Institution  to  review 
program  directions,  goals,  and  resource  adequacies  before  decisions 
needed  to  be  made  on  future  budgets.  The  third  annual  meeting  to 
review  and  agree  on  Institution  goals  and  priorities  was  held  at  the 
Chesapeake  Bay  Center  in  June  1975  to  lay  the  groundwork  for 
fiscal  year  1977  and  subsequent  planning. 

Steps  were  taken  to  develop  a  computer-assisted  system  for  the 

304  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Auction  held  at  the  National  Zoo  by  the  Women's  Committee,  May  22,  1975. 
Mrs.  S.  D.  Ripley  places  a  bid  on  the  flower  prints  by  Mary  Vaux  Walcott. 
Below:  View  of  the  supper  held  in  the  Monkey  House  during  the  auction  at 
the  National  Zoo  held  by  the  Women's  Committee,  May  22,  1975. 

preparation  and  update  of  annual  organization  unit  employment 
plans  (showing  positions,  names  of  incumbents,  salaries,  and  bene- 
fits) which  are  used  as  a  key  ingredient  to  the  development  of  each 
operating  budget.  In  addition  to  reducing  the  heavy  manual  work- 
load now  required  to  produce  these  plans  for  about  4,000  em- 
ployees, such  an  automated  system  will  allow  future  costs  of  pro- 
posed employment  actions  and  government-wide  legislated  salary 
increases  to  be  determined  and  assessed.  The  system  may  also 
allow  the  coding  of  the  functional  purposes  served  by  staff  and, 
thus,  give  more  accurate  base-analysis  data  for  review. 

The  Accounting  Division  regularly  handles  and  accounts  for  all 
funds  of  the  Institution,  both  federal  and  nonfederal,  including 
payrolls,  payments  for  materials  and  services,  and  receipts  from 
a  great  variety  of  sources,  and  in  addition  provides  over  600  finan- 
cial reports  monthly  to  Institutional  managers  at  unit  and  head- 
quarters levels. 

Continuing  the  accounting  services  program  during  fiscal  1975, 
the  accounting  staff  developed  and  implemented  efficient  programs 
on  the  key-to-disk  data  entry  system  installed  in  May  1974.  These 
programs  permit  data  entry  from  the  business  document  and  have 
reduced  the  clerical  copying  and  transfer  of  data  from  one  docu- 
ment to  another.  As  a  byproduct,  disbursing  checks  are  produced 
for  private  funds  and  a  magnetic  tape  is  produced  on  federal  trans- 
actions for  automatic  payment  by  the  United  States  Treasury. 
Additionally,  the  Accounting  Division  completed  the  implementa- 
tion of  an  optical  mark  read  personnel  time-reporting  procedure, 
and  reorganized  the  voucher-examining  routine  to  speed  up 

The  Investment  Accounting  Division  is  responsible  for  cash  man- 
agement and  cash  forecasting  projections  for  the  purpose  of  insur- 
ing   maximum    investment    of    temporary    surpluses    and    other 
financial  management  purposes. 

The  Division  supervises  the  formulation  of  data  and  maintenance 
of  the  ADP  mechanized  system  utilized  in  the  preparation  of  invest- 
ment ledgers,  performance  evaluation  indices  on  the  three  invest- 

306  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 


ment    managers,    commission    reports,    audit    work    sheets,    and 

In  addition,  this  Division  performs  all  tasks  required  in  applying 
the  total  return  concept  of  income  to  the  various  endowment 
income  funds,  including  the  initial  annual  projections  to  determine 
normalized  five-year  average  market  valuation  and  the  effect  of 
total  return  on  historic  dollar  value  of  the  individual  funds. 

The  Grants  and  Insurance  Administration  Division,  responsible  for 
administration  of  gifts,  grants,  and  contracts  received  by  the 
Institution,  administers  the  Institution's  risk  management  and  in- 
surance program.  The  Division  provides  administrative,  manage- 
ment, and  financial  services  to  Smithsonian  researchers  and  busi- 
ness representatives  of  granting  agencies.  It  establishes  and 
monitors  systems  and  procedures  to  assure  that  funds  are  expended 
in  accordance  with  appropriate  regulations  and  contract  terms. 
During  the  past  year  the  Division  continued  its  financial  adminis- 
tration of  these  funds  continually  exploring  various  approaches  to 
providing  management  information  in  meaningful  and  expeditious 
forms  to  meet  better  the  ever-expanding  administrative  needs  of 
the  bureaus. 

The  risk  management  program  of  the  Institution  was  expanded 
through  our  participation  in  seminars  and  workshops.  The  pilot 
seminar  and  workshop — attended  by  the  staff  of  various  museums, 
including  the  Smithsonian — was  designed  to  expand  the  knowledge 
of  museum  insurance  problems  and  innovations  through  the  ex- 
change of  information  and  proved  to  be  quite  successful.  Future 
seminars  are  planned  to  encourage  further  participation  in  solving 
the  complexities  of  insurance  and  risk  management  problems  in 
museums  today. 

As  in  1974,  a  considerable  savings  was  realized  while  arranging 
a  wide  variety  of  coverages  ranging  from  giraffe  mortality  insur- 
ance to  short-term  health  insurance  for  the  Festival  of  American 
Folklife  participants. 

The  Business  Management  Office  has  overall  responsibility  for  the 
Museum  Shops,  the  Product  Development  Program,  and  the  Bel- 

Administrative  Management  I  307 

mont  Conference  Center,  which  are  described  below.  In  addition, 
it  advises  other  Smithsonian  bureaus  on  the  negotiation  and  moni- 
toring of  revenue-producing  concessions  and  contracts.  During  the 
past  year  Business  Management  assisted  in  the  negotiation  of  con- 
tracts for  the  construction  project  in  the  West  Court  of  the  Na- 
tional Museum  of  Natural  History,  for  the  parking  concessionaire 
in  the  new  National  Air  and  Space  Museum,  and  for  the  expansion 
of  the  cafeteria  in  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technol- 
ogy. It  also  assisted  in  implementing  a  number  of  improvements  in 
the  operation  of  the  Commons  dining  room. 

Museum  Shops 

Fiscal  year  1975  saw  further  progress  in  the  program  of  Museum 
Shop  improvements  which  began  several  years  ago.  The  sales  area 
in  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology  was  redesigned 
completely  by  a  leading  architectural  firm,  and  opened  in  March 
1975.  The  new  design  has  resulted  in  a  greater  ability  to  serve  the 
large  number  of  visitors  to  this  important  museum,  as  well  as  in 
an  architectural  ambience  particularly  appropriate  to  the  building. 

The  opening  of  a  new  Museum  Shop  in  the  Hirshhorn  Museum 
and  Sculpture  Garden  in  October  1974  brought  to  seven  the  num- 
ber of  Smithsonian  buildings  with  Museum  Shop  operations. 

Financial  results  for  the  year  were  very  satisfactory,  making  it 
possible  for  the  Museum  Shops  for  the  first  time  to  share  a  por- 
tion of  their  revenues  with  the  museums  for  additions  to  the  col- 
lections or  for  other  worthwhile  projects. 

Product  Development 

The  Product  Development  Program  originated  in  1972  as  a  means 
to  make  it  possible  for  men,  women,  and  children  who  cannot 
visit  Washington  to  learn  about  and  enjoy  the  historical  collections 
of  the  Smithsonian,  as  well  as  to  make  it  possible  for  the  more 
than  20  million  tourists  who  do  visit  the  Smithsonian  annually  to 
take  home  with  them  various  interpretations  and  copies  of  items 
in  the  Smithsonian  to  share  with  their  neighbors  and  friends. 

As  part  of  this  program,  the  Smithsonian  has  entered  into  agree- 
ments with  several  leading  United  States  manufacturers  under 
which  they  manufacture  and  sell,  in  close  coordination  with  the 

308  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Smithsonian,  various  lines  of  museum-related  products.  In  October 
1974,  under  one  such  agreement,  the  Fieldcrest  Company  intro- 
duced to  the  public  "American  Treasures/  a  collection  of  bed- 
spreads, quilts,  comforters,  blankets,  sheets,  and  towels  based  on 
designs  found  in  the  Smithsonian.  Public  reception  has  been 
especially  favorable.  Fieldcrest's  second  collection,  "Nation  of 
Nations,"  featuring  Smithsonian  designs  of  foreign  origin,  was 
introduced  to  the  trade  in  May  1975  and  was  well  received. 

Under  another  agreement,  the  Stieff  Company  introduced  in 
fiscal  year  1975  a  group  of  silver  and  pewter  products.  Among 
these  are  such  items  as  a  reproduction  of  a  punch  cup  which  was 
part  of  a  set  presented  to  the  commander  of  Fort  McHenry  for  its 
successful  defense  against  the  British  in  1812,  and  a  reproduction 
of  George  Washington's  wine  coaster. 

In  June  1975,  F.  Schumacher  &  Company  introduced  to  the  trade 
a  line  of  decorative  fabrics  and  wall  coverings  based  on  Smith- 
sonian designs.  Fiscal  year  1975  also  saw  the  trade  introduction  of 
three  new  diorama  kits  from  Tonka,  in  addition  to  the  four  which 
were  brought  out  earlier. 

A  new  agreement  was  reached  during  the  year  with  Universe 
Books,  under  which  Universe  will  develop  several  Smithsonian 
calendars.  Currently  in  production  for  1976  are  a  desk  engagement 
calendar  and  three  wall  calendars  based  on  the  Hirshhorn  Museum 
and  Sculpture  Garden,  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts,  and 
the  National  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Belmont  Conference  Center 

The  Belmont  Conference  Center,  located  between  the  District  of 
Columbia  and  Baltimore  near  Interstate  95,  provides  an  attractive, 
secluded,  gracious,  and  exclusive  retreat  unusual  in  the  Eastern 
Corridor.  Its  easy  access  to  the  Baltimore-Washington  airports,  as 
well  as  to  automotive  arteries,  impresses  upon  its  guests  the 
enjoyable  paradox  of  a  rural  setting  with  the  conveniences  of 
urban  proximity  but  without  its  complexities.  One  of  the  major 
advantages  of  Belmont  is  its  use  by  only  one  group  at  any  one 
time;  schedules  are  so  arranged  as  to  avoid  the  overlap  and 
attendant  discomforts  often  encountered  in  other  conference  centers 
and  hotels.  Since  its  opening  in  1967,  conference  operations  have 
been  directed  toward  the  needs  of  small  groups  which  require  a 

Administrative  Management  I  309 

location  unencumbered  by  the  normal  intrusions  associated  with 
offices.  The  240-year-old  manor  house,  with  365  surrounding  acres 
of  lawns,  forests,  and  fields,  provides  a  working  retreat  for  the 
productive  groups  which  keep  returning  to  the  Center. 

Belmont  can  accommodate  twenty-four  in-house  residents,  with 
facilities  for  ten  to  twelve  additional  guests,  speakers,  or  observers 
for  meals  and  meeting  sessions.  This  limiting  size  factor  ensures 
that  each  conference  has  the  undivided  and  individual  attention  of 
the  entire  staff,  as  well  as  the  opportunity  for  unusually  close  inter- 
action within  the  meeting  group  itself.  Of  the  eighty  or  so  meetings 
which  Belmont  hosts  in  a  year,  approximately  60  percent  are  from 
federally-funded  agencies;  the  balance  include  those  from  founda- 
tions and  other  philanthropic  organizations;  professional,  religious, 
and  social  groups;  corporations  and  private  industry;  and  uni- 
versities and  colleges. 

Office  of  Audits 

During  fiscal  year  1975,  the  Office  of  Audits  issued  audit  reports 
on  the  Special  Events  Branch,  Certain  Foreign  Gifts  Acquired  by 
the  Smithsonian,  the  Smithsonian  Exhibits  Program,  the  Office  of 
Museum  Programs,  the  Protection  Division,  and  the  Accounting 
Division  Travel  Unit.  Audit  recommendations  made  in  these  re- 
ports have  resulted  in  dollar  savings  and  improved  management 
procedures  and  controls.  In  addition,  various  pre-award  and  post- 
audits  of  contracts  and  grants  were  completed. 

Smithsonian  Women's  Council 

Activities  of  the  Smithsonian  Women's  Council  began  successfully 
this  year  with  the  appointment  of  a  coordinator  to  develop  plans 
for  a  child-care  center  for  Smithsonian  employees.  With  the  full 
and  continuing  support  of  the  Secretary  and  his  Executive  Com- 
mittee, studies  now  are  underway  to  bring  the  employee  child-care 
project  to  favorable  realization. 

310  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

The  Council  coordinated  and  participated  actively  with  the 
Office  of  Personnel  Administration  and  the  Office  of  Equal  Oppor- 
tunity in  a  wide  variety  of  special  programs,  including  observance 
of  Women's  Week  in  August.  The  keynote  speaker  was  Wilma 
Scott  Heide,  noted  feminist  and  former  Chairperson  of  the  National 
Organization  for  Women.  Additional  features  were  seminars, 
lectures,  films,  and  an  exhibition  on  women's  achievements  in  the 
arts  and  sciences  in  the  Pendulum  area  of  the  History  and  Tech- 
nology Building.  During  the  week  an  in-depth  workshop  on  career 
planning  was  inaugurated  for  Smithsonian  employees.  The  con- 
tinuation of  these  workshops  as  a  regular  part  of  the  Smithsonian 
personnel  program  also  realizes  a  goal  of  the  Council  to  provide 
employees  with  in-house  career  counseling. 

This  year  the  Women's  Council  began  a  permanent  column  in 
the  Torch — an  important  means  of  communication  with  Smith- 
sonian employees.  The  column  featured  articles  about  Council 
activities  and  other  matters,  such  as  the  Upward  Mobility  Program 
and  career  development  and  training  programs. 

On  March  4,  5,  and  6,  members  of  the  Women's  Council  at- 
tended an  orientation  training  program  conducted  by  LaVerne 
Love,  Smithsonian's  Women's  Program  Coordinator.  This  program 
provided  an  opportunity  for  the  Council  members  to  become 
acquainted  with  women's  programs  in  government  agencies,  as  well 
as  those  in  the  Smithsonian. 

Films  on  breast  and  uterine  cancer,  sponsored  by  the  Council  in 
March,  were  well  attended.  A  physician  from  the  American  Cancer 
Society  was  present  after  the  film  to  answer  questions  and  discuss 
the  technique  of  breast  self-examination. 

A  Thursday  Seminar  series  of  outstanding  speakers  was  begun 
by  the  Council  in  May.  This  series,  designed  to  appeal  to  all 
Smithsonian  employees,  has  featured  Euphesenia  Foster,  Education 
and  Special  Projects  Officer,  Department  of  Justice,  Bureau  of 
Prisons,  who  spoke  about  her  work  on  sensitizing  the  public  to  the 
needs  of  the  woman  offender;  Dr.  Estelle  Ramey,  Professor  of 
Physiology  and  Biophysics,  Georgetown  University  Medical  School, 
whose  subject  was  "Sex  Hormones  and  the  G5  Rating";  and  Mr. 
William  Blakey,  Director  of  Congressional  Liaison  for  the  United 
States  Commission  on  Civil  Rights.  The  Thursday  Seminar  series 
has  been  received  enthusiastically  by  Smithsonian  employees. 

Administrative  Management  I  311 


Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars  Fellow  Elliot  Richardson  addresses 
conference   on  the  problems   of  New  England,  held   at   the  Center  in   October    1974. 

Smithsonian  Year  •  7975 





Late  in  1968,  the  Congress  determined  that  the  official  national 
memorial  to  the  twenty-eighth  president  of  the  United  States 
should  be  a  "living  memorial."  This  congressional  decision  to  build 
a  living  memorial  for  a  great  scholar-president  has  enabled  a  new 
international  center  for  advanced  scholarship  to  emerge  in  Wash- 
ington. It  is  well  on  the  way  to  becoming  a  place  which  makes  a 
difference;  a  center  in  which  humanistic,  Wilsonian  connections 
are  made  between  intellect  and  moral  purpose,  the  world  of  ideas 
and  the  world  of  affairs. 

People,  ideas,  and  communication  are  the  essentials  of  scholar- 
ship. The  activity  of  this  Center  is  a  creative  mix  of  all  three: 
people  who  can  think,  ideas  that  matter,  and  communication  that 
gets  through. 


Finding  gifted  people  to  investigate  important  ideas  is  the  main 
business  of  the  Center.  The  principal  task  is  the  difficult  but  stimu- 
lating search  for  men  and  women  with  the  right  combination  of 
discipline,  dedication,  and  focus. 

Happily,  there  has  been  gratifying  variety  among  fellows  in  the 
last  year.  Though  their  number  is  small  (thirty-five  fellows  at  a 


time  is  customary),  different  backgrounds  and  cultures  are  always 
present.  The  past  year  we  have  welcomed  a  marine  engineer  from 
the  navy  with  the  world's  record  for  deep-sea  diving;  the  former 
attorney  general  of  the  United  States;  former  head  of  the  Chilean 
Christian  Democratic  Party;  former  presidents  of  Johns  Hopkins 
University  and  of  the  American  Political  Science  Association; 
active  leaders  of  major  international  studies  programs  in  New  Delhi, 
Tokyo,  and  Oxford;  distinguished  scholars  of  international  law 
from  Australia,  France,  Israel,  and  Poland;  and  thoughtful  journal- 
ists writing  major  books  on  European-American  relations,  re- 
gionalism in  America,  and  the  reporting  of  news  in  Washington, 
D.  C. 


From  the  beginning,  the  Center  has  sought  to  reserve  some  of  its 
fellowships  for  certain  areas  of  special  emphasis.  In  May  1974,  the 
Board  of  Trustees  formally  adopted  the  recommendations  of  a 
committee  chaired  by  Paul  McCracken  that  the  Center  be  organized 
into  three  broadly  defined  scholarly  divisions:  Historical  and  Cul- 
tural Studies;  Social  and  Political  Studies;  and  Resources,  Environ- 
ment, and  Interdependence.  This  arrangement  creates  no  permanent 
positions  or  restrictive  barriers  within  our  interdisciplinary  body, 
but  it  will  enable  us  to  plan  for  a  balanced  company  of  fellows 
chosen  by  panels  with  relevant  disciplinary  qualifications. 

Historical  and  Cultural  Studies  represent  the  new  humanistic 
thrust  of  the  Center.  There  are  three  special  areas  of  emphasis 
within  this  division.  First  is  a  cluster  of  scholars  working  on  the 
period  of  the  American  Revolution  and  the  early  constitution, 
which  has  given  the  Center  a  bicentennial  focus  well  before  the 
national  celebrations  are  scheduled  to  begin.  Three  fellows  working 
at  the  Center  on  projects  in  the  period  of  the  American  Revolution 
devised  and  put  together  on  behalf  of  the  Center  scholarly  mate- 
rials and  an  intellectual  framework  for  a  special  session  of  the 
House  of  Representatives  on  September  25,  1974,  commemorating 
the  200th  anniversary  of  the  First  Continental  Congress.  Jack 
Greene  compiled  the  special  publication  of  documents  and  Martin 
Diamond  provided  the  commentary  on  nationwide  public  television 

314  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

for  what  was,  in  effect,  the  opening  event  in  the  celebration  of  the 
Nation's  200th  birthday. 

In  the  memorial  to  an  internationalist  president  it  is  fitting  to 
focus  special  attention  on  key  areas  of  concern  abroad.  Thus,  the 
Board  of  Trustees  established  in  December  1974,  under  the  leader- 
ship of  Center  fellow  George  Kennan,  a  new  Institute  for  Ad- 
vanced Russian  Studies.  Mr.  Kennan's  unique  stature  as  the  senior 
scholar-statesman  of  Soviet-American  relations  makes  him  a 
uniquely  appropriate  chairman  of  the  advisory  council  for  this  new 
effort  within  the  Center.  Assembling  a  small  but  superior  group  of 
fellows  in  this  area  will  permit  greater  use  of  the  unmatched  re- 
sources in  Washington,  and  will  hopefully  serve  as  a  fresh  catalyst 
for  the  continuing  national  effort  to  understand  better  the  other 
great  superpower. 

A  third  special  area  within  the  Historical  and  Cultural  Studies 
division  will  consider  the  role  of  the  visual  media  (film  and  tele- 
vision) in  contemporary  culture.  On  the  basis  of  extensive  staff 
study  and  the  counsel  of  outside  advisors,  the  Center  decided  late 
in  1974  to  encourage  applications  in  this  area  through  the  regular 
fellowship  competition. 

Social  and  Political  Studies  is  the  division  dealing  with  areas  that 
specially  interested  Woodrow  Wilson  as  both  a  scholar  and  states- 
man. In  response  to  a  Board  decision  to  devote  special  attention  to 
the  institutions  of  American  government  as  they  enter  their  third 
century,  the  Center  launched  a  special  program  in  State  and  Local 
Government  in  1973.  Careful  staff  study  and  an  outside  advisory 
group  helped  devise  a  program  to  encourage  scholarly  studies  by 
practitioners.  By  mid-1974  a  company  of  five  were  pursuing  indi- 
vidual studies  in  this  area  at  the  Center.  Elliot  Richardson  was  the 
first  fellow  in  this  division  and  became  chairman  of  the  outside 
advisory  group.  Substantial  funding  for  the  program  was  provided 
by  the  Ford  Foundation. 

Other  studies  in  this  division  have  dealt  with  government  insti- 
tutions at  the  federal  level — ranging  from  philosophical  analysis 
of  proportional  representation  by  a  professor  from  Cologne  to  an 
interview-based  study  of  management  techniques  in  the  United 
States  executive  branch  by  a  professor  from  Glasgow. 

Resources,  Environment,  and  Interdependence,  the  third  division 
of  the  Center,  includes  subjects  specially  emphasized  by  the  Center 

Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars  I  315 

in  its  formative  early  years:  uses  of  the  oceans,  problems  of  the 
environment,  and  the  prospects  for  sustainable  economic  growth. 
Significant  work  has  been  done  at  the  Center  in  these  areas — 
particularly  in  preparing  for  international  conferences,  producing 
informed  awareness  of  key  problems,  and  sponsoring  public  pre- 
sentations and  meetings  at  the  Center  (as  well  as  two  conferences 
each  at  Wingspread,  Wisconsin,  and  Ditchley,  England).  After 
reviewing  work  at  the  Center  in  these  areas,  the  Board  reaffirmed, 
in  June  1974,  its  continued  commitment  to  further  study  in  the 
fields  covered  by  this  division. 


The  determination  to  communicate  is  second  only  in  the  life  of  this 
Center  to  the  prior,  basic  need  to  gather  people  with  something 
worth  saying.  We  were  gratified  that  the  Congress  authorized  a 
modest  increase  in  the  Center's  appropriation  for  fiscal  year  1975 
to  create  a  new  program  of  "public  service" — the  main  purpose  of 
which  is  to  share  more  broadly  the  fruits  of  the  fellows'  scholarship. 

Every  fellow  at  the  Center  has  a  major  individual  project.  Publi- 
cation of  the  results  of  these  projects  is  one  of  the  Center's  major 

There  are  also  other  types  of  publications — some  of  them  more 
widely  read  than  traditional  scholarly  monographs.  Scores  of  major 
articles  in  magazines  and  dozens  of  smaller  pieces  have  been 

Our  desire  systematically  to  disseminate  thoughtful,  short  pieces 
by  Center  fellows  led  the  Board  in  December  1974  to  authorize  the 
founding  of  a  quarterly  journal  by  the  Center.  Peter  Braestrup,  a 
distinguished  journalist  and  fellow  of  the  Center,  will  edit  this 
new  publishing  venture,  which  should  begin  to  appear  in  1975. 

Another  area  of  planned  Center  publication  lies  in  the  field  of 
scholarly  inventories.  The  Center  followed  bibliographical  work 
in  the  environmental  area  with  a  worldwide  survey  of  research  in 
progress  on  the  subject  of  sustainable  growth.  The  first  version  of 
this  inventory  was  rapidly  exhausted  when  it  appeared  this  past 
year,  and  a  final  revised  version  will  be  completed  early  in  1975. 

316  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

The  Center  also  plans  to  begin  preparing  in  1975  the  first  of  perhaps 
several  readable  guides  to  Washington  resources  as  a  service  to  the 
entire  scholarly  community. 

A  basic  rule  for  all  meetings  at  the  Center  is  that  they  must 
assume  the  form  of  dialogue.  Unlike  Universities,  where  the  basic 
form  of  intellectual  exchange  is  still  the  lecture-monologue,  the 
Center  insists  that  all  public  discourse  involve  more  than  one 
speaker  in  some  form  of  structured  exchange.  There  are  basically 
three  types  of  dialogue  at  the  Center: 

Pre-luncheon  discussions  are  held  every  Tuesday  and  Friday  pro- 
viding an  opportunity  for  informal,  internal  discussion  among  the 
fellows  and  with  a  variety  of  distinguished  guests.  Informal  dia- 
logue has  been  notably  enriched  at  the  Center  during  this  past  year 
by  the  establishment  of  a  new  buffet-dining  room  for  Center  fellows 
in  the  fourth  floor  seminar  room  of  the  "Castle"  building. 

Late  afternoon  colloquia  on  work-in-progress  are  generally  given 
by  all  fellows  at  some  time  in  the  course  of  their  stay  at  the  Center. 
A  fellow  also  serves  at  some  time  as  the  appointed  critic  of  another's 
presentation,  focussing  discussion  on  key  ideas  rather  than  minor 
debating  points.  Attendance  at  these  sessions  is  purely  optional, 
but  generally  high. 

Evening  dialogues  provide  an  opportunity,  thanks  to  a  generous 
grant  from  the  Xerox  Corporation,  to  assemble  carefully  invited 
groups  of  thirty  to  thirty-five  persons  for  the  sustained  discussion 
of  questions  of  fundamental  importance.  These  evenings  begin  with 
an  uninterrupted  dialogue  of  more  than  an  hour  among  two  or 
three  specially  qualified  speakers.  After  dinner,  members  of  the 
public  and  others  join  the  discussion  at  a  deeper  level  than  is  pos- 
sible under  the  pressure  of  day-to-day  work.  The  evening  dialogues 
have  been  taped  by  Radio  Smithsonian  and  broadcast  over  public 

Woodroiv  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars  /  317 

Smithsonian  Year  •  1975 



Since  September  6,  1971,  when  the  Kennedy  Center  opened  with 
the  first  preview  of  Leonard  Bernstein's  Mass,  more  than  4000  per- 
formances, nearly  6,000,000  opera-,  ballet-,  concert-,  and  theater- 
goers, an  estimated  12,000,000  sightseers,  and  a  host  of  national 
programs  have  affirmed  the  viability  of  the  dual  concept  of  national 
cultural  center  and  living  memorial. 

The  Center's  first  four  seasons  have  not  been  without  moments 
of  trial,  as  might  be  expected  in  such  a  massive  and  unprecedented 
undertaking,  but  public  response  has  proved  extraordinarily  favor- 
able and  support,  almost  overwhelming.  It  is  particularly  satisfying 
to  note  that  the  Nation's  Capital  has  gained,  at  long  last,  a  proper 
national  and  international  reputation  for  the  quality  of  its  perform- 
ing arts  facilities  and  activities. 

The  Center's  1974-1975  season  proved  the  most  successful  thus 
far  and  set  the  stage  for  a  series  of  exciting  projects  and  programs 
to  come.  A  total  of  1041  performances  were  presented  in  the  three 
major  halls  from  July  1,  1974,  through  June  30,  1975.  These  in- 
cluded 619  performances  of  drama  and  musical  comedy,  167  sym- 
phony concerts,  30  performances  of  14  operas,  98  performances  of 
dance,  25  recitals,  29  choral  concerts,  44  concerts  of  popular  music, 
12  chamber  concerts,  8  performances  of  mime,  4  variety,  and  5 
comedy  programs. 

The  theater  season  presented  a  spectacular  array  of  performers 
and  productions.  During  the  summer  months,  three  musical  revivals 
— /  Do!  I  Do!,  starring  Carol  Burnett  and  Rock  Hudson,  Seesaw, 


Mstislav  Rostropovich  acknowledges  a  thunderous  ovation. 
Photo:  Richard  Braaten 

with  John  Gavin  and  Lucie  Arnaz,  and  Gypsy,  with  Angela  Lans- 
bury  in  her  Tony  Award-winning  role — played  to  capacity  audi- 
ences in  the  Opera  House,  while  in  the  Eisenhower  Theater,  Sir 
Ralph  Richardson  starred  in  William  Douglas  Home's  delightful 
comedy,  Lloyd  George  Knew  My  Father,  and  Eva  Marie  Saint  gave 
a  stunning  performance  in  her  third  Center  production,  O'Neill's 
Desire  Under  the  Elms. 

In  September,  the  Center  welcomed  Geraldine  Page,  Sandy 
Dennis,  and  Richard  Kiley  in  Alan  Ayckbourn's  hilarious  comedy. 
Absurd  Person  Singular,  which  has  subsequently  enjoyed  tremen- 
dous success  on  Broadway.  The  enormously  talented  John  Wood 
followed  in  the  title  role  of  the  Royal  Shakespeare  Company  pro- 
duction of  Sherlock  Holmes,  and  the  incomparable  Donald  Sinden 
delighted  audiences  in  another  Royal  Shakespeare  production, 
London  Assurance. 

Bernadette  Peters  and  Robert  Preston  starred  in  a  new  musical. 
Mack  and  Mabel,  based  upon  the  lives  of  filmmaker  Mack  Sennett 
and  his  leading  lady,  Mabel  Normand,  and  returning  as  stars  of 
Terence  Rattigan's  moving  drama.  In  Praise  of  Love,  were  Rex 
Harrison  and  Julie  Harris,  who  had  each  appeared  previously  in  the 
Opera  House. 

Deborah  Kerr  spent  her  second  consecutive  Christmas  season  at 
the  Center,  starring  with  Barry  Nelson  in  Edward  Albee's  new  play. 
Seascape,  and  Yul  Brynner  and  Joan  Diener  played  the  Opera 
House  for  an  unprecedented  six  weeks  in  the  Center-produced 
musical,  Odyssey,  prior  to  an  eight-month  national  tour. 

The  late  winter  months  featured  the  New  Phoenix  Repertory 
Company's  production  of  Carson  McCuller's  The  Member  of  the 
Wedding  and  Owen's  Song,  a  spirited  production  presented  by 
Washington's  Workshops  for  Careers  in  the  Arts.  Elizabeth  Ashley 
displayed  her  considerable  talent  as  Maggie  in  a  critically  acclaimed, 
post-Broadway  engagement  of  Cat  on  a  Hot  Tin  Roof,  and  Ingrid 
Bergman  made  a  welcome  return  to  the  Opera  House  in  Somerset 
Maugham's  stylish  comedy.  The  Constant  Wife. 

Diana  Rigg  and  Alec  McCowen  starred  in  a  sparkling  British 
National  Theatre  production  of  Moliere's  The  Misanthrope,  and 
James  Earl  Jones  and  Kevin  Conway  subsequently  led  a  fine  cast 
in  John  Steinbeck's  shattering  drama.  Of  Mice  and  Men. 

320  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

During  April,  the  seventh  annual  American  College  Theatre 
Festival  presented  ten  outstanding  college  and  university  produc- 
tions, which  were  selected  during  a  series  of  regional  festivals  in 
which  over  330  schools  participated.  Included  in  this  year's  activi- 
ties were  the  presentation  of  the  winning  play  in  the  William  Morris 
Agency's  New  Play  writing  Award  Competition,  Medea:  A  Noh 
Cycle  Based  on  the  Creek  Myth,  the  annual  Irene  Ryan  Scholarship 
program,  in  which  thirteen  student  actors  competed  for  two  $2,000 
scholarships  provided  from  a  fund  established  by  the  late  Irene 
Ryan,  and  a  series  of  symposia  in  playwriting  and  drama  criticism 
for  students,  made  possible  by  a  grant  from  the  National  Endow- 
ment for  the  Arts.  Sponsored  by  amoco,  the  Festival  is  presented 
each  year  by  the  Kennedy  Center,  the  Alliance  for  Arts  Education, 
and  the  Smithsonian  Institution  and  is  produced  by  the  American 
Theatre  Association. 

Douglas  Fairbanks,  Jr.,  who  scored  such  a  success  in  the  Center's 
1972  production  of  The  Pleasure  of  His  Company,  returned  to  close 
the  1975  season  with  a  record-breaking  run  of  Noel  Coward's  mar- 
velous comedy.  Present  Laughter. 

The  musical  season  was  no  less  spectacular  with  concerts  by 
twenty-one  major  orchestras  and  appearances  by  such  renowned 
artists  as  Rudolf  Serkin,  Van  Cliburn,  EUzabeth  Schwarzkopf, 
Pierre  Cochereau,  Marilyn  Home,  and  Andres  Segovia. 

A  unique  five-day  festival  offered  audiences  an  extraordinary 
opportunity  to  observe  and  enjoy  the  multifaceted  talents  of 
Mstislav  Rostropovich.  During  the  festival,  Rostropovich  appeared 
in  solo  cello  recital,  in  his  American  debut  as  symphony  conductor, 
as  piano  accompanist  to  his  wife,  Galina  Vishnevskaya,  one  of  the 
world's  foremost  sopranos,  and  as  chamber-orchestra  conductor 
and  cello  soloist.  To  the  delight  of  all,  it  was  announced  shortly 
after  the  close  of  the  festival  that  Rostropovich  would  assume 
artistic  leadership  of  the  Center's  resident  National  Symphony 
Orchestra  in  1977. 

A  Schoenberg-Ives  Festival,  sponsored  by  the  Alliance  for  Arts 
Education,  paid  tribute  to  the  two  musical  giants  of  the  twentieth 
century  on  the  occasion  of  the  one-hundredth  anniversary  of  their 
births  and  featured  a  series  of  eight  free  performances  by  univer- 
sity and  conservatory  orchestras.  Each  performance  was  preceded 

John  F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts  I  321 

by  an  open  symposium,  during  which  the  performers  and  conduc- 
tors discussed  their  programs  and  exchanged  ideas  with  members 
of  the  audience. 

The  opera  season  opened  with  four  Rome  Piccolo  Opera  produc- 
tions, //  Maestro  di  Cappella,  La  Cambiale  di  matrimonio,  II  Filosofo 
di  Campagna,  and  //  Mercato  di  Malmantile,  presented  as  a  part 
of  the  Venetian  Festival.  This  festival,  made  possible  through  the 
generosity  of  the  Morris  and  Gwendolyn  Cafritz  Foundation  and 
presented  in  cooperation  with  the  Italian  government,  featured 
many  of  the  most  glorious  musical  works  of  the  Renaissance  and 
Baroque  periods. 

As  its  contribution  to  the  Venetian  Festival,  the  Opera  Society 
of  Washington  presented  a  revival  of  its  much-acclaimed  produc- 
tion of  Monteverdi's  L'Incoronazione  di  Poppea.  The  Society  sub- 
sequently continued  its  season  with  productions  of  Die  Walkiire 
and  Salome. 

The  New  York  City  Opera  paid  its  annual  visit  to  the  Center  in 
late  spring  and  presented  a  total  of  seven  productions,  including 
Bellini's  /  Puritani,  with  Beverly  Sills,  Manon  Lescaut,  Madama 
Butterfly,  Die  Fledermaus,  La  Traviata,  Die  Tote  Stadt,  and  The 

A  brilliant  dance  season  featured  six  of  the  world's  foremost 
companies:  the  American  Ballet  Theatre,  with  such  artists  as  Mi- 
khail Baryshnikov,  Cynthia  Gregory,  and  Natalia  Makarova;  the 
New  York  City  Ballet;  the  Alvin  Ailey  City  Center  Dance  Theatre; 
the  Joffrey  Ballet;  the  Stuttgart  Ballet;  and  the  spectacular  Bolshoi 

One  of  the  most  heartening  developments  over  the  past  four 
years  has  been  the  phenomenal  growth  of  the  Washington  dance 
audience.  Prior  to  the  Center's  completion,  major  dance  companies 
were  unable  to  perform  in  Washington  for  lack  of  an  adequate 
facility.  Now,  such  companies  are  virtually  assured  capacity  audi- 
ences and  an  exceptionally  enthusiastic  response. 

Obviously,  such  programming  as  was  presented  during  the  1974- 
1975  season  is  not  without  considerable  expense.  The  Center  is 
solely  dependent  upon  income  from  theater  operations,  concession 
revenue,  and  private  contributions  for  its  performing  arts  activities, 
and  support  from  the  private  sector  is  critically  important  to  the 
carrying  out  of  an  extensive  public  service  program. 

322  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

American  Ballet  Theatre  principal  dancers,  Mikhail  Baryshnikov  and  Gelsey  Kirkland. 

Photo:  Richard  Braaten 

During  the  past  year,  the  Center  has  been  the  grateful  recipient 
of  a  number  of  major  programming  grants.  Mobil  Oil  Corporation 
generously  sponsored  the  annual  holiday  festival,  "The  Twelve 
Days  of  Christmas,"  which  featured  over  forty  free  performances 
staged  throughout  each  day  of  the  twelve-day  period.  One  event, 
the  enormously  popular  "Messiah  Sing-In,"  drew  a  capacity  Con- 
cert Hall  audience  and  was  broadcast  to  hundreds  of  additional 
listeners  in  the  Grand  Foyer, 

The  Center  has  also  continued  to  host  Mobil's  series  of  weekly 
National  Town  Meetings,  which  afford  citizens  and  leaders  a  fas- 
cinating opportunity  to  debate  and  discuss  topics  of  major  national 

McDonald's  Restaurants,  sponsor  of  the  Center's  two  previous 
Christmas  festivals,  provided  funding  for  a  week-long  "Spring 
Festival  of  American  Music,"  as  the  company's  gift  to  the  tens  of 
thousands  of  visitors  to  Washington  during  Easter  week.  The 
Spring  Festival,  with  a  total  of  thirty-five  free  performances,  drew 
over  35,000  people  and  included  music  from  all  periods  of  American 
history.  Highlighting  the  festival,  which  officially  launched  the  Cen- 
ter's Bicentennial  celebration,  was  a  performance  of  the  works  of 
Aaron  Copeland,  conducted  by  the  composer  himself. 

In  an  extraordinary  gesture,  Xerox  Corporation  announced  plans 
to  underwrite  the  Center's  entire  1975-1976  theater  season.  Entitled 
"American  Bicentennial  Theatre,"  the  season  will  include  ten  excit- 
ing productions  of  American  plays  and  will  draw  upon  the  talents 
of  some  of  the  most  outstanding  performers  and  directors  in  the 
American  theater.  With  the  help  of  Xerox,  the  Center  will  be,  for 
the  first  time,  in  a  position  to  produce  an  entire  theater  season 

IBM  has  very  generously  provided  funding  for  another  major 
Bicentennial  project,  an  exhibition  entitled  "America  On  Stage: 
200  Years  of  the  Performing  Arts."  The  exhibition,  scheduled  to 
open  in  December  1975,  will  be  housed  on  the  Center's  roof-terrace 
level  and  will  reflect  the  history  and  development  of  the  American 
performing  arts  experience. 

Exxon  has  provided  a  grant  for  a  "bicentennial  Parade  of  Ameri- 
can Music,"  conceived  and  produced  by  the  National  Music  Council 
and  featuring  free  concerts  by  performing  groups  from  each  of  the 

324  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 


Members  of  "The  Fast-Flying  Vestibule"  perform  during  the  Spring  Festival 
of  American  Music.  Photo:  Richard  Braaten 

fifty  states  and  the  District  of  Columbia.  In  addition,  the  corpora- 
tion has  agreed  to  underwrite  three  major  concerts  and  two  oper- 
ettas during  the  Bicentennial  season. 

The  Prudential  Insurance  Company  of  America  will  sponsor  a 
cavalcade  of  American  song,  dance,  and  legend,  entitled  "Sing 
America  Sing."  The  production,  written  and  directed  by  Oscar 
Brand,  will  be  presented  in  the  Concert  Hall  during  a  two-week 
period  in  September. 

The  Morris  and  Gwendolyn  Cafritz  Foundation  not  only  spon- 
sored the  Venetian  Festival  but  generously  provided  a  grant  which 
will  enable  the  Center  to  present  the  legendary  Bolshoi  Opera  to 
Washington  audiences  during  July  1975.  The  Opera,  with  a  com- 
pany of  more  than  450,  will  appear  only  in  Washington  and  New 

Not  all  gifts  to  the  Center  during  the  past  year  have  been  pro- 
gram-related. In  November,  the  government  of  Colombia  formally 
presented  a  striking  metal  sculpture,  by  Colombian  sculptor  Eduardo 
Ramirez,  for  the  south  lawn.  The  Center  has  also  received  two 
stunning,  hand-crafted  oil  lamps  from  the  government  of  Sri  Lanka 
and  six  magnificent  wool  carpets  from  the  government  of  Morocco. 
The  China  Institute  in  America,  Inc.,  has  generously  undertaken 
the  decoration  of  a  Chinese  Room  on  the  second  tier  of  the  Concert 

By  the  very  nature  of  its  establishing  legislation,  the  Kennedy 
Center  is  far  more  than  a  series  of  theaters  and  a  tourist  attraction, 
and  its  educational  responsibilities  are  keenly  felt. 

As  a  part  of  its  educational  endeavor,  the  Center  distributed  over 
140,000  tickets  during  1974-1975,  through  its  Specially  Priced 
Ticket  Program.  This  program,  designed  to  make  the  Center's  per- 
formances accessible  to  all,  regardless  of  economic  circumstances, 
enables  students,  the  handicapped,  retired  persons  over  the  age  of 
sixty-five,  military  personnel  in  the  lower  grades,  and  low-income 
groups  to  purchase  tickets  at  half  price. 

A  series  of  free,  daytime  programs  have  been  developed  in  an 
effort  to  provide  sightseers  with  a  performing-arts  experience  dur- 
ing their  visit  to  the  Center.  In  addition  to  festival  programming, 
there  are  weekly  demonstrations  of  the  workings  of  the  Concert 
Hall's  Filene  Memorial  Organ,  with  participation  by  area  organists. 

326  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

These  demonstrations  are  co-sponsored  by  the  Friends  of  the  Ken- 
nedy Center  and  the  National  Park  Service. 

During  1974-1975,  weekly  performing-arts  seminars  were  spon- 
sored by  the  Friends  of  the  Kennedy  Center,  the  National  Sym- 
phony Orchestra,  and  the  Park  Service.  The  seminars  were  designed 
to  provide  an  additional  forum  for  the  brilliant  performers  who 
appear  at  the  Center  and  an  opportunity  for  local  audiences  and 
the  thousands  of  visitors  to  gain  a  deeper  understanding  and  appre- 
ciation of  the  arts  through  an  immediate  exchange  with  these  artists. 

The  Center  also  welcomed  over  50,000  Washington-area  school- 
children to  a  series  of  free  concerts,  sponsored  by  the  National 
Symphony  Orchestra  and  the  Washington  Performing  Arts  Society. 

The  national  Alliance  for  Arts  Education,  a  joint  project  of  the 
Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare  and  the  Kennedy 
Center,  was  established  in  1973  to  help  the  Center  fulfill  its  Con- 
gressional mandate  "to  develop  programs  in  the  arts  for  children 
and  youth  which  are  designed  specifically  for  their  participation, 
education  and  recreation." 

The  AAE  is  concerned  with  and  dedicated  to  furthering  the  arts 
as  a  major  ingredient  in  the  education  of  every  child  and  to  fostering 
cooperation  between  institutions  and  programs  which  are  similarly 
involved.  To  achieve  its  purpose,  the  aae  has  established  com- 
mittees in  the  District  of  Columbia,  the  Bureau  of  Indian  Affairs, 
and  forty-eight  states.  These  committees  are  responsible  for  devel- 
oping and  assisting  in  the  implementation  of  comprehensive  state 
arts  programs. 

On  the  national  level,  the  Center  provides  opportunities  for 
demonstration  programs  and  representative  performance  activities 
through  a  National  aae  Showcase  series.  During  the  summer  of 
1974,  eighteen  groups  representing  theater,  music,  dance,  film,  and 
aesthetic  and  perceptual  education,  visual  arts,  and  arts  programs 
for  the  mentally  retarded  were  included  in  Showcase  activities, 
which  ranged  from  elementary  through  college  levels.  Throughout 
the  year,  the  aae  also  sponsored  a  number  of  free  performances  in 
close  cooperation  with  the  Friends  of  the  Kennedy  Center  and  the 
National  Park  Service. 

In  addition  to  involvement  in  special  programs,  the  Friends  of 
the  Kennedy  Center  provide  vital  support  to  a  myriad  of  Center 

John  F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts  I  327 

projects  and  activities.  The  Friends,  established  as  the  Center's 
auxiliary  organization  in  1966,  now  number  over  10,000.  Volunteer 
members  have  given  literally  thousands  of  hours  of  their  time  con- 
ducting tours,  providing  information,  managing  souvenir  stands, 
and  overseeing  the  Specially  Priced  Ticket  Program. 

During  1974-1975,  the  Friends  and  the  National  Park  Service 
provided  information,  assistance,  and  hospitality  to  over  2.5  million 
visitors.  The  National  Park  Service,  which  assumed  responsibility 
for  maintaining  the  Center  as  a  national  memorial  in  1972,  has 
enhanced  the  operation  enormously  by  carrying  out  vital  main- 
tenance, security,  information,  and  interpretation  functions.  The 
Park  Service  is  reimbursed  by  the  Center  for  the  performing-arts 
portion  of  maintenance  costs. 

Although  organizationally  a  bureau  of  the  Smithsonian  Institu- 
tion, the  Center  is  administered  separately  by  a  forty-five-member 
Board  of  Trustees,  composed  of  thirty  members  appointed  by  the 
President  to  ten-year  overlapping  terms  and  fifteen  members  ex- 
officio  from  pertinent  government  agencies,  the  Senate,  and  the 
House  of  Representatives. 

During  the  past  year,  President  Ford  reappointed  Frank  N.  Ikard, 
Mrs.  Stephen  Smith,  and  Ms.  Donna  J.  Stone  and  also  named  as 
members  The  Honorable  Peter  H.  B.  Frelinghuysen,  The  Honorable 
J.  William  Fulbright,  R.  Phillip  Hanes,  Jr.,  and  The  Honorable  Mel- 
vin  Laird.  Both  Mr.  Frelinghuysen  and  Mr.  Fulbright  have  pre- 
viously served  as  ex-officio  members. 

The  President  of  the  Senate  has  appointed  The  Honorable  Ed- 
ward M.  Kennedy  to  represent  the  Senate,  and  The  Honorable 
Marvin  L.  Esch  has  been  named  by  the  Speaker  of  the  House  to 
represent  the  House  of  Representatives. 

Mrs.  Gerald  R.  Ford  has  graciously  consented  to  serve  as  Honor- 
ary Chairman  of  the  Center  and  joins  Mrs.  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower, 
Mrs.  Aristotle  Onassis,  Mrs.  Lyndon  B.  Johnson,  and  Mrs.  Richard 
Nixon  in  that  capacity. 

By  unanimous  vote,  the  Board  of  Trustees  elected  Mrs.  George 
A.  Garrett  the  Center's  first  and  only  Honorary  Trustee,  in  recog- 
nition of  her  years  of  dedicated  service  to  the  institution.  Mrs. 
Garrett  served  as  a  member  of  the  Board  from  1958  until  1975. 

Members  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  at  the  close  of  fiscal  year  1975 
are  as  follows: 

328  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Roger  L.  Stevens,  Chairman 

Richard  Adler 

Ralph  E.  Becker 

Terrel  H.  Bell 

J.  Carter  Brown 

Mrs.  Edward  F.  Cox 

Ralph  W.  Ellison 

The  Honorable  Marvin  L.  Esch 

Gary  E.  Everhardt 

Mrs.  J.  Clifford  Folger 

The  Honorable  Abe  Fortas 

The  Honorable  Peter  H.  B.  Frelinghuysen 

The  Honorable  J.  William  Fulbright 

Leonard  H.  Goldenson 

R.  PhiUip  Hanes,  Jr. 

Mrs.  Rebekah  Harkness 

Mrs.  Paul  H.  Hatch 

Frank  N.  Ikard 

The  Honorable  Edward  M.  Kennedy 

The  Honorable  Thomas  H.  Kuchel 

The  Honorable  Melvin  R.  Laird 

Gustave  L.  Levy 

John  G.  Lorenz 

Mrs.  Michael  J.  Mansfield 

Mrs.  J.  Willard  Marriott 

Harry  C.  McPherson,  Jr. 

Robert  L  Millonzi 

The  Honorable  Charles  H.  Percy 

The  Honorable  John  Richardson,  Jr. 

The  Honorable  S.  Dillon  Ripley  II 

The  Honorable  Teno  Roncalio 

Arthur  M.  Schlesinger,  Jr. 

Mrs.  Jouett  Shouse 

Mrs.  Stephen  E.  Smith 

Ms.  Donna  J.  Stone 

Henry  Strong 

William  H.  Thomas 

The  Honorable  Frank  Thompson,  Jr. 

Benjamin  A.  Trustman 

The  Honorable  John  V.  Tunney 

Jack  J.  Valenti 

The  Honorable  Walter  E.  Washington 

Lew  R.  Wasserman 

The  Honorable  Caspar  W.  Weinberger 

Mrs.  Jack  Wrather 

John  f.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts  I  329 

The  Repentant  Magdalen  by  Georges  de  La  Tour  (detail). 
Ailsa  Mellon  Bruce  Fund  1974. 


Smithsonian  Year  •  1975 



The  national  gallery  of  art,  although  formally  established  as  a 
bureau  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  is  an  autonomous  and  sepa- 
rately administered  organization.  It  is  governed  by  its  own  Board  of 
Trustees,  the  statutory  members  of  which  are  the  Chief  Justice  of 
the  United  States,  Chairman;  the  Secretary  of  State;  the  Secretary 
of  the  Treasury;  and  the  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution, 
all  ex  officio;  and  five  general  trustees.  Paul  Mellon  continued  as 
president  of  the  Gallery  and  John  Hay  Whitney  as  vice  president. 
The  other  general  trustees  continuing  to  serve  were  Carlisle  H. 
Humelsine,  Dr.  Franklin  D.  Murphy,  and  Stoddard  M.  Stevens. 

During  the  fiscal  year  1975  the  Gallery  had  over  1,827,300 

A  number  of  important  works  of  art  were  acquired.  By  far  the 
most  significant — in  fact,  the  most  important  single  acquisition 
since  Leonardo's  Ginevra  de'Benci  in  1967 — was  Georges  de  La 
Tour's  The  Repentant  Magdalen  (1640),  purchased  after  lengthy 
negotiations  with  the  owner  and  the  French  government,  which  in 
the  end  graciously  permitted  its  export. 

Seven  works  of  sculpture  were  added  to  the  collection  including 
a  della  Porta  bronze  of  Pope  Paul  III  and  Saint-Gauden's  bronze 
Diana  of  the  Tower. 

Among  the  987  works  of  graphic  art  acquired  were  thirty-seven 
drawings,  among  them  Guercino's  powerful  Fisherman  and  a 
Jordaens  watercolor.  The  950  prints  accessioned  included  Vuillard's 
Tuileries  Garden,  Nolde's  Candle-Dancer  and  several  important 
works  by  Piranesi. 


Eleven  exhibitions  were  shown  at  the  Gallery  during  the  year, 
including  six  important  loan  shows.  By  far  the  most  significant  in 
terms  of  popular  attraction  and  general  historical  interest  was  the 
"Exhibition  of  Archaeological  Finds  of  The  People's  Republic  of 
China"  which,  in  fifteen  midwinter  weeks,  drew  685,000  viewers. 
The  exhibitions  are  listed  at  the  close  of  this  section. 

From  its  collections,  the  Gallery  made  loans  to  thirty-eight  exhi- 
bitions at  fifty-three  institutions  including  eight  abroad.  Included 
were  forty-eight  paintings,  two  sculptures,  and  293  graphics. 

A  newly  created  Extension  Program  Development  Department 
headed  by  Joseph  J.  Reis,  former  Director  of  Education  at  the  Mil- 
waukee Art  Center,  began  its  task  of  forward  planning,  production 
and  revision  of  the  audio-visual  programs  circulated  nationally  by 
the  Gallery.  The  total  number  of  bookings  of  Extension  Service 
materials,  film  strips,  slide  lectures  and  films  was  27,088.  The  total 
estimated  audience  in  all  fifty  states  and  abroad  was  nearly  three 
million.  Another  educational  program.  Art  and  Man,  published  in 
cooperation  with  Scholastic  Magazines,  Inc.,  reached  over  four 
thousand  classrooms  in  every  state- 
Total  attendance  at  talks  given  by  the  Gallery's  Education  De- 
partment and  at  the  programs  presented  in  the  auditorium  was 
163,728.  These  included  the  regularly  scheduled  auditorium  lectures 
and  films,  the  Introduction  to  the  Collection,  the  Tour  of  the 
Week,  and  Painting  of  the  Week,  as  well  as  special  introductory 
presentations  keyed  to  three  of  the  exhibitions.  There  were  thirty- 
three  guest  lecturers  including  the  twenty-third  annual  A.  W. 
Mellon  Lecturer  in  the  Fine  Arts,  H.  C.  Robbins  Landon,  who 
gave  a  series  of  seven  lectures  with  slides  and  musical  excerpts 
entitled  "Music  in  Europe  in  1776."  Other  distinguished  scholars 
from  abroad  who  lectured  included  Carl  Nordenfalk,  Sir  John 
Pope-Hennessey,  and  Sir  Ellis  Waterhouse,  the  Kress  Professor  in 

The  Conservation  staff  had  a  busy  year  restoring  important 
works  of  art,  surveying  paintings  in  the  Gallery  and  on  protracted 
loans  elsewhere,  fitting  desiccants  to  many  of  the  cases  holding 
the  treasures  in  the  Chinese  archaeological  exhibition,  as  well  as 
detailed  planning  for  the  new  and  substantially  enlarged  con- 
servation laboratory  on  which  construction  is  expected  to  start 
in  the  fall  of  1976  in  the  Gallery's  main  building. 

332  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

The  Research  Project  at  Carnegie-Mellon  University  continues 
to  provide  technical  advice  on  polymers,  pigments  and  illumina- 
tion to  museums  both  in  the  United  States  and  abroad,  in  the  past 
year  assisting  the  Library  of  Congress,  the  Corning  Museum  of 
Glass,  Museum  of  Modern  Art,  Art  Institute  of  Chicago,  Walters 
Art  Gallery,  Carnegie  Museum,  and  the  Society  for  the  Preservation 
of  New  England  Antiquities. 

In  the  Library  the  year  was  marked  by  the  acquisition  from  Milan 
of  the  Reti  Library,  one  of  the  world's  finest  collections  of  material 
on  Leonardo.  More  than  four  thousand  other  books  and  pamphlets 
were  received  in  addition  to  83,260  photographs  for  the  Photo- 
graphic Archives. 

The  Publications  Room  had  a  banner  year  selling  over  eighty 
thousand  of  the  illustrated  catalogues  of  the  Chinese  exhibition 
and  handling  498,325  over-the-counter  orders  and  6891  mail  orders. 

The  Music  Program  continued  to  draw  enthusiastic  audiences 
and  critical  acclaim.  Forty  Sunday  evening  concerts  were  presented, 
including  five  world  premieres  and  seventeen  first  Washington  per- 
formances of  works  by  a  total  of  nineteen  composers.  String  en- 
sembles from  the  National  Gallery  Orchestra  played  on  four  other 
public  occasions.  Radio  Station  wgms  broadcast  each  concert,  all  but 
two  live. 

During  the  year  the  main  outlines  of  the  new  East  Building  took 
form  above  Pennsylvania  Avenue  and  the  Mall.  The  eastern  tower 
rose  to  roof  level,  and  the  Study  Center  construction  reached  the 
seventh  of  its  eight  levels  above  grade.  The  huge  trusses  that  con- 
nect the  towers  along  the  Pennsylvania  Avenue  and  Fourth  Street 
facades  were  put  into  place  in  the  autumn.  The  exterior  marble 
covered  much  of  the  building  to  the  third  level  and  part  of  the 
south  wall  to  the  fifth. 

The  concourse-cafeteria  area  progressed  rapidly  once  the  trace 
of  Fourth  Street  was  restored  to  its  original  alignment.  Excavation 
and  foundation  mat  were  completed,  and,  by  June,  this  connecting 
link  between  the  present  building  and  the  new  East  Building  was 
almost  entirely  covered  over  at  plaza  level  by  form-work  or  com- 
pleted pours  of  concrete. 

National  Gallery  of  Art  I  333 


American  Textiles:  Watercolors  from  the  Index  of  American  Design 
Continued  from  the  previous  fiscal  year  through  July  15,  1974. 

Recent  Acquisitions  and  Promised  Gifts:  Sculpture,  Drawings,  Prints 
Continued  from  the  previous  fiscal  year  through  August  4,  1974. 

African  Art  and  Motion 

Continued  from  the  previous  fiscal  year  through  September  22,  1974. 

M.  C.  Escher  Prints 

July  26  through  December  30,  1974. 

Venetian  Drawings  from  American  Collections 
September  29  through  November  24,  1974. 

The   Exhibition   of  Archaeological   Finds   of   The   People's    Republic   of 
December  13,  1974,  through  March  30,  1975. 

Rubens,  Van  Dyck  &  Jordaens:  Prints  &  Drawings 
January  8  through  February  19,  1975. 

"The  Sick  Girl,"  by  Edvard  Munch 
January  23  through  March  6,  1975. 

Medieval  and  Renaissance  Miniatures  from  the  National  Gallery  of  Art 
January  26  through  March  23,  1975. 

Lithographs  Printed  at  the  Tamarind  Workshop,  Inc.,  Los  Angeles 
February  21  through  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year. 

Jacques  Callot:  Prints  and  Related  Drawings 

June  29,  1975,  through  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year. 

Board  of  Trustees 


The  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States 

Warren  E.  Burger,  Chairman 
The  Secretary  of  State 

Henry  A.  Kissinger 
The  Secretary  of  the  Treasury 

William  E.  Simon 
The  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution 

S.  Dillon  Ripley 


Carlisle  H.  Humelsine 
Paul  Mellon 
Franklin  D.  Murphy 
Stoddard  M.  Stevens 
John  Hay  Whitney 

334  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 


Smithsonian  Year  •  7^75 

1.  Members  of  the  Smithsonian  Council,  Boards,  pag^  336 
and  Commissions,  June  30, 1975 

2.  Smithsonian  Special  Foreign  Currency  Program  Research  344 
Supported  in  Fiscal  Year  1975 

3.  National  Museum  Act  Grants  Awarded  in  Fiscal  Year  1975         347 

4.  Progress  on  Building  Construction,  Restoration,  and  350 

5.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Press  352 
in  Fiscal  Year  1975 

6.  Bibliography  of  Research  Supported  Through  the  363 
Facilities  of  the  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research 

Institute  Marine  Laboratories  During  Their  First 
Ten  Years,  1965-1975 

7.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Staff 

in  Fiscal  Year  1975  373 

8.  Selected  Contributions  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Staff         426 
in  Fiscal  Year  1975 

9.  Fellows  and  Guest  Scholars  of  the  Woodrow  Wilson  468 
International  Center  for  Scholars  Since  Its  Inception, 

October  1970,  Through  June  1975 

10.  Academic  Appointments,  1974-1975  470 

11.  Staff  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  June  30,  1975  478 

12.  Smithsonian  Associates  Membership,  1974-1975  504 

13.  List  of  Donors  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution  514 
in  Fiscal  Year  1975 

14.  List  of  Volunteers  Who  Served  the  571 
Smithsonian  Institution  in  Fiscal  Year  1975 

15.  Visitors  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution  in  Fiscal  Year  1975  590 


APPENDIX    1.    Members   of  the   Smithsonian    Council,   Boards, 
and   Commissions,   June   30,    1975 

Smithsonian  Institution  Board  of  Regents 

Warren  E.  Burger,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States,  Chancellor 

Nelson  A.  Rockefeller,  Vice  President  of  the  United  States 

Frank  E.  Moss,  Member  of  the  Senate 

Henry  M.  Jackson,  Member  of  the  Senate 

Hugh  Scott,  Member  of  the  Senate 

George  H.  Mahon,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives 

Elford  A.  Cederberg,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives 

Sidney  R.  Yates,  Member  of  the  House  of  Representatives 

John  Paul  Austin,  citizen  of  Georgia 

John  Nicholas  Brown,  citizen  of  Rhode  Island 

William  A.  M.  Burden,  citizen  of  New  York 

Robert  F.  Goheen,  citizen  of  New  Jersey 

Murray  Gell-Mann,  citizen  of  California 

Caryl  P.  Haskins,  citizen  of  Washington,  D.C. 

A.  Leon  Higginbotham,  Jr.,  citizen  of  Pennsylvania 

Thomas  J.  Watson,  Jr.,  citizen  of  Connecticut 

James  E.  Webb,  citizen  of  Washington,  D.C. 

Executive  Committee,  Board  of  Regents 

Warren  E.  Burger,  Chancellor  of  the  Board  of  Regents 

William  A.  M.  Burden 

Caryl  P.  Haskins 

James  E.  Webb,  Chairman 

The  Smithsonian  Council 

Dr.  Roger  D.  Abrahams.  Chairman,  Department  of  English,  Professor  of  Eng- 
lish and  Anthropology,  The  University  of  Texas,  Austin,  Texas. 

Dr.  H.  Harvard  Arnason.  Art  Historian,  River  Road,  Roxbury,  Connecticut 
(Honorary  Member). 

Professor  George  A.  Bartholomew.  Department  of  Zoology,  University  of  Cali- 
fornia, Los  Angeles,  California. 

Dr.  Muriel  M.  Berman.  Civic,  art,  and  college  affairs,  "20  Hundred"  Notting- 
harn  Road,  Allentown,  Pennsylvania  (Honorary  Member). 

Dr.  Herman  R.  Branson.  President,  Lincoln  University,  Pennsylvania  (Honor- 
ary Mernber). 

Dr.  Frederick  H.  Burkhardt.  President  Emeritus,  American  Council  of  Learned 
Societies,  RFD  #1,  Bennington,  Vermont. 

Professor  Archie  F.  Carr,  Jr.  Department  of  Biology,  University  of  Florida, 
Gainesville,  Florida. 

Professor  Carl  W.  Condit.  Center  for  Urban  Affairs,  Northwestern  University, 
Evanston,  Illinois. 

336  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Mrs.  Camille  W.  Cook.  Assistant  Dean,  University  of  Alabama  School  of  Law, 

Ms.  Anne  d'Harnoncourt,  Curator,  Philadelphia  Museum  of  Art,  Parkway  at 
26th  Street,  P.O.  Box  7646,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania. 

Professor  Fred  R.  Eggan.  Department  of  Anthropology,  University  of  Chicago, 
Chicago,  Illinois. 

Dr.  Donald  S.  Farner.  Chairman,  Department  of  Zoology,  University  of  Wash- 
ington, Seattle,  Washington  (Honorary  Member). 

Professor  Anthony  N.  B.  Garvan.  Chairman,  Department  of  American  Civiliza- 
tion, University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania  (Honorary 

Dr.  Murray  Gell-Mann.  California  Institute  of  Technology,  Pasadena,  Cali- 

Dr.  Peter  C.  Goldmark.  Goldmark  Communications  Corporation,  Stamford, 

Dr.  Frank  B.  Golley.  Executive  Director,  Institute  of  Ecology,  University  of 
Georgia,  Athens,  Georgia. 

Dr.  Philip  Handler.  President,  National  Acaderny  of  Sciences,  Washington, 
D.C.  (Honorary  Member). 

Dr.  David  Hawkins.  Director,  Mountain  View  Center  for  Environmental  Edu- 
cation, University  of  Colorado,  Boulder,  Colorado. 

Professor  Nathan  I.  Huggins.  Department  of  History,  Columbia  University, 
New  York,  New  York. 

Dr.  Jan  LaRue.  Director  of  Graduate  Studies,  Department  of  Music,  New  York 
University,  New  York,  New  York  (Honorary  Member). 

Dr.  James  L.  Liverman.  Director,  Division  of  Biomedical  and  Environmental 
Research,  U.S.  Atomic  Energy  Commission,  Washington,  D.C. 

Dr.  Clifford  L.  Lord.  President,  Hofstra  University,  Hempstead,  New  York 
(Honorary  Member). 

Dr.  Giles  W.  Mead.  Director,  Los  Angeles  County,  Museum  of  Natural  His- 
tory, Los  Angeles,  California. 

Professor  Charles  D.  Michener.  Lawrence,  Kansas  (Honorary  Member). 

Dr.  Peter  M.  Millman.  Ontario,  Canada  (Honorary  Member). 

Dr.  Ruth  Patrick.  Chairman  of  the  Board,  The  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences, 
Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania. 

Professor  Norman  Holmes  Pearson.  Department  of  English  and  American 
Studies,  Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Connecticut. 

Dr.  Gordon  N.  Ray.  President,  John  Simon  Guggenheim  Memorial  Foundation, 
New  York,  New  York. 

Mr.  Philip  C.  Ritterbush.  Center  for  the  Study  of  Popular  Education  and 
Recreation,  Wallpack  Village,  New  Jersey  (Honorary  Member). 

Mr.  Harold  Rosenberg.  Art  Critic,  New  Yorker  Magazine,  New  York,  New 

Professor  Carl  E.  Sagan,  Director,  Laboratory  of  Planetary  Studies,  Space  Sci- 
ences Building,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  New  York. 

Mr.  Andre  Schiffrin.  Managing  Director,  Pantheon  Books,  New  York,  New 

Mr.  George  C.  Seybolt.  President,  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston,  Massachusetts 
(Honorary  Meinber). 

Professor  Cyril  Stanley  Smith.  Institute  Professor,  Massachusetts  Institute  of 
Technology,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts. 

Professor  John  D.  Spikes.  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah  (Honorary  Member). 

Professor  Stephen  E.  Toulmin.  Professor  in  the  Committee  on  Social  Thought, 
University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  Illinois. 

Mrs.  Barbara  W.  Tuchman.  Author,  New  York,  New  York. 

Appendix  1.  Smithsonian  Council,  Boards,  and  Commissions  I  337 

Dr.  William  Von  Arx.  Senior  Scientist,  Woods  Hole  Oceano graphic  Institution, 

Massachusetts  (Honorary  Member). 
Professor  Warren  H.  Wagner,  Jr.  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan  (Honorary  Member). 
Dr.   Rainer   Zangerl.    Chairman,  Department   of   Geology,   Field   Museum   of 

Natural  History,  Chicago,  Illinois  (Honorary  Member). 

Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory  Visiting  Committee 

Dean  Harvey  Brooks,  Chairman,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Massa- 

Mr.  Thomas  J.  Watson,  IBM  Corporation,  New  York,  New  York. 

Dr.  Murray  Gell-Mann,  California  Institute  of  Technology,  Pasadena,  Cali- 

Dr.  Walter  Orr  Roberts,  University  Corporation  for  Atmospheric  Research, 
Boulder,  Colorado. 

Mr.  Benjamin  C.  Nash,  Nash  Engineering  Corporation,  Norwalk,  Connecticut 

Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum  Board  of  Directors 

Mr.  Stanley  Anderson,  Chairperson 

Mr.  John  Blake,  Vice-Chairperson 

Mr.  Almore  Dale,  Treasurer 

Ms.  Iris  Harris,  Secretary 

Mr.  Terry  Coleman,  Corresponding  Secretary 

Mr.  Richard  Jones,  At-Large  (Youth) 

Mr.  Alton  Jones,  At-Large 

Rev.  James  Anderson 

Mr.  Donald  Ball 

Mr.  Percy  Battle 

Mrs.  Carlyn  Bingham 

Mr.  Norman  Dale 

Mr.  Nat  Dixon 

Mrs.  Annette  Doolittle 

Mrs.  Isabella  Edwards 

Hon.  John  D.  Fauntleroy 

Mr.  Robert  Fields 

Mrs.  Mildred  Jones  Fisher 

Mrs.  Mary  Gregory 

Mr.  Charles  Grimes 

Mrs.  Mary  Hammond 

Mr.  Fred  Hill 
Mr.  Edward  Hope 
Mrs.  Theresa  Howe  Jones 
Mrs.  Delia  Lowery 
Mr.  Curtis  Magruder 
Mrs.  Caryl  Marsh 
Mrs.  Francis  Mason-Jones 
Mrs.  Cecelia  Matthews 
Mr.  Russell  Paxton 
Dr.  Charles  Quails 
Mr.  Fred  Saunders 
Mrs.  Lillian  Smallwood 
Mr.  Charles  Stephenson 
Mrs.  Esther  Sullivan 

Archives  of  American  Art  Board  of  Trustees 

Mrs.  Otto  L.  Spaeth,  Chairman 

Irving  F.  Burton,  President 

Mrs.  Alfred  Negley,  Vice  President 

Mrs.  E.  Bliss  Parkinson,  Vice  President 

Henry  DeF.  Baldwin,  Secretary 

Joel  Ehrenkranz,  Treasurer 

Joseph  H.  Hirshhorn 

James  Humphry  III 

Miss  Milka  Iconomoff 

Gilbert  H.  Kinney 

Howard  W.  Lipman 

Harold  O.  Love 
Russell  Lynes 
Abraham  Melamed 
Mrs.  Dana  M.  Raymond 
Mrs.  William  L.  Richards 
Stephen  Shalom 
Stanford  C.  Stoddard 
Edward  M.  M.  Warburg 
George  H.  Waterman  III 
S.  Dillon  Ripley,  ex  officio 
Charles  Blitzer,  ex  officio 

338  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 


Lawrence  A.  Fleischman 
Mrs.  Edsel  B.  Ford 
E.  P.  Richardson 

Archives  of  American  Art  Advisory  Cotniuittee 

James  Humphry  III,  Chairman 

Milton  W.  Brown 

Frederick  Cummings 

Anne  d'Harnoncourt 

Lloyd  Goodrich 

Eugene  C.  Goossen 

James  J.  Heslin 

John  Howat 

Bernard  Karpel 

John  A.  Kouwenhoven 

Abram  Lerner 

Russell  Lynes 

A.  Hyatt  Mayor 

Barbara  Novak 

Jules  Prown 

J.  T.  Rankin 

Charles  van  Ravenswaay 

Marvin  S.  Sadik 

Joshua  C.  Taylor 

William  B.  Walker 

Richard  P.  Wunder 

Center  for  the  Study  of  Man 

National  Anthropological  Film  Center  Advisory  Council 

Dr.  Margaret  Mead,  The  American  Museum  of  Natural  History,  New  York. 

Dr.  Sol  Tax,  Professor  of  Anthropology,  University  of  Chicago. 

Dr.  George  Spindler,  Professor  of  Anthropology,  Stanford  University. 

Dr.  Jay  Ruby,  President,  Society  for  the  Anthropology  of  Visual  Communica- 
tion, do  Temple  University,  Philadelphia. 

Mr.  Carroll  Williams,  Director,  Anthropology  Film  Center,  Santa  Fe,  New 

Dr.  Edward  Hall,  Professor  of  Anthropology,  Northwestern  University. 

Dr.  Gordon  Gibson,  Curator  of  African  Ethnology,  Smithsonian  Institution. 

Dr.  Asen  Balikci,  Professor  of  Anthropology,  University  of  Montreal. 

Dr.  Paul  Hockings,  Associate  Professor  of  Anthropology,  University  of  Illinois 
at  Chicago  Circle. 

Mr.  Matthew  Huxley,  National  Institute  of  Mental  Health. 

Mrs.  Emilie  de  Brigard,  Guest  Director,  Anthropological  Cinema,  Department 
of  Film,  Museum  of  Modern  Art,  New  York. 

Dr.  William  Crocker,  Department  of  Anthropology,  Smithsonian  Institution. 

Dr.  Fuller  Torrey,  National  Institute  of  Mental  Health. 

Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of  Decorative  Arts  and  Design 
Advisory  Board 

Thomas  E.  Murray  II, 
Chairman  Pro  Tern 
Cass  Canfield,  Jr. 
Albert  L.  Edelman 
Sidney  Gruson 
Mrs.  Matthew  A.  Meyer 
Mrs.  Miles  Pennybacker 

Mrs.  Howard  Sachs 
Mrs.  Emily  Stillman 
Robert  C.  Weaver 
S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary, 

Smithsonian  Institution,  ex  officio 
Mrs.  Margaret  Carnegie  Miller, 

Honorary  Member 

Freer  Visiting  Committee 

The  Honorable  Hugh  Scott,  Chairman,  United  States  Senate,  Washington,  D.C. 
Mr.  Laurence  Sickman,  Assistant  Chairman,  Director,  William  Rockhill  Nelson 
Gallery  of  Art,  4525  Oak  Street,  Kansas  City,  Missouri. 

Appendix  1.  Smithsonian  Council,  Boards,  and  Commissions  I  339 

Mrs.  Jackson  Burke,  3  East  77th  Street,  New  York,  New  York. 

Professor  Kwang-chih  Charig,  Department  of  Anthropology,  Yale  University, 
New  Haven,  Connecticut. 

Professor  Marvin  Eisenberg,  Department  of  the  History  of  Art,  University  of 
Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan. 

Mrs.  Katharine  Graham,  Publisher,  The  Washington  Post,  1515  L  Street,  N.W., 
Washington,  D.C. 

Mr.  Charles  A.  Greenfield,  150  East  69th  Street,  New  York,  New  York. 

Professor  John  M.  Rosenfield,  Fogg  Art  Museum,  Harvard  University,  Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts. 

Mr.  John  S.  Thacher,  1692  Thirty-First  Street,  N.W.,  Washington,  D.C. 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 
Board  of  Trustees 

Daniel  P.  Moynihan,  Anne  d'Harnoncourt 

Chairman*  Taft  B.  Schreiber 

George  Heard  Hamilton,  Hal  B.  Wallis 

Vice  Chairman*  (Term  expires  6/30/75) 

H.  Harvard  Arnason  Thomas  Mellon  Evans 

Leigh  B.  Block  (Term  begins  7/1/75)** 

Theodore  E.  Cummings 

Warren  E.  Burger,  Chief  Justice  of  the  United  States,  ex  officio 
5.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  ex  officio 

*  Reelected  at  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Trustees,  April  4,  1975. 
**  Appointed  at  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Trustees,  April  4,  1975. 

Horticultural  Advisory  Committee* 

5.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  ex  officio. 

Dr.  Robert  Baker,  Professor  of  Horticulture,  University  of  Maryland. 

James  R.  Buckler,  Horticulturist,  Smithsonian  Institution. 

Mr.  Jimmie  L.  Crowe,  Assistant  Director,  U.S.  Botanic  Gardens. 

Mrs.  Frances  Patteson-Knight,  Lay  Horticulturist,  McLean,  Virginia. 

Dr.  Robert  Read,  Associate  Curator,  Smithsonian  Institution,  Department  of 

Dr.  Russell  Seibert,  Director,  Longwood  Gardens,  Kennett  Square,  Penn- 

Mrs.  Belva  Jensen,  Director,  Division  of  Biological  Sciences,  Charles  County 
Community  College. 

Mr.  Carlton  Lees,  Vice  President,  New  York  Botanic  Gardens. 

Mr.  Lester  Collins,  Landscape  Architect,  Washington,  D.C. 

*  Established  by  the  Secretary  in  January  1974.  Committee  meets  April  and 
September  of  each  year  except  for  special  meetings. 

John  F.  Kennedy  Center  for  the  Performing  Arts 
Members  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  are  given  on  page  329. 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum  Advisory  Board 


S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  Chairman 
340  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Brigadier  General  James  L.  Collins,  Chief  of  Military  History,  Department  of 
the  Army,  Washington,  D.C. 

Major  General  Edward  S.  Fris,  Deputy  Chief  of  Staff  (Air),  United  States 
Marine  Corps,  Washington,  D.C. 

Vice  Admiral  William  D.  Houser,  Deputy  Chief  of  Naval  Operations  (Air 
Warfare),  Department  of  the  Navy,  Washington,  D.C. 

Mr.  Jefferson  W.  Cochran,  Associate  Administrator  for  Engineering  and  De- 
velopment (FAA),  Department  of  Transportation,  Washington,  D.C. 

Major  General  M.  R.  Reilly,  Commander,  Headquarters  Command  USAF, 
Boiling  Air  Force  Base,  Washington,  D.C. 

Rear  Admiral  Robert  H.  Scarborough,  Chief,  Office  of  Operations,  United 
States  Coast  Guard,  WasJungton,  D.C. 

Mr.  Willis  H.  Shapley,  Associate  Deputy  Administrator,  National  Aero- 
nautics and  Space  Administration,  Washington,  D.C. 


Mrs.    O.    A.    Beech,    Chairman    of   the    Board,    Beech    Aircraft    Corporation, 

Wichita,  Kansas. 
Lieutenant   General   William   E.    Hall,   USAF   (Ret),   883   S.W.   Meadowbrook 

Road,  Palm  Bay,  Florida. 
Lieutenant  General  Elvvood  R.  Quesada,  USAF  (Ret),  490  L'enfant  Plaza  East, 

S.W.,  Suite  2207,  Washington,  D.C. 

National  Armed  Forces  Museum  Advisory  Board 

John  Nicholas  Brown,  Chairman 

Secretary  of  the  Army 

Secretary  of  the  Navy 

Secretary  of  the  Air  Force 

Alexander  P.  Butterfield 

William  H.  Perkins,  Jr. 

Secretary  of  Defense,  ex  officio 

Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  ex  officio 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  Commission 

H.  Page  Cross,  Chairman 

George  B.  Tatum,  Vice  Chairmafi 

S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary 

Mrs.  Elizabeth  Brook  Blake 

Thomas  S.  Buechner 

David  E.  Finley 

Martin  Friedman 

Lloyd  Goodrich 

Walker  Hancock 

Bartlett  H.  Hayes,  Jr. 

August  Heckscher 


Alexander  Wetmore 
Paul  Mellon 

Thomas  C.  Howe 
Mrs.  Jaquelin  H.  Hume 
David  Lloyd  Kreeger 
Abram  Lerner,  ex  officio 
Mrs.  Doris  M.  Magowan 
Henry  P.  Mcllhenny 
Ogden  M.  Pleissner 
Harold  Rosenberg 
Charles  H.  Sawyer 
Mrs.  Otto  L.  Spaeth 
Otto  Wittman 

Stow  Wengenroth 
Andrew  Wyeth 

National  Gallery  of  Art 
Members  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  are  given  on  page  334. 

Appendix  1.  Smithsonian  Council,  Boards,  and  Commissions  I  341 

National  Museum  Act  Advisory  Council 

Paul  N.  Perrot,  Chairman  Larence  J.  Majewski* 

William  T.  Alderson  Taizo  Miake* 

Joseph  M.  Chamberlain  Arminia  Neal 

W.  D.  Frankforter  Bonnie  Louise  Pitman 

Lloyd  Hezekiah*  Barnes  Riznik 

Philip  S.  Humphrey  Mitchell  Wilder 

*  Term  expires  at  the  end  of  fiscal  year  1975. 

National  Portrait  Gallery  Commission 

John  Nicholas  Brown,  Chairman  Katie  Louchheim 

Ralph  Ellison  Barry  Bingham,  Sr. 

David  E.  Finley  Warren  E.  Burger,  Chief  Justice  of 

Wilmarth  Sheldon  Lewis  the  United  States,  ex  officio 

Robert  L.  McNeil,  Jr.  S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary, 

Andrew  Oliver  Smithsonian  Institution,  ex  officio 

E.  P.  Richardson  J.  Carter  Brown,  Director, 

Robert  Hilton  Smith  National  Gallery  of  Art,  ex  officio 

Office  of  International  Programs, 

Smithsonian  Foreign  Currency  Program  Advisory  Councils 


Dr.  Klaus  Baer  Professor  Henry  S.  Robinson 

Dr.  Iwao  Ishino  Dr.  Bernard  Wailes 

Professor  Joseph  W.  Elder  Dr.  William  Fitzhugh 


Dr.  Felix  Chayes  Dr.  William  Melson 

Dr.  Henry  Faul  Professor  Thornton  Page 

Dr.  Paul  Hodge  Dr.  Victor  Szebehely 

Dr.  William  H.  Klein  Dr.  Louis  Walter 


Dr.  Edwin  Colbert  Dr.  Jerry  F.  Franklin 

Professor  Kenneth  W.  Cooper  Dr.  Robert  F.  Inger 

Dr.  John  F.  Eisenberg  Dr.  Watson  M.  Laetsch 

Professor  Peter  W.  Frank  Dr.  Duncan  M.  Porter 


(See  listing  above  under  National  Museum  Act  Advisory  Council.) 

Smithsonian  Associates  National  Board* 

Lewis  A.  Lapham,  Chairman  Joseph  F.  Cullman  3rd 

Robert  O.  Anderson  Harry  B.  Cunningham 

Harry  Hood  Bassett  Paul  L.  Davies 

Richard  P.  Cooley  Thomas  M.  Evans 

*  This  body  was  created  in  October  1971  to  assist  the  Institution  in  the  pursuit  of 
certain  of  its  aims  for  the  decade  of  the  1970s,  particularly  in  the  development  of  its 
relations  with  industry. 

342  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Leonard  K.  Firestone  George  C.  McGhee 

Charles  T.  Fisher  III  Mrs.  Robert  S.  McNamara 

G.  Keith  Funston  Ruben  F.  Mettler 

Alfred  C.  Glassell,  Jr.  Charles  M.  Pigott 

Mrs.  David  L.  Guyer  Mrs.  Malcolm  Price 

Henry  J.  Heinz  II  Francis  C.  Rooney,  Jr. 

William  A.  Hewitt  Merritt  Kirk  Ruddock 

John  N.  Irwin  II  Thomas  J.  Watson,  Jr. 

Frank  Y.  Larkin  James  O.  Wright 

Snntlisoiiian  Science  Information  Exchange,  Incorporated, 
Board  of  Directors 

Dr.  David  Challinor,  Chairman  of  the  Board,  Assistant  Secretary  for  Science, 

Smithsonian  Institution. 
Dr.  Robert  A.  Brooks,  Under  Secretary,  Smithsonian  Institution. 
Dr.  Lee  G.  Burchinal,  Head,  Office  of  Science  Information  Service,  National 

Science  Foundation. 
Dr.  David  F.  Hersey,  President,  Smithsonian  Science  Information  Exchange, 

Mr.  S.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary,  Smithsonian  Institution. 
Dr.   R.   W.   Lamont-Havers,  Acting  Deputy   Director,  National  Institutes  of 

Dr.  Charles  W.  Shilling,  Executive  Secretary,  Undersea  Medical  Society,  Inc. 
Mr.  Alan  D.  Ullberg,  Assistant  General  Counsel,  Smithsonian  Institution. 
Mr.  T.  Ames  Wheeler,  Treasurer,  Smithsonian  Institution. 

Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars 
Board  of  Trustees 

William  J.  Baroody,  Chairman. 

Daniel  P.  Moynihan,  Vice  Chairman. 

William  M.  Batten,  New  York,  New  York. 

Ronald  S.  Berman,  Chairman,  National  Endowment  for  the  Humanities. 

Robert  H.  Bork,  Washington,  D.C. 

Robert  A.  Goldwin,  Special  Consultant  to  the  President. 

Bryce  N.  Harlow,  Washington,  D.C. 

Henry  A.  Kissinger,  Secretary  of  State. 

Paul  W.  McCracken,  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan. 

L.  Quincy  Mumford,  Librarian  of  Congress. 

James  B.  Rhoads,  Archivist  of  the  United  States. 

5.  Dillon  Ripley,  Secretary  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution. 

Dean  Rusk,  University  of  Georgia  Law  School. 

Rawleigh  Warner,  Jr.,  New  York,  New  York. 

Caspar  W.  Weinberger,  Secretary  of  Health,  Education  and  Welfare. 

Appendix  1.  Smithsonian  Council,  Boards,  and  Commissions  I  343 

APPENDIX  2.   Smithsonian  Special  Foreign  Currency  Program 
Research  Supported  in  Fiscal  Year  1975 


American  Institute  of  Indian  Studies,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania.  Continued 
support  for  administration;  research  fellowships;  Benares  Center  for  Art  and 
Archeology;  documentation  of  selected  ritual  art  forms  as  communication  sys- 
tems of  traditional  culture;  recording  and  filming  an  Agnicayana  ritual  in  India. 

American  Museum  of  Natural  History,  New  York,  New  York.  Excavation  at  the 
Harappan  site  of  Allahdino  in  the  Malir  Area,  Karachi  District,  Pakistan. 

American  Research  Center  in  Egypt,  Princeton,  New  Jersey.  Continued  support 
for  a  program  of  research  and  excavation  in  Egypt:  support  for  operation  of  the 
Cairo  Center;  maintenance  of  archeological  research  at  the  site  of  Hierakonpolis 
(Nekhen)  in  Edfu  District;  survey  of  Arabic  scientific  manuscripts  in  Cairo; 
maintenance  of  a  stratified  pharaonic  site  in  the  Egyptian  delta  at  Mendes; 
Akhenaten  Temple  project;  research  in  modern  Arabic  literature;  continuation 
of  an  epigraphic  and  architectural  survey  at  Luxor  by  the  Oriental  Institute; 
editing  the  Nag  Hammadi  codices;  installation  and  completion  of  the  Luxor 
Museum;  preparation  for  publication  of  a  manuscript  by  the  late  G.  Legrain  on 
the  Late  Egyptian  sculpture  from  Karnak  in  the  Cairo  Museum;  support  for 
fellowships  in  Egyptian  and  Islamic  studies. 

American  Schools  of  Oriental  Research,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts.  Excavations 
in  salient  areas  of  Punic  and  Roman  Carthage  (Tunisia). 

Dumbarton  Oaks  Center  for  Byzantine  Studies,  Washington,  D.C.  A  corpus  of 
the  ancient  mosaics  of  Tunisia. 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Department  of  Anthropology,  Washing- 
ton, D.C.  Ethnotechnology  of  South  Asia:  Pakistan  project. 

Southern  Methodist  University,  Dallas,  Texas.  Prehistory  of  the  Western  Desert, 


University  of  California,  Berkeley,  California.  Archeological  excavations  at  the 
Harappan  seaport  of  Balakot,  Pakistan. 

University  of  Louisville,  Louisville,  Kentucky.  Research  and  study  of  early 
medieval  Polish  archeology. 

University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan.  A  scrutiny  of  Egyptian  gold 
coins  ...  in  the  collection  of  the  Museum  of  Islamic  Art  in  Cairo  (Egypt). 

University  of  Texas   at  Arlington,  Arlington,   Texas.   Studies   in   predynastic 
Wayne  State  University,  Detroit,  Michigan.  Prehistoric  studies  in  the  Siwa  oasis 
region.  Northwestern  Egypt. 

344  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 


Harvard  University,  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology,  Cambridge,  Massachu- 
setts. Study  of  the  dentition  of  Cretaceous  mammals  of  Mongolia  (Poland). 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Department  of  Botany,  Washington,  D.C. 
Revision  of  Trimcn's  Hnndbook  to  the  Flora  of  Ceylon;  publication  of  the  Flora 
of  Hassan  District  (India). 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Department  of  Entomology,  Washington, 
D.C.  Biosystematic  studies  of  the  insects  of  Ceylon, 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Department  of  Paleobiology,  Washington, 
D.C.  Comparative  study  and  geography  of  selected  Devonian  and  Permian 
corals  in  Poland  and  the  United  States  of  America. 

Oregon  State  University,  Corvallis,  Oregon.  Activity  budget  studies  of  Passer 
populations  in  Poland. 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Office  of  the  Secretary,  Washington,  D.C.  Indian  mi- 
gratory bird  project. 

Smithsonian  Oceanographic  Sorting  Center,  Washington,  D.C.  Mediterranean 
Marine  Sorting  Center  (Tunisia);  study  of  biological  productivity  in  some  tropi- 
cal lakes  of  South  India. 

Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute,  Balboa,  Canal  Zone.  Ecology  of  fresh- 
water lakes  in  Panama  (Poland). 

Southern  Methodist  University,  Dallas,  Texas.  Recovery  and  study  of  vertebrate 
fossils  from  the  Egyptian  Western  Desert. 

The  Institute  of  Ecology,  Madison,  Wisconsin.  Support  for  international  re- 
search coordination  and  synthesis  by  United  States  scientists  participating  in 
the  International  Biological  Program  (Egypt,  India,  Poland,  Tunisia). 

University  of  Arizona,  Tucson,  Arizona.  Population  biology  and  cytogenetics  of 
desert  mammals. 

University  of  California,  Berkeley,  California.  A  biosystematic  comparison  of 
the  Siphonocladales  (Chlorophyta)  (Tunisia);  comparative  study  of  Late  Cre- 
taceous Mongolian  and  North  American  mammals  (Poland). 

University  of  Colorado,  Boulder,  Colorado.  Paleontological  research  in  Tunisia 
and  the  Western  Mediterranean. 

University  of  Hawaii,  Honolulu,  Hawaii.  Investigation  of  the  alpheid  shrimp  of 

University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan.  Systematic  studies  of  the  mol- 
luscan  genus  Bulinus  in  Africa  and  adjacent  regions  (Egypt). 

University  of  Wisconsin,  Madison,  Wisconsin.  Integration  of  ecosystem  analysis 
with  studies  of  agro-ecosystems. 

Utah  State  University,  Logan,  Utah.  Systems  analysis  of  the  Pre-Saharan 
ecosystem  of  Southern  Tunisia. 

Yale  University,  New  Haven,  Connecticut.  Preliminary  study  of  the  behavioral 
biology  and  ecology  of  Pakistan's  Himalayan  Foothill  Rhesus  monkeys. 

Appendix  2.  Smithsonian  Foreign  Currency  Program  I  345 


Duke  University,  Durham,  North  Carolina.  Studies  in  Lake  of  Tunis. 

Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts.  Continued 
operation  of  the  SAO/Uttar  Pradesh  State  observing  station  at  Naini  Tal 
(India);  estabhshing  the  position  of  the  PoHsh  latitude  observatory  at  Borowiec 
by  artificial  satellite  observations;  reference  coordinate  systems  for  earth  dy- 
namics (Poland). 

University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  Illinois.  Nucleosynthesis  and  the  advanced 
stages  of  stellar  evolution  (Poland). 

University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania.  Geochronology  of  alka- 
line complexes  of  the  Southeastern  desert  of  Egypt. 


Festival  of  American  Folklife,  Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  D.C.  Old 
ways  in  the  New  World  (Egypt,  Poland,  Tunisia). 

National  Archives  Trust  Fund,  Washington,  D.C.  Preparation  of  animated  edu- 
cational film,  "What  is  an  archives?"  (Poland) 

National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology,  Department  of  Science  and  Tech- 
nology, Washington,  D.C.  Study  of  Arabic  manuscripts  on  medicine  and  phar- 
macy in  Egypt. 

National  Portrait  Gallery,  Washington,  D.C.  Support  of  the  National  Portrait 
Gallery  Bicentennial  exhibit  catalogue.  (Poland) 

National  Trust  for  Historic  Preservation,  Washington,  D.C.  The  advanced  study 
of  conservation  and  restoration  methods  applied  to  historic  monuments  and 
sites  in  Poland. 

National  Zoological  Park,  Washington,  D.C.  Preparation  of  animated  educa- 
tional film  for  new  Lion-Tiger  exhibit.  (Poland) 

Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts.  Smith- 
sonian around  the  world  (India). 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Office  of  the  Assistant  Secretary  for  Museum  Pro- 
grams, Washington,  D.C.  Polish-American  seminar  on  organization  systems 
and  methodology  for  preserving  cultural  property.  (Poland) 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Smithsonian  Magazine.  Development  of  educational 
articles  for  Smithsonian  Magazine  on  research  abroad  supported  by  the  Smith- 
sonian Foreign  Currency  Program  (Egypt,  Pakistan). 

Theater  in  the  Street,  Inc.,  New  York,  New  York.  A  study  of  street  theater 
around  the  world.  (India) 

346  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 



APPENDIX  3.   National  Museum  Act  Grants  Awarded  in 
Fiscal  Year  1975 


The  Baltimore  Museum  of  Art,  Baltimore,  Maryland  21218.  Amount:  $16,000.00. 

Buffalo  and  Erie  County  Historical  Society,  Buffalo,  New  York  14216.  Amount: 

Art  Museum,  Indiana  University  Foundation,  Indiana  University,  Bloomington, 
Indiana  47401.  Amount:  $485.00. 

Neversink  Valley  Area  Museum,  Cuddebackville,  New  York  12729.  Amount: 

Texas  A  and  I  University,  Kingsville,  Texas  78363.  Amount:  $2,436.00. 

Mendocino  County  Museum,  Willits,  California  95490.  Amount:  $880.00. 

Fernbank  Science  Center,  Atlanta,  Georgia  30307.  Amount:  $1,163.00. 

Oklahoma   Science  and  Arts   Foundation,  Oklahoma   City,  Oklahoma   73107. 
Amount:  $938.00. 

Washington  Archaeological  Research  Center,  Ozette  Archaeological  Project, 

Neah  Bay  Laboratory,  Neah  Bay,  Washington  98357.  Amount:  $3,600.00.* 

Saint-Gaudens    National    Historic    Site,    Windsor,    Vermont    05089.    Amount: 

Junior  Arts  Center,  Los  Angeles,  California  90027.  Amount:  $1,040.00. 

Huntington  Library,  Art  Gallery  and  Botanical  Gardens,  San  Marino,  California 
91108.  Amount:  $1,500.00.* 

Texas  Historical  Commission,  Austin,  Texas  78711.  Amount:  $1,800.00. 

The  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art,   New   York,   New   York   10028.   Amount: 

Museum  of  Northern  Arizona,  Flagstaff,  Arizona  86001.  Amount:  $1,450.00.* 


American  Association  of  Zoological  Parks  and  Aquariums,  Wheeling,  West  Vir- 
ginia 26003.  Amount:  $11,296.00. 

University  of  Science  and  Arts  of  Oklahoma,  Chickasha,  Oklahoma   73108. 
Amount:  $11,380.00. 

Oregon  Historical  Society,  Portland,  Oregon  97205.  Amount:  $1,600.00. 

Texas  Historical  Commission  and  Winedale  Inn,  Austin,  Texas  78711.  Amount: 

*  Denotes  conservation-related  projects. 

Appendix  3.  National  Museum  Act  Grants  Awarded  I  3A7 

Western  Association  of  Art  Museums,  Mills  College,  Oakland,  California  94613. 
Amount:  $20,297.00. 

American  Association  for  State  and  Local  History,  Nashville,  Tennessee  37203. 
Amount:  $49,450.00. 

American  Association  of  Mammalogists,  American  Museum  of  Natural  History, 

New  York,  New  York  10024.  Amount:  $12,500.00. 

American    Association    of    Museums,    Washington,    D.C.     20007.     Amount: 

New  York  State  Historical  Association,  Cooperstown,  New  York  13326.  Amount: 

National  Trust  for  Historic  Preservation,  Washington,  D.C.  20006.  Amount: 

Museums  Collaborative,  Inc.,  New  York,  New  York  10021.  Amount:  $14,138.00. 

Association  of  Science-Technology  Centers,  Washington,  D.C.  20037.  Amount: 

The  American  Numismatic  Society,  New   York,  New   York   10032.   Amount: 

Washington  Region  Conservation  Guild,  Washington,  D.C.   20003.   Amount: 

Association  of  Science-Technology  Centers,  Washington,  D.C.  20037.  Amount: 


Conservation  Center  of  the  Institute  of  Fine  Arts,  New  York  University,  New 

York,  New  York  10021.  Amount:  $42,000.00* 

University  of  Delaware,  Newark,  Delaware  19711.  Amount:  $8,000.00. 

The  George  Washington  University,  Office  of  Sponsored  Research,  Washington, 
D.C.  20006.  Amount:  $8,000.00. 

New  York  State  Historical  Association,  Cooperstown,  New  York  13326.  Amount: 

Museum  Associates,  Los  Angeles  County  Museum  of  Art,  Los  Angeles,  Cali- 
fornia 90036.  Amount:  $10,200.00. 

University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan  48055.  Amount:  $18,000.00. 


Conservation  Center,  Institute  of  Fine  Arts,  New  York  University,  New  York, 
New  York  10021.  Amount:  $14,000.00.* 

Tekart  Associates,  University  of  California,  San  Diego,  La  Jolla,  California 
92037.  Amount:  $8,284.00.* 

Museum  of  the  Hudson  Highlands,  The  Cornwall  Neighborhood  Museum  Asso- 
ciation, Cornwall-on-Hudson,  New  York  12520.  Amount:  $1,500.00. 

American  Association  for  State  and  Local  History,  Nashville,  Tennessee  37203. 
Amount:  $43,544.00.* 

348  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

American  Association  of  Youth  Museums,  Charlotte  Nature  Museum,  Charlotte, 
North  CaroHna  28209.  Amount:  $25,556.00. 

The  Heckscher  Museum,  Huntington,  New  York  11743.  Amount:  $23,110.00.* 

New  York  State  Historical  Association,  Cooperstown,  New  York  13326.  Amount: 


AAM/ICOM    (American   Association   of   Museums/International   Council   of 
Museums),  Washington,  D.C.  20007.  Amount:  $10,000.00. 

National  Conservation  Advisory  Council,  Greenfield  Village  and  Henry  Ford 
Museum,  Dearborn,  Michigan  48121.  Amount:  $27,282.00.* 

American  Association  for  State  and  Local  History,  Nashville,  Tennessee  37203. 
Amounts:  $26,418.00  and  $35,880.00. 

American    Association     of    Museums,     Washington,    D.C.     20007.     Amount: 

The  Association  of  Systematics  Collections,  University  of  Kansas,  Museum  of 
Natural  History,  Lawrence,  Kansas  66045.  Amount:  $13,589.00. 

New   England   Regional   Conference/AAM,   c/o   Maine   State   Museum,   State 
House,  Augusta,  Maine  04330.  Amount:  $22,010.00. 

National  Conservation  Advisory  Council,  c/o  Greenfield   Village  and  Henry 
Ford  Museum,  Dearborn,  Michigan  48121.  Amounts:  $6,750.00  and  $56,874.00.* 

American    Association    of    Museums,    Washington,    D.C.    20007.    Amounts: 

$28,349.00  and  $3,100.00. 

Appendix  3.  National  Museum  Act  Grants  Awarded  I  349 

APPENDIX  4.    Progress  on  Building  Construction,  Restoration, 
and  Renovation 

Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum.  The  construction  of  the  Exhibit  Design  and 
Production  Laboratory  was  completed  in  April  1975.  Additional  work  for  in- 
terior partitioning  and  painting  will  be  initiated  in  early  fiscal  year  1976. 

Arts  and  Industries  Building.  Major  phase  of  restoration  work  is  65  percent 
completed.  Scheduled  completion  is  February  of  1976.  Major  roof  and  window 
repairs  to  be  initiated  in  fiscal  year  1976  for  completion  that  year. 

Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies.  Construction  of  the  Visitor 
Center  and  Dormitory  facility  was  completed  in  March  1975. 

Cooper-Hewitt  Museum  of  Decorative  Arts  and  Design.  Renovation  of  the 
Carnegie  Mansion  was  initiated  in  September  1974.  The  major  phase  of  the 
work  will  be  completed  in  October  1975. 

History  and  Technology  Building.  Museum  sales  shop  was  completed  in  May 
1975.  Library  plans  completed  with  construction  to  be  initiated  by  June  or  July 
of  1975.  Completion  scheduled  for  three  months  after  starting  date.  Plans  for 
sixth-floor  addition  are  60  percent  completed.  Completion  scheduled  for  latter 
part  of  fiscal  year  1976. 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum.  Construction  is  99  percent  completed.  In 
April  1975,  nasm  started  occupancy  of  several  exhibit  and  administrative  areas. 
The  building  is  scheduled  for  public  opening  in  July  1976. 

National  Zoological  Park.  Renovation  of  the  Monkey  House  was  completed  and 
it  was  opened  to  the  public  on  May  24,  1975.  Also,  during  fiscal  year  1975  con- 
struction work  continued  on  the  Lion-Tiger  Exhibit  which  will  cost  nearly 
$3  million  and  will  be  completed  by  January  1976.  Contracts  also  were  awarded 
for  reconstruction  of  exterior  yards  around  the  Elephant  House  and  the  Bird 

Major  renovation  projects  completed  during  fiscal  year  1975  included  painting 
the  Great  Flight  Cage,  replacing  glass  and  painting  in  the  Reptile  House,  mak- 
ing improvements  in  the  Marmoset  House,  and  completing  the  Cheetah  yards. 

The  architect  continued  preparation  of  plans  for  major  Master  Plan  improve- 
ments including  the  Education-Administration  Building;  bear  exhibits;  general 
services  and  parking  facility;  and  exhibits  for  beavers,  sea  lions,  and  wolves. 

Natural  History  Building.  The  West  Court  facility  is  under  construction,  and 
work  will  be  completed  by  May  1976.  North  Foyer  alterations  including  installa- 
tion of  escalator  are  underway,  and  work  is  to  be  completed  by  October  1975. 
Construction  in  the  East  Court  of  the  Osteology  Laboratory  is  progressing,  and 
work  is  to  be  completed  by  August  1975. 

350  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Silver  Hill  Facility.  Construction  of  Buildings  #24  and  #25  were  completed  in 
April  1975.  Additional  work  for  construction  of  mezzanine  is  to  be  completed  by 
August  1975. 

South  Yard.  Demolition  and  first-phase  construction  of  South  Yard  area  to  be 
initiated  in  July  1975.  Completion  scheduled  for  latter  part  of  fiscal  year  1976, 
prior  to  Bicentennial  celebration. 

Bicentennial  Exhibit  Construction.  The  exhibits  "Nation  of  Nations,"  "We  the 
People,"  "Centennial  1876,"  and  "Our  Changing  Land"  are  all  nearing  con- 
struction completion  in  fiscal  year  1976. 

Appendix  4.  Progress  on  Building  Construction  I   351 

APPENDIX  5.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Press 
in  Fiscal  Year  1975 



Peter  Bermingham.  American  Art  in  the  Barbizon  Mood.  192  pages,  4  color  and 
143  black-and-white  illustrations.  April  30,  1975.  Cloth:  $20.00. 

Wilton  S.  Dillon,  editor.  The  Cultural  Drama:  Modern  Identities  and  Social 
Ferment.  Foreword  by  5.  Dillon  Ripley.  328  pages,  13  black-and-white  illus- 
trations. October  28,  1974.  Cloth:  $17.50. 

Owen  Gingerich,  editor.  The  Nature  of  Scientific  Discovery.  616  pages,  110 
black-and-white  illustrations.  June  10,  1975.  Cloth:  $15.00. 

James  M.  Goode.  The  Outdoor  Sculpture  of  Washington,  D.C.  A  Compre- 
hensive Historical  Guide.  632  pages,  516  black-and-white  illustrations  (cloth); 
528  pages,  455  black-and-white  illustrations  (paper).  September  17,  1974. 
Cloth:  $15.00;  paper:  $4.95. 

Luis  G.  Lumbreras.  The  Peoples  and  Culture  of  Ancient  Peru.  Translated  by 
Betty  J.  Meggers,  vii  +  248  pages,  372  black-and-white  illustrations.  Oc- 
tober 10,  1974.  Cloth:  $15.00. 

J.  Jefferson  Miller  II.  English  Yellow-Glazed  Earthenware,  xviii  +  126  pages, 
60  color  and  74  black-and-white  illustrations.  March  18,  1975.  Cloth:  $20.00. 

Lillian  B.  Miller.  "The  Dye  is  Now  Cast  .  .  ."  The  Road  to  American  Inde- 
pendence, 1774-1776.  xvi  +  328  pages,  166  black-and-white  illustrations. 
May  30,  1975.  Cloth:  $17.50. 

John  R.  Swanton.  The  Indian  Tribes  of  North  America,  vi  -\-  726  pages,  5 
maps.  Fourth  reprint.  May  15,  1975.  Cloth:  $20.00. 

Joshua  S.  Taylor.  To  See  Is  To  Think:  Looking  at  American  Art.  120  pages, 
7  color  and  88  black-and-white  illustrations.  June  24,  1975.  Cloth:  $10.00; 
paper:  $4.95. 


American  Historical  Association.  Annual  Report,  1973.  xvi  +  166  pages.  De- 
cember 20,  1974.  Paper:  $1.90. 

National  Zoological  Park.  National  Zoological  Park  18-Month  Report.  July  1, 
1971-December  31,  1972.  vi  -\-  66  pages,  66  black-and-white  illustrations,  2 
tables.  January  13,  1975. 

Smithsonian  Institution.  Smithsonian  Year  1974.  Annual  Report  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  for  the  Year  Ended  June  30,  1974.  vii  +  500  pages,  117 
black-and-white  illustrations.  January  15, 1975.  Paper:  $6.65. 

Smithsonian  International  Exchange  Service.  1974  Annual  Report.  8  pages. 
March  12,  1975. 

352  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

T.  Ames  Wheeler,  Treasurer.  Smithsonian  Institution  Financial  Report  for 
Fiscal  Year  1974:  As  Published  in  Smithsonian  Year  1974.  36  pages.  Janu- 
ary 15,  1975. 

Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars.  Annual  Report  1973-1974. 
iv  +  60  pages,  18  black-and-white  illustrations.  February  10,  1975. 


Anncostia  Neighborhood  Museum 

The  Barnett-Aden  Collection.  192  pages,  15  color  and  136  black-and-white  il- 
lustrations. March  17,  1975.  Paper:  $10.00. 

Exhibition  1974-75.  45  pages,  77  black-and-white  illustrations.  December  11, 
1974.  Paper:  $1.70. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

Peter  Bermingham.  American  Art  in  the  Barbizon  Mood.  192  pages,  4  color 
and  143  black-and-white  illustrations.  January  16,  1975.  Paper:  $7.70. 

Lois  Marie  Fink,  and  Joshua  C.  Taylor.  Academy:  The  Academic  Tradition  in 
American  Art.  272  pages,  212  black-and-white  illustrations.  June  4,  1975. 
Paper:  $7.30. 

Chaim  Gross:  Sculpture  and  Drawings.  47  pages,  2  color  and  27  black-and- 
white  illustrations.  September  19,  1974.  Paper:  $2.75. 

Made  in  Chicago.  80  pages,  11  color  and  46  black-and-white  illustrations.  No- 
vember 15,  1974.  Paper:  $4.40. 

Pennsylvania  Academy  Moderns:  1910-1940.  40  pages,  2  color  and  41  black- 
and-white  illustrations.  May  7,  1975.  Paper:  $2.00. 

National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 

Cynthia  A.  Hoover.  Music  Machines:  American  Style.  140  pages,  237  black- 
and-white  illustrations.  Reprint.  July  16,  1974.  Paper:  $2.75. 

Claudia  B.  Kidwell,  and  Margaret  C.  Christman.  Suiting  Everyone:  The 
Democratization  of  Clothing  in  America.  208  pages,  59  color  and  279  black- 
and-white  illustrations.  September  17,  1974.  Paper:  $11.05. 

Joanna  Cohan  Scherer.  Indian  Images:  Photographs  of  North  American 
Indians,  1847-1928.  National  Anthropological  Archives.  31  pages,  14  black- 
and-white  illustrations.  Reprint.  March  4,  1975.  Paper:  $1.05. 

We  the  People:  The  American  People  and  Their  Government.  164  pages,  6 
color  and  304  black-and-white  illustrations.  June  3,  1975.  Paper:  $1.75. 

National  Portrait  Gallery 

Black  Presence.  72  pages,  50  black-and-white  illustrations.  Reprint.  July  13, 
1974.  Paper:  $2.05. 

Lillian  B.  Miller.  "The  Dye  is  Now  Cast  .  .  ."  The  Road  to  American  Inde- 
pendence, 1774-1776.  xvi  +  328  pages,  166  black-and-white  illustrations. 
April  17,  1975.  Paper:  $11.25. 

Renwick  Gallery  of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

A  Modern  Consciousness:  D.  ].  DePree  and  Florence  Knoll.  32  pages,  30 
black-and-white  illustrations.  June  17,  1975.  Paper:  $1.80. 

Boxes  and  Bowls:  Decorated  Containers  by  Nineteenth  Century  Haida,  Tlingit, 

Appendix  5.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Press  I  353 

Bella  Bella,  and  Tsimshian  Indian  Artists.  96  pages,  47  black-and-white  illus- 
trations. November  22,  1974.  Paper:  $3.95. 

Shaker:  Furniture  and  Objects  from  the  Faith  and  Edward  Deming  Andrews 
Collections  Commemorating  the  Bicentennial  of  the  American  Shakers.  88 
pages,  1  color  and  66  black-and-white  illustrations.  Reprint.  May  27,  1975. 
Cloth:  $14.95. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

Eight  from  California.  18  pages,  8  black-and-white  illustrations.  January  21, 

Horatio  Shaw,  1847-1918.  7  pages,  6  black-and-white  illustrations.  Septem- 
ber 11,  1974. 

Ilya  Bolotowsky.  4  pages,  1  color  and  1  black-and-white  illustration.  Janu- 
ary 14,  1975. 

Two  Decades  of  American  Prints:  1920-1940.  12  pages,  1  black-and-white 
illustration.  September  16,  1974. 

National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 

Etching  as  a  Painter's  Medium  in  the  1880' s.  4  pages,  2  black-and-white  illus- 
trations. August  16,  1974. 

Lead  and  Zinc  Mining  Scenes  of  the  Past:  Oil  Paintings  by  Carol  Riley.  4 
pages,  1  black-and-white  illustration.  December  17,  1974. 

Mr.  Audubon  and  Mr.  Bien:  An  Early  Phase  in  the  History  of  American 
Chromolithography.  11  pages,  2  color  illustrations.  March  14,  1975. 

Renwick  Gallery  of  the  National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

Paintings  in  the  Grand  Salon  and  Octagon  Room  of  the  Renwick  Gallery,  Lent 
by  the  Corcoran  Gallery  of  Art.  4  pages,  1  black-and-white  illustration.  Re- 
print. March  11,  1975. 

Bicentennial  Office 

The  American  Experience.  Smithsonian  Institution  American  Revolution  Bicen- 
tennial Program.  88  pages,  20  black-and-white  illustrations.  February  7,  1975. 

Division  of  Performing  Arts 

Smithsonian  Institution  Festival  of  American  Folklife:  A  Bicentennial  Presen- 
tation. 44  pages,  8  black-and-white  illustrations.  June,  1975. 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 

The  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  Smithsonian  Institution.  50 
pages.  September  19,  1974. 

National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 

A  Checklist  of  Keyboard  Instruments  at  the  Smithsonian  Institution.  Division 
of  Musical  Instruments,  viii  +  87  pages,  7  figures.  May  1,  1975.  Paper:  $2.00. 

Carl  H.  Scheele.  Neither  Snow,  Nor  Rain  .  .  .  The  Story  of  the  United  States 
Mails.  Hall  of  Stamps  and  Mails,  iv  +  100  pages,  86  black-and-white  illus- 
trations. Reprint.  September  6,  1974.  Paper:  $1.80. 

354  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History 

J.  Meester,  and  H.  W.  Setzer,  editors.  The  Mammals  of  Africa:  An  Identifica- 
tion Manual.  Fascicle  III  of  V.  Parts  1.2,  1.3,  1.4,  1.5,  3,  3.2,  6,  11,  and  14.  Loose- 
leaf  Inserts.  August  29,  1974.  Paper:  $5.00. 

Office  of  Academic  Studies 

Smithsonian  Opportunities  for  Research  and  Study  in  History — Art — Science. 
141  pages.  October  21,  1974. 

Office  of  International  and  Environmental  Programs 

Peter  H.  Freeman:  Coastal  Zone  Pollution  by  Oil  and  Other  Contaminants: 
Guidelines  for  Policy  and  Planning.  Based  Upon  a  Case  Study  in  Indonesia  in 

1973.  X  +  68  pages,  2  figures,  10  tables.  May  16,  1975. 

The  Environmental  Impact  of  a  Large  Tropical  Reservoir:  Guidelines  for 
Policy  and  Planning.  Based  Upon  a  Study  of  Lake  Volta,  Ghana,  in  1973  and 

1974.  viii  +  88  pages,  6  figures,  7  plates,  6  tables.  May  19,  1975. 

The  Environmental  Impact  of  Rapid  Urbanization:  Guidelines  for  Policy  and 
Planning.  Based  Upon  a  Study  of  Seoul,  Korea,  in  1972  and  1973.  xii  -f  88 
pages,  4  figures,  6  plates,  19  tables.  May  19,  1975. 

Office  of  Protection  Services 

Smithsonian  Institution  Police  and  Guard  Manual  and  Regulations  for  the 
Security  Force,  v  +  82  pages.  Reprint.  December  31,  1974. 

Office  of  Public  Affairs 

^  Increase  and  Diffusion:  A  Brief  Introduction  to  the  Smithsonian  Institution.  99 
pages,  33  black-and-white  illustrations.  June  13,  1975. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service 

Update:  Bicentennial  News.  48  pages,  86  black-and-white  illustrations.  May  16, 


Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 

Looking  at  Abstract  Art:  A  Tour  To  Give  Yourself.  7  pages,  6  black-and-white 
illustrations.  September  30,  1974. 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum 

Otto  Lilienthal  and  Octave  Chanute:  Pioneers  of  Gliding.  6  pages,  6  black- 
and-white  illustrations.  January  6,  1975. 

National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 

Audrey  B.  Davis.  The  Dentist  and  His  Tools.  11  pages,  29  figures.  November  8, 
1974.  Paper:  $0.75. 

A  Nation  of  Nations.  8  pages,  2  black-and-white  illustrations.  November  1, 

National  Portrait  Gallery 

In  the  Minds  and  Hearts  of  the  People:  Prologue  to  Revolution,  1780-1774. 
A  teacher's  guide.  6  pages,  3  black-and-white  illustrations.  Septemer  19,  1974. 
Paper:  $1.45. 

Appendix  5.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Press  I  355 

Office  of  Museum  Programs 
Conservation  Information.  6  pages.  June  16,  1975. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Traveling  Exhibition  Service 

Update:    Bicentennial    Special.    28    pages,    51    black-and-white    illustrations. 
August  12,  1974. 

Woodrow  Wilson  International  Center  for  Scholars 
Fellowship  and  Guest  Scholar  Program.  12  pages.  March  11,  1975. 


Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum 

Fifth   Annual  D.C.   Art  Association  Exhibition  Calendar  of  Events.   Novem- 
ber 13,  1974. 

Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies 

Animal   Adaptations:   Insects    and  Spiders.    17   black-and-white   illustrations. 
September  11,  1974. 

Community  Comparison:  Forest  and  Old  Field.  10  black-and-white  illustra- 
tions. September  11,  1974. 

Seeing  the  Trees  for  the  Forest:  A  Census  Activity.  8  black-and-white  illus- 
trations. September  11,  1974. 

Division  of  Performing  Arts 

The    Smithsonian    Institution    Performance    Service.    Folder    with    9    inserts. 
April  4,  1975. 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 

Highlights  from  the  Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden.  11  black-and- 
white  illustrations.  September  30,  1974. 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden,  Smithsonian  Institution.  Floor  plan. 
6  black-and-white  illustrations.  February  18,  1975. 

The  Lower  Level.  12  biack-and-white  illustrations.  September  30,  1974. 

Newsletter  of  the  Hishhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden.  6  black-and-white 
illustrations.  July  29, 1974. 

The  Plaza.  8  black-and-white  illustrations.  September  30,  1974. 

The  Second  Floor.  14  black-and-white  illustrations.  September  30,  1974. 

Sunday  Lecture  Series.  1  black-and-white  illustration.  February  18,  1975. 

Third  Floor.  10  black-and-white  illustrations.  September  30,  1974. 

National  Air  and  Space  Museum 

Amelia  Earhart.  4  black-and-white  illustrations.  January  6,  1975. 

Life  in  the  Universe:  Holiday  Lecture  Series  for  High  School  Students.  5  black- 
and-white  illustrations.  December  23,  1974. 

North  American  P-51  Mustang.  17  black-and-white  illustrations.  January  27, 

356  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 

A  Future  for  Our  Past:  The  Conservation  of  Art.  July  5,  1974. 

Bicentennial  Inventory  of  American  Paintings  Executed  before  1914.  Reprint. 
March  3,  1975. 

Calendar  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution.  Published  monthly  from  July  1974, 
through  June  1975. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts:  A  Museum  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution. 
Floor  plan.  4  black-and-white  illustrations.  Reprint.  January  23,  1975. 

The  National  Collectioj^  of  Fine  Arts,  Smithsonian  Institution.  6  black-and- 
white  illustrations,  1  map.  January  23,  1975. 

The  Rise  of  the  American  Avant-Carde:  1910-1930.  1  black-and-white  illustra- 
tion. March  6,  1975. 

National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology 

Audrey  B.  Davis.  The  Better  To  Hear  You  With:  Announcing  the  Greihach 
Donation.  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology.  March  3,  1975. 

National  Museum  of  Natural  History 

National   Anthropological  Archives.   2  black-and-white  illustrations.   July   5, 

The  Islamic  Archives.  2  black-and-white  illustrations.  October  28,  1974. 

National  Zoological  Park 

A  Guide   to   the   National  Zoological  Park  Library.   Smithsonian   Institution 
Libraries  Orientation  Leaflet  #2.  October  23,  1974. 

Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education 

Let's  Co  to  the  Smithsonian:  Bulletins  for  Schools.  September  1974  through 
Spring/Summer  1975.  29  black-and-white  illustrations. 

Smithsonian  Intern  '75.  February  18,  1975. 

Office  of  Museum  Programs 

National  Museum  Act  Program — Fiscal  Year  1975.  July  5,  1974. 

Smithsonian  Institution  Workshop  Series — In  Museum  Administration,  Spring 
1975.  January  24,  1975. 

Smithsonian   Institution    Workshop    Series — In    Museum   Exhibit    Methods — 
June,  1975.  April  29,  1975. 

Office  of  Public  Affairs 

Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  D.C.  Guide  map.  2  black-and-white  il- 
lustrations. Reprint.  December  13,  1974. 

Radiation  Biology  Laboratory 

A   Guide   to   Smithsonian    Institution   Radiation   Biology   Laboratory   Library. 
Smithsonian  Institution  Libraries  Orientation  Leaflet   #3.  June  20,  1975. 


National  Museum  of  Natural  History 

Prehistoric  Life.  15  pages,  13  black-and-white  illustrations.  August  19,  1974. 
Paper:  $1.50. 

Appendix  5.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Press  I  357 

Traditional  African  Cultures.  12  pages,  27  black-and-white  illustrations.  No- 
vember 21,  1974.  Paper:  $1.50. 

Office  of  Elementary  and  Secondary  Education 

Let's  Co  to  the  Smithsonian:  Learning  Opportunities  for  Schools,  1974-75.  24 
pages,  28  black-and-white  illustrations.  August  30,  1974. 


Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum 

Blacks  in  the  Westward  Movement.  January  30,  1974. 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 
Inaugural  Exhibition.  August  16,  1974. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 
Chaim  Cross:  Sculpture  and  Drawings.  August  29,  1974. 
Contemporary  Nigerian  Art:  Craftsmen  from  Oshogbo.  July  15,  1974. 
Portfolio  Day,  December  7,  1974.  November  22,  1974. 

National  Portrait  Gallery 
"The  Dye  is  Now  Cast  .  .  ."  April  4,  1975. 

Office  of  International  and  Environmental  Programs 

There    Are    Opportunities    Overseas    Through    the    Smithsonian-Peace    Corps 
Environmental  Program.  November  5,  1974. 

Smithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute 
Restricted  Area:  Warning.  March  3,  1975. 


Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 
Inaugural  Exhibition.  August  9,  1974. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 
High  School  Graphics  IV.  March  5,  1975. 


Anacostia  Neighborhood  Museum 
Blacks  in  the  Westward  Movement.  January  30,  1975. 
D.C.  Art  Association  Exhibition  1974-75.  November  8,  1974. 

Hirshhorn  Museum  and  Sculpture  Garden 
Art  and  Culture  in  the  Twentieth  Century:  Four  Interactions.  April  4,  1975. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 
Academy:  The  Academic  Tradition  in  American  Art.  May  16,  1975. 
Chaim  Cross:  Sculpture  and  Drawings.  August  29,  1974. 
High  School  Graphics  IV.  March  27,  1975. 
Kaleidoscope:  A  Day  for  Children.  May  5,  1975. 
Made  in  Chicago.  October  9,  1974. 

358  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 


Pennsylvania  Academy  Moderns:  1910-1940.  April  29,  1975. 
"Tribute  to  the  Arts  in  the  Americas."  February  26,  1975. 

National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts  and  National  Portrait  Gallery 
The  Animal  Coniwcation  of  the  College  Art  Association.  January  10,  1975 

Renwick  Gallery  of  the  National  Collection  of  fine  Arts 
A  Modern  Corisciousness:  D.  ].  DePree  and  Florence  Knoll.  March  27,  1975. 
Contemporary  Textile  Art  from  Austria.  November  21,  1974. 
Craft  Multiples.  June  16,  1975. 
Figure  and  Fantasy.  September  24,  1974. 
H.  H.  Richardson  and  His  Office.  March  10,  1975. 


National  Collection  of  Fine  Arts 
Some  Useful  Rules  for  Handling  Works  of  Art.  Flyer.  July  5,  1974. 
Questions  and  Comments.  Postcard.  January  26,  1975. 

Sntithsonian  Tropical  Research  Institute 
Barro  Colorado  Island.  Map.  October  7,  1974. 



10.  Frederick  C.  Durant  III,  and  George  S.  James,  editors.  "First  Steps  Toward 
Space.  Proceedings  of  the  First  and  Second  History  Symposia  of  the  Inter- 
national Academy  of  Astronautics  at  Belgrade,  Yugoslavia,  26  September 
1967,  and  New  York,  U.S.A.,  16  October  1968."  viii  +  308  pages,  232 
figures,  2  tables.  August  13,  1974. 


'^    17.     William  Trousdale.  "The  Long  Sword  and  Scabbard  Slide  in  Asia."  xii 
+  322  pages,  100  figures,  24  plates,  5  tables.  May  8,  1975. 

18.  Douglas  H.  Ubelaker.  "Reconstruction  of  Demographic  Profiles  from 
Ossuary  Skeletal  Samples:  A  Case  Study  from  the  Tidewater  Potomac."  xii  + 
80  pages,  27  figures,  45  tables.  August  18,  1974. 


16.  Cecilia  H.  Payne-Gaposchkin.  "Distribution  and  Ages  of  Magellanic 
Cepheids."  ii  +  34  pages,  8  figures,  15  tables.  December  30,  1974. 

17.  Cecilia  H.  Payne-Gaposchkin.  "Period,  Color,  and  Luminosity  for  Cepheid 
Variables."  ii  +  10  pages,  8  tables.  December  30,  1974. 


14.  Edward  S.  Ayensu,  and  Albert  Bentum.  "Commercial  Timbers  of  West 
Africa."  iv  +  69  pages,  28  plates,  2  tables.  August  8,  1974. 

,    15.     Edward  S.  Ayensu.  "Leaf  Anatomy  and  Systematics  of  New  World  Vel- 
loziaceae."  vi  +  125  pages,  24  figures  and  frontispiece,  51  plates.  July  25,  1974. 

16.  Mason  E.  Hale,  Jr.  "Morden-Smithsonian  Expedition  to  Dominica:  The 
Lichens  (Theotremataceae)."  iv  -f  46  pages,  20  figures.  September  4,  1974. 

Appendix  5.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Press  I  359 

17.  Martin  Lawrence  Grant,  F.  Raymond  Fosberg,  and  Howard  M.  Smith. 
"Partial  Flora  of  the  Society  Islands:  Ericaceae  to  Apocynaceae."  viii  +  85 
pages,  3  tables.  November  20,  1974. 

18.  Dieter  C.  Wasshausen.  "The  Genus  Aphelandra  (Acanthaceae)."  vi  + 
157  pages,  56  figures  and  frontispiece.  March  5, 1975. 

19.  Robert  W.  Read.  "The  Genus  Thrinax  (Palmae:  Coryphoideae)."  iv  + 
98  pages,  57  figures  and  frontispiece,  5  tables.  March  13,  1975. 

20.  F.  Raymond  Fosberg,  and  Marie-Helene  Sachet.  "Flora  of  Micronesia,  1: 
Gymnospermae."  iv  +  15  pages,  1  figure.  March  13, 1975. 

22.  F.  Raymond  Fosberg,  M.  V.  C.  Falanruw,  and  Marie-Helene  Sachet. 
"Va'scular  Flora  of  the  Northern  Marianas  Islands."  iv  +  45  pages,  2  figures. 
June  23,  1975. 


13.  Nicolaas  A.  Rupke,  and  Daniel  Jean  Stanley.  "Distinctive  Properties  of 
Turbiditic  and  Hemipelagic  Mud  Layers  in  the  Algero-Balearic  Basin,  Western 
Mediterranean  Sea."  iv  +  40  pages,  21  figures,  8  tables.  September  10,  1974. 

15.  Daniel  Jean  Stanley,  Gilbert  Kelling,  Juan-Antonio  Vera,  and  Harrison 
Shena.  "Sands  in  the  Alboran  Sea:  A  Model  of  Input  in  a  Deep  Marine  Basin." 
iv  +  51  pages,  23  figures,  8  tables.  June  16,  1975. 


22.  Adam  Urbanek,  and  Kenneth  M.  Towe.  "Ultrastructural  Studies  on 
Graptolites,  2:  The  Periderm  and  Its  Derivatives  in  the  Graptoloidea."  iv  + 
48  pages,  3  figures,  24  plates,  1  table.  May  16,  1975. 

23.  Storrs  L.  Olson.  "Paleornithology  of  St.  Helena  Island,  South  Atlantic 
Ocean."  iv  +  49  pages,  10  figures,  6  plates,  8  tables.  June  20,  1975. 


162.  Terry  L.  Erwin.  "Studies  of  the  Subtribe  Tachyina  (Coleoptera:  Carabi- 
dae:  Bembidiini),  Part  II:  A  Revision  of  the  New  World- Australian  Genus 
Pericompsus  LeConte."  iv  +  96  pages,  161  figures,  1  table.  July  25,  1974. 

166.  Horton  H.  Hobbs,  Jr.  "A  Checklist  of  the  North  and  Middle  American 
Crayfishes  (Decapoda:  Astacidae  and  Cambaridae)."  iv  +  161  pages,  294  fig- 
ures. September  27,  1974. 

167.  Oliver  S.  Flint.  "Studies  of  Neotropical  Caddisflies,  XVII:  The  Genus 
Smicridea  from  North  and  Central  America  (Trichoptera:  Hydropsychidae)." 
iv  +  65  pages,  227  figures.  July  15,  1974. 

172.  William  L.  Fink,  and  Stanley  H.  Weitzman.  "The  so-called  Cheirodontin 
Fishes  of  Central  America  with  Descriptions  of  Two  New  Species  (Pisces: 
Characidae)."  iv  +  46  pages,  26  figures,  15  tables.  September  4,  1974. 

173.  Louis  S.  Kornicker.  "Ostracoda  (Myodocopina)  of  Cape  Cod  Bay, 
Massachusetts."  ii  +  20  pages,  11  figures.  September  3,  1974. 

175.  Meredith  L.  Jones.  "On  the  Caobangiidae,  a  New  Family  of  the 
Polychaeta,  with  a  Redescription  of  Caobangia  billeti  Giard."  iv  -|-  55  pages, 
25  figures,  11  plates,  3  tables.  September  27,  1974. 

177.  Victor  G.  Springer,  and  Martin  F.  Gomon.  "Revision  of  the  Blenniid 
Fish  Genus  Omobranchus  with  Descriptions  of  Three  New  Species  and  Notes 
on  Other  Species  of  the  Tribe  Omobranchini."  iv  -f  135  pages,  52  figures,  17 
tables.  April  2,  1975. 

360  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

178.  Louis  S.  Kornicker.  "Revision  of  the  Cypridinacea  of  the  Gulf  of 
Naples  (Ostracoda)."  iv  +  64  pages,  26  figures.  December  30,  1974. 

179.  Louis  S.  Kornicker,  and  Francisca  Elena  Caraion.  "West  African  Myo- 
docopid  Ostracoda  (Cylindroleberididae)."  iv  +  78  pages,  43  figures.  Decem- 
ber 30,  1974. 

180.  W.  Donald  Duckworth,  and  Thomas  D.  Eichlin.  "Clearwing  Moths  of 
Australia  and  New  Zealand  (Lepidoptera:  Sesiidae)."  iv  +  45  pages,  50  figures, 
6  maps.  December  4,  1974. 

181.  Doris  H.  Blake.  "The  Costate  Species  of  Colaspis  in  the  United  States 
(Coleoptera:  Chrysomelidae)."  iv  +  24  pages,  27  figures.  November  12,  1974. 

182.  D.  J.  G.  Griffin.  "Spider  Crabs  (Crustacea:  Brachyura:  Majidae)  from 
the  International  Indian  Ocean  Expedition,  1963-1964."  iv  +  35  pages,  8  fig- 
ures, 6  tables.  November  12,  1974. 

183.  Roman  Kenk.  "Index  of  the  Genera  and  Species  of  the  Freshwater 
Triclads  (Turbellaria)  of  the  World."  ii  +  90  pages.  December  30,  1974. 

184.  Terry  L.  Erwin.  "The  Genus  Coptocarpus  Chaudoir  of  the  Australian 
Region  with  Notes  on  Related  African  Species  (Coleoptera:  Cajabidae: 
Oodini)."  iv  +  25  pages,  33  figures,  1  table.  December  26,  1974. 

186.  Stanley  H.  Weitzman,  and  J.  Stanley  Cobb.  "A  Revision  of  the  South 
American  Fishes  of  the  Genus  Nannostomus  Giinther  (Family  Lebiasinidae)." 
iv  +  36  pages,  34  figures.  March  5,  1975. 

187.  Gerald  Gene  Montgomery.  "Communication  in  Red  Fox  Dyads:  A  Com- 
puter Simulation  Study."  iv  +  30  pages,  16  figures,  9  tables.  December  30, 

189.  Joseph  Rosewater.  "An  Annotated  List  of  the  Marine  Mollusks  of 
Ascension  Island,  South  Atlantic  Ocean."  iv  +  41  pages,  24  figures,  3  tables. 
May  30,  1975. 

190.  C.  Allan  Child.  "Pycnogonida  of  Western  Australia."  iv  -f  29  pages,  11 
figures.  May  30,  1975. 

191.  Arthur  G.  Humes.  "Cyclopoid  Copepods  (Lichomolgidae)  Associated 
with  Alcyonaceans  in  New  Caledonia."  iv  -)-  27  pages,  13  figures,  3  tables. 
May  30,  1975. 

194.  Edward  W.  Baker,  Donald  M.  Tuttle,  and  Michael  J.  Abbatiello.  "The 
False  Spider  Mites  of  Northwestern  and  North  Central  Mexico  (Acarina: 
Tenuipalpidae)."  iv  +  23  pages,  36  figures.  April  28,  1975. 

196.  Taisoo  Park.  "Calanoid  Copepods  of  the  Family  Euchaetidae  from  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico  and  Western  Caribbean  Sea."  iv  -|-  26  pages,  20  figures. 
May  30,  1975. 

198.  William  D.  Field.  "Ctenuchid  Moths  of  Ceramidia  Butler,  Ceramidiodes 
Hampson,  and  the  Caca  Species  Group  of  Antichloris  Hubner."  iv  +  45  pages, 
105  figures.  May  30,  1975. 

200.  Victor  G.  Springer,  and  Martin  F.  Gomon.  "Variation  in  the  Western 
Atlantic  Clinid  Fish  Malacoctenus  triangidatus  with  a  Revised  Key  to  the 
Atlantic  Species  of  Malcoctenus."  ii  -t-  11  pages,  3  figures,  3  tables.  June  20, 


28.  Arthur  H.  Frazier.  "Water  Current  Meters  in  the  Smithsonian  Collections 
of  the  National  Museum  of  History  and  Technology."  vi  -|-  95  pages,  94 
figures.  December  30,  1974. 

Appendix  5.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Press  I  361 

29.  Philip  K.  Lundeberg.  "Samuel  Colt's  Submarine  Battery.  The  Secret  and 
the  Enigma."  vi  +  90  pages,  43  figures.  December  30,  1974. 


Volume  38,  Part  7.  C.  V.  Morton.  "William  Roxburgh's  Fern  Types."  Pages 
283-396.  September  20,  1974. 


172-173.     In  one  volume,  as  follows.  December  15,  1974. 

172.  Marie-Helene  Sachet,  and  Arthur  L.  Dahl,  editors.  "Comparative  Investi- 
gations of  Tropical  Reef  Ecosystems:  Background  for  an  Integrated  Coral 
Reef  Program."  iv  +  169  pages,  49  figures,  4  tables. 

173.  Roy  T.  Tsuda,  and  Clinton  J.  Dawes.  "Preliminary  Checklist  of  the 
Marine  Benthic  Plants  from  Glover's  Reef,  British  Honduras."  ii  +  13  pages. 

174.  A.  Binion  Amerson,  Jr.,  Roger  B.  Clapp,  and  William  O.  Wirtz  II.  "The 
Natural  History  of  Pearl  and  Hermes  Reef,  Northwestern  Hawaiian  Islands." 
xiv  +  306  pages,  80  figures,  115  tables.  December  31,  1974. 

175-178.     In  one  volume,  as  follows.  January  15,  1975. 

175.  A.  M.  Hitson.  "Observations  on  the  Birds  of  Diego  Garcia,  Chagos 
Archipelago,  with  Notes  on  Other  Vertebrates."  iv  +  25  pages. 

176.  C.  W.  Benson,  H.  H.  Beamish,  C.  Jouanin,  J.  Salvan,  and  G.  E.  Watson. 
"The  Birds  of  the  lies  Glorieuses."  vi  +  34  pages,  2  figures,  1  table. 

177.  M.  D.  Webb.  "Fulgoroidea  from  Aldabra,  Astove,  and  Cosmoledo  Atolls, 
Collected  by  the  Royal  Society  Expedition  1967-68  (Hemiptera-Homoptera)." 
iv  -|-  10  pages,  1  table. 

178.  John  B.  Lewis.  "A  Preliminary  Description  of  the  Coral  Reefs  of  the 
Tobago  Cays,  Grenadines,  West  Indies."  iv  +  14  pages,  4  tables,  1  map. 

179.  Gerald  J.  Bakus.  "Marine  Zonation  and  Ecology  of  Cocos  Island,  off 
Central  America."  iv  -|-  12  pages,  7  plates,  1  table. 

180.  Harold  Heatwole.  "Biogeography  of  Reptiles  on  Some  of  the  Islands  and 
Cays  of  Eastern  Papua — New  Guinea."  iv  -|-  39  pages,  3  figures,  3  plates,  2 
tables,  4  maps. 

181.  D.  R.  Stoddart.  "Sand  Cays  of  Tongatapu."  iv  -|-  16  pages,  6  plates,  5 

182.  F.  I.  Norman.  "The  Murine  Rodents  Rattiis  Rattus,  Exulans,  and  Nor- 
vegicus  as  Avian  Predators."  iv  -|-  13  pages. 

183.  Harald  A.  Rehder,  and  John  E.  Randall.  "Ducie  Atoll:  Its  History, 
Physiography  and  Biota."  iv  +  55  pages,  29  figures. 

184.  George  H.  Balazs.  "Marine  Turtles  in  the  Phoenix  Islands."  ii  -|-  7 
pages,  1  figure. 

185.  "Island  News  and  Comment."  ii  -f  40  pages,  4  figures,  1  table. 

186.  Roger  B.  Clapp,  and  William  O.  Wirtz  II.  "The  Natural  History  of 
Lisianski  Island,  Northwestern  Hawaiian  Islands."  x  -(-  196  pages,  52  figures, 
47  tables.  February  15,  1975. 

362  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 


APPENDIX  6.  Bibliography  of  Research  Supported  Through  the 
FaciUties  of  the  Smithsonian  Tropical  Research 
Institute  Marine  Laboratories  During  Their  first 
Ten   Years,   1965-1975 

The  summer  of  1975  marks  the  tenth  anniversary  of  the  establishment  of 
a  Marine  Program  at  stri.  During  the  summer  of  1965  small  laboratories 
were  opened  to  take  advantage  of  the  unique  access  to  two  oceans  af- 
forded by  the  Isthmus  of  Panama.  The  great  variety  of  marine  life  and 
habitats  found  in  the  tropical  regions  of  the  Caribbean  and  Eastern  Pacific 
has  attracted  many  students,  fellows,  and  visiting  scientists  in  addition  to 
our  own  staff  of  marine  biologists.  These  investigators  have  published 
over  180  scientific  papers  on  work  performed  at  stri  facilities.  These 
studies  are  listed  below  and  include  such  diverse  areas  as:  the  genetics 
of  fishes,  physiology  of  tuna  and  sea  snakes,  the  effects  of  oil  on  corals, 
the  ecology  and  development  of  coral  reefs,  the  behavior  of  a  variety  of 
marine  organisms  including  fishes,  crabs,  sea  snakes,  starfishes  and 
squids.  Such  research  has  contributed  toward  establishing  a  worldwide 
reputation  for  stri. 


Glynn,  Peter  W.  "Active  Movements  and  Other  Aspects  of  the  Biology  of 
Astochopus  and  Leptosynapta  (Holothuroidea)."  Biological  Bulletin,  volume 
129,  number  1,  pages  106-127. 

.    "Community    Composition,   Structure,   and   Interrelationships    in   the 

Marine  Intertidal  Endocladia  muricata — Balanus  glandula  Association  in 
Monterrey  Bay,  California."  Beaufortia,  volume  12,  number  148,  198  pages. 

Rubinoff,  Ira.  "Distributional  and  Ecological  Relationships  of  Panamanian 
Shore  Fishes."  Year  Book  of  American  Philosophical  Society,  pages  346-349. 

.  "Mixing  Oceans  and  Species."  Natural  History,  volume  74,  number  7, 

pages  69-72. 


Mead,  Giles  W.,  and  Ira  Rubinoff.  "Avocettinops  yanoi,  A  New  Nemichthyid 
Eel  from  the  Southern  Indian  Ocean."  Breviora,  number  241,  6  pages. 

Rubinoff,  Ira.  "Cymnothorax  galetae,  A  New  Moray  Eel  from  the  Atlantic 
Coast  of  Panama."  Breviora,  number  240,  4  pages. 


Dawson,  C.  E.  "Notes  on  the  Species  of  the  Goby  Genus  Evorthodus."  Copeia, 

number  4,  pages  855-857. 
Topp,  Robert.  "An  Adjustable  Macroplankton  Sled."  Progressive  Fish  Cultural- 

ist,  volume  29,  number  3,  page  184. 
.  "An  Internal  Capsule  Fish  Tag."  California  fish  and  Came,  volume  53, 

number  4,  pages  288-289. 

Appendix  6.  Bibliography  of  STRI  Research,  1965-1975  I  363 

.  "A  Re-examination  of  the  Osteology  of  Cheimarrichthys  fosteri  Haas 

1874."  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society  of  New  Zealand,  volume  9,  num- 
ber 16,  pages  189-191. 


Chesher,  Richard  H.  "Lytechinous  williamsi,  A  New  Sea  Urchin  from  Panama." 
Breviora,  number  305,  13  pages. 

.  "Transport  of  Marine  Plankton  through  the  Panama  Canal."  Lim- 
nology and  Oceanography,  volume  13,  number  2,  pages  387-388. 

Dawson,  C.  E.  "Meristic  and  Morphometric  Data  on  the  Flatfish  Citharichthys 
gilherfi  from  Panama."  Culf  Research  Reports,  volume  2,  number  3,  pages 

.  "Eastern  Pacific  Wormfishes,  Microdesmus  dipus  Gunther  and  Micro- 

desmus  dorsipunctatus  Sp.  Nov."  Copeia,  number  3,  pages  512-531. 

Delmonte,  Peter  J.,  Ira  Rubinoff,  and  Roberta  W.  Rubinoff.  "Laboratory  Rear- 
ing through  Metamorphosis  of  Some  Panamanian  Gobies."  Copeia,  number 
2,  pages  411-412. 

Glynn,  Peter  W.  "A  New  Genus  and  Two  New  Species  of  Sphaeromatid  Iso- 
pods  from  the  High  Intertidal  Zone  at  Naos  Island,  Panama."  Proceedings 
of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  81,  pages  587-604. 

.  "Ecological  Studies  on   the  Associations   of  Chitons   in  Puerto  Rico, 

with  Special  Reference  to  Sphaeromid  Isopods."  Bulletin  of  Marine  Science, 
volume  18,  number  3,  pages  572-626. 

-.  "Mass  Mortalities  of  Echinoids  and  Other  Reef  Flat  Organisms  Coin- 

cident with  Midday,  Low  Water  Exposures  in  Puerto  Rico."  Marine  Biology, 

volume  1,  number  3,  pages  226-243. 
Menzies,  Robert  J.   "Transport  of  Marine  Life  Between  Oceans  through  the 

Panama  Canal."  Nature,  volume  220,  number  5169,  pages  802-803. 
Menzies,    Robert    J.,    and    Peter    W.    Glynn.    "The    Common    Marine    Isopod 

Crustacea  of  Puerto  Rico;  A  Handbook  of  Marine  Biologists."  Studies  on 

the  Fauna  of  Curacao  and  other  Caribbean  Islands,  volume  27,  133  pages. 
Rubinoff,  Ira.  "Central  American  Sea-level  Canal:  Possible  Biological  Effects." 

Science,  volume  161,  pages  857-861. 
Rubinoff,  Roberta,  and  Ira  Rubinoff.  "Interoceanic  Colonization  of  a  Marine 

Goby,  through  the  Panama  Canal."  Nature,  volume  217,  number  5127,  pages 

Topp,   Robert.   "An  Estimate  of   Fecundity  of  the  Winter  Flounder,  Pseudo- 

pleuronectes    americanus."    Journal    of    the    Fisheries    Research    Board    of 

Canada,  volume  25,  number  6,  pages  1299-1302. 


Briggs,  John  C.  "The  Clingfishes  (Gobiesocidae)  of  Panama."  Copeia,  number 

4,  pages  774-778. 
Dawson,  C.  E.  "A  New  Eastern  Pacifiic  Sand  Stargazer,  Dactyloscopus  byersi 

(Pisces:  Dactyloscopidae)."  Copeia,  number  1,  pages  44-51. 
.  "A  new  Seven-spined  Goby,  Gobiosoma  (Austrogobius)  polyporosum, 

from  the  Pacific  Coast  of  Panama."  Copeia,  number  3,  pages  510-514. 
Lang,  Judith  C.  "Novel  Characters  in  Coral  Taxonomy  (abstract)."  Association 

of  Island  Marine  Laboratories,  8th  Meeting,  Jamaica. 
Rubinoff,  Roberta  W.,  and  Ira  Rubinoff.  "Fisch-Austausch  zwischen  Atlantik 

und  Pazifik  durch  den  Panamakanal."  Umschau  in  Wissenschaft  und  Tech- 

nik,  number  4,  page  121. 
.    "Observations    on    the    Migration    of    a    Marine   Goby    through    the 

Panama  Canal."  Copeia,  number  2,  pages  395-397. 
Topp,  Robert  W.  "Interoceanic  Sea-level  Canal:  Effects  on  the  Fish  Faunas." 

Science,  volume  165,  number  3900,  pages  1324-1327. 

364  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 


Dawson,  C.  E.  "The  Caribbean  Atlantic  Blenny  Lupinoblennius  Dispar  (Tribe: 
Blenniini),  with  Observations  on  a  Pacific  Population."  Proceedings  of  the 
Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  83,  number  26,  pages  273-286. 

Glynn,  Peter  W.  "Biology  of  the  West  Indian  Chitons  Acanthopleura  granu- 
lata  Gmelin  and  Chiton  tuberculatus  Linne:  Density,  Feeding,  Reproduction 
and  Growth."  Association  of  Islands  Marine  Laboratory,  7th  Meeting,  2 

.  "Growth  of  Algal  Epiphytes  on  a  Tropical  Marine  Isopod."  Journal 

of  Experimental  Marine  Biology,  volume  5,  number  1,  pages  88-93. 

-.  "On  the  Ecology  of  the  Caribbean  Chitons  Acanthopleura  granulata 

Gmelin  and  Chiton  tuberculatus  Linne:  Density,  Mortality,  Feeding,  Repro- 
duction, and  Growth."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  66, 
21  pages. 

-.  "A  Systematic  Study  of  the  Sphaeromatidae   (Crustacea:  Isopoda)  of 

Isla  Margarita,  Venezuela,  with  Descriptions  of  Three  New  Species."  Me- 
moria  de  la  Sociedad  de  Ciencias  Naturales  de  La  Salle,  volume  30,  number 
85,  pages  5-48. 

Graham,  Jeffrey  B.  "Aspects  of  Temperature  Sensitivity  in  Some  Tropical  In- 
shore Marine  Fishes."  Ph.D.  thesis.  University  of  California,  163  pages. 

.    "Preliminary    Studies    on    the    Biology    of    the    Amphibious    Clinid 

Mnierpes  macrocephalus."  Marine  Biology,  volume  5,  number  2,  pages 

-.  "Temperature  Sensitivity  of  Two  Species  of  Intertidal  Fishes."  Copeia, 

number  1,  pages  49-56. 
Graham,    Jeffrey    B.,    and    Richard    H.    Rosenblatt.    "Aerial    Vision:    Unique 

Adaptation  in  an  Intertidal  Fish."  Science,  volume  168,  pages  586-588. 
McCosker,    John    E.    "Faunal    Investigations    of    Pacific    and    Caribbean    Reef 

Fishes."    ResearcJx    Reports,    Alpha    Helix    Research   Program,    (1969-1970), 

University  of  California,  San  Diego,  page  38. 
.  "A  Review  of  the  Eel  Genera  Leptenchelys  and  Muraenichthys,  with 

the   Description  of   a  New  Genus,  Schismorbynchus,   and  a   New  Species, 

Muraenichthys    chilensis."    Pacific    Science,    volume    24,    number    4,   pages 

Robinson,  Michael  H.,  L.  G.  Abele,  and  B.  Robinson.  "Attack  Autotomy:  A 

Defense  Against  Predators."  Science,  volume  169,  pages  300-301. 
Rosenblatt,  R.  H.,  and  J.  E.  McCosker.  "A  Key  to  the  Genera  of  the  Ophichthid 

Eels,  with    Descriptions  of  Two  New  Genera  and  Three  New  Species  from 

Eastern  Pacific."  Pacific  Science,  volume  24,  number  4,  pages  495-505. 
Rubinoff,   Ira.   "The   Sea-level   Canal   Controversy."   Biological   Conservation, 

volume  3,  number  1,  pages  33-36. 
Rubinoff,  Ira,  and  C.  Kropach.  "Differential  Reactions  of  Atlantic  and  Pacific 

Predators  to  Sea  Snakes."  Nature,  volume  228,  number  5278,  pages  1288- 

Rutzler,   Klaus.   "Oil   Pollution;   Damage   Observed   in  Tropical   Communties 

Along  the  Atlantic  Seaboard  of  Panama."  BioScience,  volume  20,  number  4, 

pages  222-224. 
Topp,  Robert.  "Behavior  and  Color  Change  of  the  Rudderfish,  Kyphosus  ele- 

gans  in  the  Gulf  of  Panama."  Copeia,  number  4,  pages  763-765. 
.  "Redescription  of  Pomacentrus  otophorus  Poey  1860,  a   valid  species 

from   the   Caribbean    (Pisces:   Pomacentridae)."   Breviora,   number   342,   16 



Abele,    Lawrence    G.    "Scanning    Electron    Photomicrographs    of    Brachyuran 
Gonopods."  Crustaceana,  volume  21,  part  2,  pages  218-220. 

Appendix  6.  Bibliography  of  STRI  Research,  1965-1975  I  365 

Birkeland,  C.  "Biological  Observations  on  Cobb  Seamount."  Northwest  Science, 

volume  45,  number  3,  pages  193-199. 
.    "Grazing    Pressure   in    Benthic   Communities    on   the   Caribbean    and 

Pacific  Coasts  of  Panama."  Bulletin  of  the  Ecological  Society  of  America, 

volume  52,  number  4,  page  50. 
Birkeland,  C,  and  F.  S.  Chia.  "Recruitment  Risk,  Growth,  Age,  and  Predation 

in    Two    Populations    of    the    Sand    Dollars    Dendraster    excentricus    (Esch- 

scholtz).  Journal  of  Experimental   Marine   Biology  and  Ecology,  volume  6, 

pages  265-278. 
Birkeland,  C,  and  B.  D.  Gregory.   Feeding  Behavior  of  a   Tropical  Predator 

Cyphoma  gibhosum  Linnaeus.  In  Tektite  2,  Scientists  in  the  Sea,  edited  by 

J.  W.  Miller,  J.  G.  VanDerwalker,  and  R.  A  Waller.  U.S.  Department  of  the 

Interior,  Washington. 
Birkeland,   C,    Fu-Shiang   Chia,   and   Richard   R.   Strathmann.   "Development, 

Substratum  Selection,  Delay  of  Metamorphosis  and  Growth  in  the  Seastar 

Mediaster  aequalis  Stimpson."  Biological  Bulletin,  volume  141,  pages  99-108. 
Dunson,  William  A.  "The  Sea  Snakes  Are  Coming."  Natural  History,  volume 

80,  number  9,  pages  52-61. 
Gore,  Robert  H.  "Megalohrachium  poeyi  (Crustacea,  Decapoda,  Porcellanidae) : 

Comparison  between  Larval  Development  in  Atlantic  and  Pacific  Specimens 

Reared   in   the   Laboratory."   Pacific  Science,  volume   25,   number   3,   pages 

.  "Petrolisthes  tridentatus:  The  Development  of  Larvae  from  a  Pacific 

Specimen   in   Laboratory   Culture   with   a   discussion   of   Larval   Characters 

in   the    Genus    (Crustacea:    Decapoda;    Porcellanidae)."    Biological    Bulletin, 

volume  141,  pages  485-501. 
Graham,  Jeffrey  B.  "Aerial  Vision  in  Amphibious  Fishes."  Fauna,  number  3, 

pages  14-23. 
.  "Temperature  Tolerances  of  Some  Closely  Related  Tropical  Atlantic 

and  Pacific  Fish  Species."  Science,  volume  172,  pages  861-863. 
Graham,  Jeffrey  B.,  Ira  Rubinoff,  and  M.  K.  Hecht.  "Temperature  Physiology 

of  the  Sea  Snake  Pelamis  platurus:  An  Index  of  Its  Colonization  Potential  in 

the    Atlantic    Ocean."   Proceedings    of   the    Natural   Academy    of   Sciences, 

volume  68,  number  6,  pages  1360-1363. 
Hubbs,  Carl  L.  "Need  for  Thorough  Inventory  of  Tropical  American  Marine 

Biotas  before  Completion  of  an  Interoceanic  Sea-level  Canal."  Symposium 

on  Investigations  and  Resources  of  the  Caribbean  Sea  and  Adjacent  Regions, 

UNESCO/FAO,  pages  467-470. 
Jones,  Meredith  L.,  and  Raymond  B.  Manning.  "A  Two-Ocean  Bouillabaisse 

Can  Result  If  and  When  Sea-level  Canal  Is  Dug."  Smithsonian,  volume  2, 

number  2,  pages  11-21. 
Kropach,  Chaim.  "Another  Color  Variety  of  the  Sea  Snake  Pelamis  platurus 

from  Panama  Bay."   Herpetologica,  volume  27,  number  3,  pages  326-327. 
.  "Sea  Snake   {Pelamis  platurus)   Aggregations   on  Slicks  in  Panama." 

Herpetologica,  volume  27,  number  2,  pages  131-135. 
Lang,  Judith.   "Interspecific   Aggression   by   Scleractinian   Corals.   1.   The  Re- 
discovery  of   Scolymia    cubensis    (Milne   Edwards    &   Haime)."   Bulletin   of 

Marine  Science,  volume  21,  number  4,  pages  952-959. 
McCosker,  John  E.  "A  New  Species  of  Parapercis  (Pisces:  Mugiloididae)  from 

the  Juan  Fernandez  Islands."  Copeia,  number  4,  pages  682-686. 
McCosker,  John  E.,  and  Ross  F.  Nigrelli.  "New  Records  of  Lymphocystis  Dis- 
ease in  Four  Eastern  Pacific  Fish  Species."  Journal  of  the  Fisheries  Research 

Board  of  Canada,  volume  28,  number  11,  pages  1809-1810. 
Meyer,  David  L.   "The   Collagenuous  Nature   of  Problematical   Ligaments   in 

Crinoids    (Echinodermata)."    Marine    Biology,   volume   9,   number   3,   pages 

Reimer,  Amada  Alvarez.  "Specificity  of  Feeding  Chemoreceptors  in  Palythoa 

366  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

psammophilia  (Zoanthidea,  Coelenterata)."  Comparative  and  General  Phar- 
macology, volume  2,  number  8,  pages  383-396. 

"Uptake  and  Utilization  of  Carbon  C^^  Glycine  by  Zoanthus  and  Its 

Coelenteric  Bacteria."  In  Experimenial  Coelenteric  Biology,  edited  by  H.  M. 
Lenhoft,  L.  Muscatine  and  L.  Daves.  University  of  Hawaii  Press,  Hono- 
lulu, pages  209-217. 

Rubinoff,  Roberta  W.,  and  Ira  Rubinoff.  "Geographic  and  Reproductive  Isola- 
tion in  Atlantic  and  Pacific  Populations  of  Panamanian  Bathygobius." 
Evolution,  volume  25,  number  1,  pages  88-97. 

Todd,  Eric.  "Respiratory  Control  in  the  Longjaw  Mudsucker  Cillichthys 
inirabilis."  Comparative  Biochemistry  and  Physiology,  volume  39,  number 
lA,  pages  147-163. 


Abele,  Lawrence  G.  "Comparative  Habitat  Diversity  and  Faunal  Relationships 
between  the  Pacific  and  Carbbean  Decapod  Crustacea  of  Panama."  Ph.D. 
thesis.  University  of  Miami. 

.  "Comparative  Habitat  Diversity  and  Faunal  Relationships  between  the 

Pacific  and  Caribbean  Panamanian  Decapod  Crustacea:  A  Preliminary  Re- 
port, with  Some  Remarks  on  the  Crustacean  Fauna  of  Panama."  Bulletin 
of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  number  2,  pages  125-138. 

"Introduction  of  Two  Freshwater  Decapod  Crustaceans  (Hymenosoma- 

tidae  and  Atyadae  into  Central  and  North  America."  Crnstaceana,  volume 
23,  pages  209-218. 

"A  Note  on  the  Brazilian  Bromeliad  Crabs   (Crustacea,  Grapsidae)." 

Arquivos  de  Ciencias  do  Mar,  volume  12,  number  2,  pages  123-126. 

"A  Reevaluation  of  the  Neopanope  texana-sayi  Complex  with  Notes 

on   N.   packardii    (Crustacea:    Decapoda:    Xanthidae)    in   Northwestern   At- 
lantic." Chesapeake  Science,  volume  13,  pages  263-271. 

"A  review  of  the  Ambidexter  (Crustacea:  Decapoda:  Processidae)   in 

Panama."  Bulletin  of  Marine  Science,  volume  22,  number  2,  pages  365-380. 
"The  Status  of  Sesarma  angustipes  Dana,  1852,  S.  trapezium  Dana, 

1852,  and  S.  miersii  Rathbun,  1897,  (Crustacea:  Decapoda:  Grapsidae)  in 
Western  Atlantic."  Caribbean  Journal  of  Science,  volume  12,  numbers  3  and 
4,  pages  165-170. 

Abele,  Lawrence  G.,  and  Ian  E.  Efford.  "A  New  Species  of  Lepidopa  L.  dexterae 
(Anomura,  Albuneidea),  from  the  Caribbean  Coast  of  Panama."  Proceedings 
of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  84,  pages  501-506. 

Dawson,  C.  E.  "A  Redescription  of  Lophogobius  cristulatus  Ginsburg  (Pisces: 
Gobiidae)  with  Notes  on  L.  cyprinoides  (Pallas)."  Proceedings  of  the  Bio- 
logical Society  of  Washington,  volume  84,  number  44,  pages  371-384. 

Dexter,  Deborah  M.  "Comparison  of  the  Community  Structure  in  a  Pacific  and 
Atlantic  Panamanian  Sandy  Beach."  Bulletin  of  Marine  Science,  volume  22, 
number  2,  pages  449-462. 

Earle,  Sylvia  A.  "A  Review  of  the  Marine  Plants  of  Panama."  Bulletin  of  the 
Biological  Society  of  Washington,  number  2,  pages  69-87. 

Earle,  Sylvia  A.,  and  J.  R.  Young,  "Siphonoclathrus,  A  New  Genus  of 
Chlorophyta  (Siphonales:  Codiaceae)  from  Panama.  Occasional  Papers  of 
the  Farlow  Herbarium  of  Cryptogamic  Botany,  Harvard  University,  Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts,  number  3,  figures  1-8,  pages  1-4. 

Glynn,  Peter  W.  "Isopoda  of  the  Suez  Canal.  Contributions  to  the  Knowledge 
of  Suez  Canal  Migration."  Israel  Journal  of  Zoology,  volume  21,  pages 

.  "Observations  on  the  Ecology  of  the  Caribbean  and  Pacific  Coasts  of 

Panama."  Bulletin  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  2,  pages 

Appendix  6.  Bibliography  of  5TRI  Research,  1965-1975  I  367 

.  "Rediscovery  of  Paracerceis  edithae  Boone  (Isopoda,  Sphaeromatidae) 

with  Supplementary  Notes  on  Morphology  and  Habitat."  Crustaceana,  sup- 
plement 3,  pages  139-147. 

Glynn,  Peter  W.,  Robert  H.  Stewart,  and  John  E.  McCosker.  "Pacific  Coral 
Reefs  of  Panama:  Structure,  Distribution  and  Predators."  Geologischen 
Rundschau,  volume  61,  number  2,  pages  483-519. 

Gore,  Robert  H.  "PetroUsthes  platymerus:  The  Development  of  Larvae  in 
Laboratory  Culture  (Crustacea:  Decapoda;  Porcellanidae)."  Bulletin  of 
Marine  Science,  volume  22,  number  2,  pages  336-354. 

.  "PetroUsthes  armatus  (Gibbes,  1850) :  The  Development  under  Labora- 
tory Conditions  of  Larvae  from  a  Pacific  Specimen  (Decapoda,  Porcellani- 
dae)." Crustaceana,  volume  22,  part  I,  pages  67-83. 

Graham,  Jeffrey  B.  "Low-temperature  Acclimation  and  the  Seasonal  Tempera- 
ture Sensitivity  of  Some  Tropical  Marine  Fishes."  Physiological  Zoology, 
volume  45,  number  1,  pages  1-13. 

Kropach,  Chaim.  "A  Field  Study  of  the  Sea  Snake  Pelamis  platurus  (Linnaeus) 
in  the  Gulf  of  Panama."  Ph.D.  thesis.  City  University  of  New  York,  Queens 

.  "Pelamis  platurus  as  a  Potential  Colonizer  of  the  Caribbean  Sea."  Bul- 
letin of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  number  2,  pages  267-269. 

McCosker,  John  E.,  and  R.  H.  Rosenblatt.  "Eastern  Pacific  Snake-Eels  of 
the  Genus  Callechelys  (Apodes:  Ophichthidae)."  San  Diego  Society  of 
Natural  History,  Transactions,  volume  17,  number  2,  pages  15-24. 

Menzies,  R.  J.  "Experimental  Interbreeding  between  Geographically  Separated 
Populations  of  the  Marine  Wood-Boring  Isopod  Limnoria  tripunctata  with 
Preliminary  Indications  of  Hybrid  Vigor."  Marine  Biology,  volume  17,  num- 
ber 2,  pages  149-157. 

Meyer,  David  L.  "Ctenantedon,  A  New  Antedonid  Crinoid  Convergent  with 
Comasterids."  Bulletin  of  Marine  Science,  volume  22,  number  1,  pages  53-66. 

Newman,  William  A.  "The  National  Academy  of  Science  Committee  on  the 
Ecology  of  the  Interoceanic  Canal."  Bulletin  of  the  Biological  Society  of 
Washington,  volume  2,  pages  247-259. 

Porter,  James  W.  "Ecology  and  Species  Diversity  of  Coral  Reefs  on  Opposite 
Sides  of  the  Isthmus  of  Panama."  Bulletin  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Wash- 
ington, number  2,  pages  89-116. 

.  "Patterns  of  Species  Diversity  in   Caribbean   Reef  Corals."  Ecology, 

volume  53,  pages  745-748. 

-.  "Predation  by  Acanthaster  and  Its  Effect  on  Coral  Species  Diversity." 

American  Naturalist,  volume  106,  number  950,  pages  487-492. 
Rosenblatt,   Richard   H.,   and   Ira   Rubinoff.    "Pythonichthys    asodes,   A   New 

Heterenchelyid  Eel  from  the  Gulf  of  Panama."  Bulletin  of  Marine  Science, 

volume  22,  number  2,  pages  355-364. 
Rosenblatt,   Richard   H.,   John   E.   McCosker,   and   Ira   Rubinoff.    "Indo-West 

Pacific  Fishes  from  the  Gulf  of  Chiriqui,  Panama."  Contributions  in  Science, 

number  234, 18  pages. 


Abele,  Lawrence  G.  "A  new  species  of  Sesarma,  S.  (Holometopus)  rubi- 
nofforum  from  the  Pacific  Coast  of  Panama  (Crustacea,  Decapoda,  Grapsi- 
dae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  86, 
number  27,  pages  333-338. 

.  "Taxonomy,  Distribution  and  Ecology  of  the  Genus  Sesarma  (Crusta- 
cea, Decapoda,  Grapsidae)  in  Eastern  North  America,  with  Special  Ref- 
erence to  Florida."  American  Midland  Naturalist,  volume  90,  number  2, 
pages  375-386. 

Abele,  Lawrence  G.,  and  Robert  H.  Gore.  "Selection  of  a  Lectotype  for  Mega- 
lobrachium  granuliderum  Stimpson,  1858  (M.  poeyi  (Guerin,  1855))  De- 
capoda, Porcellanidae."  Crustaceana,  volume  25,  number  1,  pages  105-106. 

368  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Abele,  Lawrence  G.,  Michael  H.  Robinson,  and  Barbara  Robinson.  "Observa- 
tions on  Sound  Production  by  Two  Species  of  Crabs  from  Panama  (Deca- 
poda,  Gecarcinidae  and  Pseudothelphusidae)."  Cnistaceana,  volume  25,  num- 
ber 2,  pages  147-152. 

Bohlke,  James  E.,  and  John  E.  McCosker.  "Two  Additional  West  Atlantic 
Gobies  (Genus  Cobiosoma)  That  Remove  Ectoparasites  from  Other  Fishes." 
Copeia,  number  3,  pages  609-610. 

Buckman,  Nancy  S.,  and  John  C.  Ogden.  "Territorial  Behavior  of  the  Striped 
Parrotfish  Scams  coicensis  Bloch  (Scaridae)."  Ecology,  volume  54,  number  6, 
pages  1377-1382. 

Colin,  Patrick.  "Comparative  Biology  of  the  Gobies  of  the  Genus  Cobiosoma, 
Subgenus  Elacatiniis  (Pisces:  Gobiidae)  in  the  Tropical  Western  North 
Atlantic  Ocean."  Ph.D.  thesis.  University  of  Miami  School  of  Marine  and 
Atmospheric  Sciences. 

Dawson,  C.  E.  "Occurrence  of  an  Exotic  Eleotrid  Fish  in  Panama  with  Dis- 
cussion of  Probable  Origin  and  Mode  of  Introduction."  Copeia,  number  1, 
pages  141-144. 

Glynn,  Peter  W.  "Acanthaster:  Effect  on  Coral  Reef  Growth  in  Panama." 
Science,  volume  180,  pages  504-506. 

.   "Aspects   of   the    Ecology    of   Coral   Reefs    in    the    Western    Atlantic 

Region."  In  Biology  and  Geology  of  Coral  Reefs,  edited  by  D.  A.  Jones  and 
R.  Endean,  pages  271-234.  New  York,  Academic  Press. 

-.  "Biology  of  the  West  Indian  Chitons  Acanthop^leura  granulata  Gmelin 

and  Chiton  tuberculatus  Linne:  Density,  Feeding,  Reproduction,  and 
Growth."  Association  of  Island  Marine  Laboratories  of  the  Caribbean,  8th 
Meeting,  page  17. 

"Ecology  of  a  Caribbean  Coral  Reef.  The  Porites   Reef-flat  Biotope: 

Part  I.  Meteorology  and  Hydrography."  Marine  Biology,  volume  20,  pages 

Glynn,  Peter  W.  "Ecology  of  a  Caribbean  Coral  Reef.  The  Porites  Reef-flat 
Biotope:  Part  II.  Plankton  Community  with  Evidence  for  Depletion."  Ma- 
rine Biology,  volume  22,  number  1,  pages  1-21. 

Glynn,  Peter  W.,  and  Robert  H.  Stewart.  "Distribution  of  Coral  Reefs  in  the 
Pearl  Islands  (Gulf  of  Panama)  in  Relation  to  Thermal  Conditions."  Lim- 
nology and  Oceanography,  volume  18,  number  3,  pages  367-379. 

Gore,  Robert  H.,  and  Lawrence  G.  Abele.  "Three  New  Species  of  Porcellanid 
Crabs  (Crustacea,  Decapoda,  Porcellanidae)  from  the  Bay  of  Panama  and 
Adjacent  Caribbean  Waters."  Bulletin  of  Marine  Science,  volume  23, 
number  3,  pages  559-573. 

Graham,  Jeffrey  B.  "Aquatic  Respiration  and  the  Physiological  Responses  to 
Submersion  of  the  Sea  Snake  Pelamis  platurus."  (Abstract).  American 
Zoologist,  volume  13,  number  4,  page  1296. 

.  "Heat  Exchange  in  the  Black  Skipjack,  and  the  Blood-Gas  Relation- 
ship of  Warm-Bodied  Fishes."  Proceedings  of  the  National  Academy  of 
Science,  volume  70,  number  7,  pages  1964-1967. 

"Terrestrial  Life  of  the  Amphibious   Fish  Mnierpes   macrocephaliis." 

Marine  Biology,  volume  23,  pages  83-91. 
Graham,  Jeffrey  B.,  and   Lawrence  Abele.  "Panama  Bay  Fish  Kill  and  Crab 

Swarming."    Smithsonian    Institution,    Event    Information    Report    #54-73, 

pages  1618-1619. 
Jaen,  Antonio  L.,  y  Alfred  M.  Muschett  I.   "Sobre  la  Oceanografia  Fi'sica  y 

Quimica  del  Golfo  de  Panama  desde  Noviembre  1972  hasta  Febrero  1973." 

Tesis  (Lie),  Universidad  de  Panama,  70  paginas. 
Jones,  M.  L.,  and  C.  E.  Dawson.  "Salinity-Temperature  Profiles  in  the  Panama 

Canal  Locks."  Marine  Biology,  volume  21,  pages  86-90. 
Kropach,  Chaim,  and  John  D.   Soule.  "An  Unusual  Association  between  an 

Appendix  6.  Bibliography  of  5TRI  Research,  1965-1975  I  369 

Ectoproct   and  a  Sea  Snake."  Herpetologica,  volume  29,  number  1,  pages 

Lang,  Judith.  "Interspecific  Aggression  by  Scleractinian  Corals.  2.  Why  the 

Race  Is   Not  Only  to  the  Swift."   Bulletin  of  Marine  Science,  volume  23, 

number  2,  pages  260-279. 
Lehman,   John   T.,   and   James   W.    Porter.   "Chemical   Activation   of   Feeding 

in   the    Caribbean   Reef-Building   Coral   Montastrea   cavernosa."   Biological 

Bulletin,  volume  145,  pages  140-149. 
Meyer,  David  L.  "Distribution  and  Living  Habits  of  Comatulid  Crinoids  near 

Discovery   Bay,   Jamaica."   Bulletin    of  Marine   Science,    volume   23,   pages 

.  "Feeding  Behavior  and  Ecology  of  Shallow-Water  Unstalked  Crinoids 

(Echinodermata)  in  the  Caribbean  Sea."  Marine  Biology,  volume  22,  number 

2,  pages  105-129. 
Ogden,  John  C,  and  Nancy  S.  Buckman.  "Movements,  Foraging  Groups,  and 

Diurnal     Migrations    of    the    Striped    Parrotfish    Scarus    croicensis    Bloch 

(Scaridae)."  Ecology,  volume  54,  number  3,  pages  589-596. 
Porter,  James  W.  "Biological,  Physical,  and  Historical  Forces  Structuring  Coral 

Reef  Communities   on  Opposite  Sides   of   the   Isthmus  of   Panama."  Ph.D. 

thesis,  Yale  University,  146  pages. 
Porter,  James  W.,  and  Karen  Porter.  "The  Effects  of  Panama's  Cuna  Indians 

on  Coral  Reefs."  Discovery,  volume  8,  number  2,  pages  65-70. 
Reimer,   Amada   Alvarez.   "Feeding  Behavior  in  the  Sea   Anemone   Calliactis 

polypus  (Forskal,  1775)."  Comparative  Biochemistry  and  Physiology,  volume 

44,  series  A,  pages  1289-1301. 
Rubinoff,   Ira.    "A   Sea-Level   Canal   in   Panama."    Caribbean   Project  Papers, 

Pacem  in  Maribus  IV,  chapter  6,  pages  99-112. 
.    "A    Sea    Level    Canal    in    Panama."    XVII    Congres    International    de 

Zoologie.   Theme   no.   3.   Les   consequences   biologiques   des   canaux   intero- 

ceans,  pages  1-13. 
Smith,    Wayne   L.    "Investigations   of   the   Biology   of   the    Symbiotic   Mysid, 

Heteromysis    actinae   Clark   Associated   with    the    Tropical    Sea    Anemone, 

Bartholomea  annulata  Leseur."  MS  thesis.  State  University  of  New  York  at 

Stony  Brook. 
— .    "Record    of   a    Fish    Associated    with    a    Caribbean    Sea    Anemone." 

Copeia,  number  3,  pages  597-598. 

"Notes  and  News,  Submersible  Device  for  Collecting  Small  Crusta- 

ceans." Crustaceana,  volume  25,  part  I,  pages  104-105. 
Todd,   Eric   S.   "Positive   Buoyancy   and   Air-Breathing:    A   New   Piscine   Gas 

Bladder  Function."  Copeia,  number  3,  pages  461-464. 
.  "A  Preliminary  Report  of  the  Respiratory  Pump  in  the  Dactyloscopi- 

dae."  Copeia,  number  1,  pages  115-119. 

Abele,   Lawrence   G.   "Species   Diversity  of   Decapod   Crustaceans   in   Marine 

Habitats."  Ecology,  volume  55,  number  1,  pages  156-161. 
Barnard,   L.  A.,  I.   G.  Macintyre,  and  J.  W.   Pierce.  "Possible  Environmental 

Index  in  Tropical  Reef  Corals."  Nature,  volume  252,  number  5480,  pages 

Birkeland,  Charles.  "The  Effect  of  Wave  Action  on  the  Population  Dynamics 

of  Gorgonia  ventalina  Linnaeus."  Studies  in  Tropical  Oceanography,  num- 
ber 12,  pages  115-126. 
.  Interaction  Between  a  Sea  Pen  and  Seven  of  Its  Predators."  Ecological 

Monograph,  volume  44,  pages  211-232. 
Bortone,   Stephen   A.   "Diplectrum  rostrum,  A   Hermaphroditic  New   Species 

(Pisces:   Serranidae)    from   the   Eastern   Pacific   Coast."   Copeia,   number  1, 

pages  61-65. 

370  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Brattegard,  Torleiv.  "Mysidacea  from  Shallow  Water  on  the  Caribbean  Coast 

of  Panama."  Sarsia,  volume  57,  pages  87-108. 
Dawson,  C.  E.  "A  Review  of  the  Microdesmidae  (Pisces:  Gobioidea)  I.  Cerdale 

and  Clarkichtys  with  Description  of  Three  New  Species."  Copeia,  number  2, 

pages  409-448. 
Glynn,  Peter  W.  "Exosphaeroma  crenulatum  (Richardson),  A  Junior  Synonym 

of  Dynamenella  perforata  (Moore)   (Crustacea:  Isopoda)."  Postilla,  number 

164,  pages  1-8. 
.  "The  Impact  of  Acanthaster  on  Corals  and  Coral  Reefs  in  the  Eastern 

Pacific."  Environmental  Conservation,  volume  1,  pages  295-304. 

-.  "Rolling  Stones  among  the  Scleractinia:  Mobile  Corallith  Communi- 

ties  in   the   Gulf  of   Panama."  Proceedings  from   the  Second  International 

Symposium  on  Coral  Reefs  (Australia),  volume  2,  pages  183-198.  Brisbane, 

Great  Barrier  Reef  Committee. 
Glynn,  Peter  W.,  and  C.  S.  Glynn.  "On  the  Systematics  of  Ancinus  (Isopoda, 

Sphaeromatidae)  with  the  Description  of  a  New  Species  from  the  Tropical 

Eastern  Pacific."  Pacific  Science,  volume  28,  number  4,  pages  401-422. 
Graham,  Jeffrey  B.  "Aquatic  Respiration  in  the  Sea  Snake  Pelamis  platurus." 

Respiration  Physiology,  volume  21,  pages  1-7. 
.   "Body   Temperatures    of   the   Sea   Snake   Pelamis   platurus."    Copeia, 

number  2,  pages  531-533. 

"Heat  Exchange  in  the  Black  Skipjack  and  the  Yellow  Fin  Tuna  and 

the  Blood-Gas  Relationships  of  Warm-Bodied  Fishes."  In  Proceedings  of 
the  XXIV  Tuna  Conference,  National  Marine  Fisheries  Service,  La  Jolla, 
California,  pages  15-16. 

Lang,  Judith  C.  "Biological  Zonation  at  the  Base  of  a  Reef."  American  Sci- 
entist, volume  62,  pages  272-281. 

Macintyre,  Ian  G.,  and  Stephen  V.  Smith.  "X-Radiographic  Studies  of  Skele- 
tal Development  in  Coral  Colonies."  Proceedings  of  the  Second  Interna- 
tional Coral  Reef  Symposium,  Brisbane,  pages  277-287. 

Macintyre,  Ian  G.,  and  Peter  W.  Glynn.  "Internal  Structure  and  Develop- 
mental Stages  of  a  Modern  Caribbean  Fringe  Reef,  Galeta  Point,  Panama." 
7th  Caribbean  Geological  Conference,  Guadeloupe,  14  pages. 

Macurda,  Donald  B.,  and  David  L.  Meyer.  "Feeding  Posture  of  Modern 
Stalked  Crinoids."  Nature,  volume  247,  pages  394-396. 

McCosker,  John  E.  "A  Revision  of  the  Ophichthid  Eel  Genus  Letharchus." 
Copeia,  volume  3,  pages  619-629. 

Millar,  R.  H.  "A  Note  on  the  Breeding  Season  of  the  Three  Ascidians  on 
Coral  Reefs  at  Galeta  in  the  Caribbean  Sea."  Marine  Biology,  volume  28, 
pages  127-129. 

Muschett  Ibarra,  Daniel  M.  "Sobre  la  Composicion  Quimica  y  el  Aporte  Nu- 
tritivo  de  los  Rios  y  Lluvias  Adyacentes  al  Golfo  de  Panama."  Tesis  (Lie), 
Universidad  de  Panama,  55  paginas. 

Porter,  James  W.  "Community  Structure  of  Coral  Reefs  on  Opposite  Sides 
of  the  Isthmus  of  Panama."  Science,  volume  186,  pages  543-545. 

.     "Zooplankton     Feeding     by    the     Caribbean     Reef     Building     Coral 

Montastrea  cavernosa."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Second  International  Sym- 
posium on  Coral  Reefs,  volume  1,  pages  111-124. 

Roberts,  John  L.,  and  Jeffrey  B.  Graham.  "Swimming  and  Body  Temperature 
of  Mackerel."  (Abstract.)  American  Zoologist,  volume  14,  page  125. 

Rubinoff,  Roberta  W.,  editor.  "Environmental  Monitoring  Baseline  Data; 
Tropical  Studies."  Washington,  Smithsonian  Institution,  465  pages.  Compiled 
under  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Environmental  Science  Program. 

Spight,  T.  M.,  Charles  Birkeland,  and  Al  Lyons.  "Life  Histories  of  Large  and 
Small  Murexes  (Prosbranchia:  Muricidae)."  Marine  Biology,  volume  24, 
number  3,  pages  229-242. 

Appendix  6.  Bibliography  of  STRI  Research,  1965-1975  I  371 

Zucker,  Naida.  "Shelter  Building  as  a  Means  of  Reducing  Territory  Size  in  the 
Fiddler  Crab  Uca  terpsichores  (Crustacea:  Ocypodidae).  The  American  Mid- 
land Naturalist,  volume  91,  number  1,  pages  224-236. 


Arroyo  C,  Dulio  A.  "Produccion  Primaria  en  el  Golfo  de  Panama  Durante  el 
Afloramiento  de  1973-1974."   Tesis   (Lie),   Universidad   de  Panama. 

Abele,  Lawrence  G.  "The  Macruran  Decapod  Crustacea  of  Malpelo  Island." 
In  "Biological  Investigation  of  Malpelo  Island,  Colombia,"  edited  by  J.  B. 
Graham.  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  176,  98  pages. 

Bertsch,  Hans.  "Additional  Data  for  Two  Dorid  Nudribranchs  from  the  South- 
ern Caribbean  Seas."  The  Veliger,  volume  17,  pages  416-417. 

Birkeland,  Charles,  David  L.  Meyer,  James  P.  Stames,  and  Caryl  L.  Buford. 
"Subtidal  Communities  of  Malpelo  Island."  In  "Biological  Investigation  of 
Malpelo  Island,"  edited  by  J.  B.  Graham.  Smithsonian  Contributions  to 
Zoology,  number  176,  98  pages. 

Colin,  Patrick  L.  "The  Neon  Gobies,  the  Comparative  Biology  of  the  Gobies 
of  the  Genus  Gobiosoma,  Subgenus  Elacatinus  (Pisces:  Gobiidae)  in  the 
Tropical  Western  North  Atlantic  Ocean."  T.F.H.  Publications,  Neptune 
City,  N.J.,  320  pages. 

Choat,  J.  H.,  and  D.  R.  Robertson.  "Protogynous  Hermaphroditism  in  Fishes 
of  the  Family  Scaridae."  In  Intersexuality  in  the  Animal  Kingdom,  edited  by 
R.  Reinboth,  pages  263-283.  Springer- Verlag,  Berlin  Heidelberg,  New  York. 

Downey,  Maureen  E.  "Asteroidea  from  Malpelo  Island  with  Description  of  a 
New  Species  of  the  Genus  Tamaria."  In  "Biological  Investigation  of  Malpelo 
Island,"  edited  by  J.  B.  Graham.  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology, 
number  176,  98  pages. 

Findley,  Lloyd  Talbott.  "A  New  Species  of  Goby  from  Malpelo  Island 
(Teleostei:  Gobiidea:  Chriolepis)."  In  "Biological  Investigation  of  Malpelo 
Island,"  edited  by  J.  B.  Graham.  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology, 
number  176,  98  pages. 

Glynn,  Peter  W.,  D.  M.  Dexter,  and  T.  E.  Bowman.  "Excirolana  braziliensis,  A 
Pan-American  Sand  Beach  Isopod.  Taxonomic  Status,  Zonation,  and  Dis- 
tribution." Journal  of  Zoology,  London,  volume  175,  pages  211-222. 

Graham,  Jeffrey  B.,  editor.  "Biological  Investigation  of  Malpelo  Island,  Co- 
lombia." Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  176,  98  pages. 

.  "Heat  Exchange  in  the  Yellow  Fin  (Thunnus  albacares)  and  Skipjack 

(Katsuwonus  pelamis)  Tunas  and  the  Adaptive  Significance  of  Elevated 
Body  Temperatures  in  Scombird  Fishes."  Fishery  Bulletin  73. 

Graham,  Jeffrey  B.,  J.  H.  Gee,  and  F.  S.  Robison.  "Hydrostatic  and  Gas  Ex- 
change Functions  of  the  Lung  of  the  Sea  Snake  Pelamis  platurus."  Com- 
parative Biochemistry  and  Physiology,  volume  50,  number  3A,  pages  477- 

Macintyre,  Ian  G.  "A  Diver-Operated  Hydraulic  Drill  for  Coring  Submerged 
Substrates."  Atoll  Research  Bulletin,  number  185,  pages  21-25. 

Macurda,  D.  B.,  and  D.  L.  Meyer.  "The  Microstructure  of  the  Crinoid  Endo- 

skeleton."  University  of  Kansas,  Paleontology  Contributions,  volume  74, 
pages  1-22. 

McCosker,  John  E.,  and  Richard  H.  Rosenblatt.  "Fishes  Collected  at  Malpelo 
Island."  In  "Biological  Investigation  of  Malpelo  Island,"  edited  by  J.  B. 
Graham.    Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  176,  98  pages. 

Reimer,  Amada  Alvarez.  "Effects  of  Crude  Oils  on  Corals."  Marine  Pollution 
Bulletin,  volume  6,  number  3,  pages  39-44. 

Warner,  Robert  R.  "Adaptive  Significance  of  Sequential  Hermaphroditism  in 
Animals."  American  Naturalist,  volume  109,  pages  61-82. 

.    "The    Reproductive    Biology    of     the    Protogynous     Hermaphrodite 

Pimelometopon  pulchrum  (Pisces:  Labridae)."  Fishery  Bulletin,  volume  73, 
pages  262-281. 

372  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

APPENDIX  7.  Publications  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  Staff  in 
Fiscal  Year  1975 

Publications  are  by  staff  members  unless  otherwise  noted. 


Goode,  James  M.  The  Outdoor  Sculpture  of  Washington,  D.C.;  a  Compre- 
hensive Historical  Guide.  Washington,  D.C. :  Smithsonian  Institution  Press, 
1974,  pages  1-615. 

Stann,  E.  Jeffrey.  "Transporation  and  Urbanization  in  Caracas,  1891-1936." 
Journal  of  hiteramerican  Studies  and  World  Affairs,  volume  17  (1975), 
pages  82-100. 



National  Anthropological  Film  Center 

Sorenson,  E.  Richard.  "Anthropological  Film:  A  Scientific  and  Humanistic  Re- 
source." In  Science,  volume  186  (December  20,  1974),  pages  1079-1085. 

.  "Culture  and  the  Expression  of  Emotion."  In  Psychological  Anthro- 
pology, edited  by  Thomas  R.  Williams.  The  Hague:  Mouton,  1975. 

"Ecological    Disturbance    and    Population    Distribution    in    the    Fore 

Region  of   New  Guinea."  In  China  to   the  Antipodes,  edited  by  Willis  E. 
Sibley.  The  Hague:  Mouton,  1976. 

"To  Further  Phenomenological  Inquiry:  The  National  Anthropological 

Film  Center."  Current  Anthropology,  volume  16  (June  1975),  pages  267-269. 
"Visual  Records,  Human  Knowledge  and  the  Future."  In  Principles  of 

Visual  Anthropology,  edited  by  Paul  Hockings.  The  Hague:  Mouton,  1975. 

Sorenson,  E.  Richard,  and  Allison  Jablonko.  "Research  Filming  of  Naturally 
Occurring  Phenomena:  Basic  Strategies."  In  Principles  of  Visual  Anthro- 
pology, edited  by  Paul  Hockings.  The  Hague:  Mouton,  1975. 

Sorenson,  E.  Richard,  and  Foster  O.  Chanock.  "Research  Films  and  the  Com- 
munications Revolution."  In  Principles  of  Visual  Anthropology,  edited  by 
Paul  Hockings.  The  Hague:  Mouton,  1975. 

Vaczek,  Nicolas  L.,  and  Dirk  A.  Ballendorf.  "Cameras  on  the  World."  Peace 
Corps  Program  and  Training  Journal,  volume  8,  number  1  (1975). 

Research  Jnstitute  on  Immigration  and  Ethnic  Studies 

Bryce-Laporte,  Roy.  "Crossing  out  the  Cross."  [commentary  on  Time  on  the 
Cross]  Contemporary  Sociology,  volume  4,  number  4  (July  1975),  pages 

.  "Dreams  and  Realities."  Continuities,  July  1975. 


Beane,  Marjorie,  Steven  A.  Dubner,  and  J.  Kevin  Sullivan.  Citizen  Participa- 
tion  in   Maryland's   Continuing  Plajtning  Process  for  Water   Quality  Man- 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  2>73 

agement.  Chesapeake  Bay  Center  for  Environmental  Studies,  Working 
Paper  No.  3.  January  1975. 

Beane,  Marjorie,  and  John  Ross.  The  Role  of  Technical  Information  in 
Decisions  on  Nuclear  Power  Plants.  Center  for  Human  Systems,  Institute 
for  Environmental  Studies,  University  of  Wisconsin,  Report  19.  Madison, 
September  1974. 

Falk,  John  H.  "Estimating  Experimenter-Induced  Bias  in  Field  Studies:  A 
Cautionary  Tale."  Oikos,  volume  25  (1974),  pages  374-378. 

.  "Outdoor  Biology  Instructional  Strategies:  Development  and  Evalua- 
tion." The  American  Biology  Teacher,  volume  37,  number  3  (1975),  pages 

Faust,  Maria  A.  "Micromorphology  of  Cell  Wall  of  Prorocentrum  mariae- 
lebouriae  (Parke  and  Ballantine)  Nov.  Comb."  Journal  of  Phychology,  vol- 
ume 10  (1974),  pages  315-322. 

.    "Structure    of    the    Periplast    of    Cryptomonas    ovata    var.    palustris." 

Journal  of  Phychology,  volume  10  (1974),  pages  121-124. 

Lynch,  James  F.  "Aneides  flavipunctatus."  In  Catalogue  of  American  Am- 
phibians and  Reptiles,  158.1-158.2.  1974. 

.  "Ontogenetic  and  Geographic  Variation  in  the  Morphology  and  Ecol- 
ogy of  the  Black  Salamander  (Aneides  flavipunctatus)."  Ph.D.  thesis.  Uni- 
versity of  California,  Berkeley,  1974,  430  pages. 

Lynch,  James  F.,  and  N.  K.  Johnson.  "Turnover  and  Equilibria  in  Insular  Avi- 
faunas, with  Special  Reference  to  the  California  Channel  Islands."  Condor, 
volume  76  (1974),  pages  370-384. 

Lynch,  James  F.,  and  D.  B.  Wake.  "Aneides  lugubris."  In  Catalogue  of  Ameri- 
can Amphibians  and  Reptiles,  159.1-159.2.  1974. 

.   "Systematics  of   the  Chiropterotriton   bromeliacia  Group   (Amphibia: 

Caudata),  with  Description  of  Two  New  Species  from  Guatemala."  Los 
Angeles  County  Museum  Contributions  in  Science,  number  265  (1975), 
pages  1-40. 


Gore,  Robert  H.  "Biological  Results  of  the  University  of  Miami  Deep-Sea  Ex- 
peditions. 102.  On  a  Small  Collection  of  Porcellanid  Crabs  from  the 
Caribbean  Sea  (Crustacea,  Decapoda,  Anomura)."  Bulletin  of  Marine  Sci- 
ence, volume  24,  number  3  (1974),  pages  700-721. 

.   "Studies   on    Decapod   Crustacea   from    the    Indian   River   Region   of 

Florida.  II.  Megalobrachium  soriatum  (Say,  1818) :  The  Larval  Development 
under  Laboratory  Culture  (Crustacea;  Decapoda;  Porcellanidae)."  Bulletin 
of  Marine  Science,  volume  23,  number  4  (1974),  pages  837-856. 

Gore,  Robert  H.,  and  Linda  J.  Becker.  "Studies  on  Stomatopod  Crustacea 
of  the  Indian  River  Region  of  Florida.  I.  Rediscovery  and  Extension  of 
Range  of  Heterosquilla  Armata  (Smith,  1881)."  Proceedings  of  the  Bio- 
logical Society  of  Washington,  volume  88   (1975),  pages  21-27. 

Gore,  Robert  H.,  and  R.  E.  Grizzle.  "Studies  on  Decapod  Crustacea  from  the 
Indian  River  Region  of  Florida.  III.  Callinectes  bocourti  A.  Milne  Edwards, 
1879  (Decapoda,  Portunidae)  from  the  Central  East  Coast  of  Florida." 
Crustaceana,  volume  27,  number  3  (1974),  pages  306-308. 

Rice,  Mary  E.  "Sipuncula."  Chapter  4  in  Reproduction  of  Marine  Invertebrates, 
by  A.  C.  Giese  and  J.  Pearse,  volume  2,  pages  67-127.  New  York:  Aca- 
demic Press. 

.    "Unsegmented    Coelomate    Worms:    Sipuncula,    Echiura,    Priapula." 

Chapter  in  Light's  Manual  of  Intertidal  Invertebrates  of  the  Coast  of 
California,  edited  by  R.  I.  Smith,  revised  edition,  pages  128-134.  University 
of  California  Press,  1975. 

374  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

.     "Gametogenesis     in     Three     Species     of    Sipuncula:     Phascolosoma 

agassizii,  Golfingia  pugettensis  and  Themiste  pyroides.  La  Cellule,  volume 
70,  number  2  (1974),  pages  1-35. 

[Review]    The  Phyla  Sipuncula  and  Echiura,  by   A.   C.   Stephen   and 

S.  J.  Edmonds.  Quarterly  Reinew  of  Biology,  volume  49,  number  2  (1974), 
page  160. 


Bondurant,  Russell  Lynn.  "The  Planetarium  Artistically  Speaking."  Proceed- 
ings of  the  International  Society  of  Planetarium  Educators.  Special  publi- 
cation 4^6  (October,  1974),  pages  33-34. 

Boyne,  Walter  J.,  "Last  Fighter  From  Curtiss."  Airpower. 

,  "Martin's  Mercenaries."  Wings. 

,  "The  Hall-Aluminum  Story."  Airpower. 

,  "The  Other  Martin."  Wirigs. 

,  "McCook  Field  Story,  Part  One."  Wings. 

,  "McCook  Field  Story,  Part  Two."  Airpower. 

,  "Rocheville,  Imagineer  Emeritus."  Aviation  Quarterly. 

,  "The  Fortunate  Fairchild."  Aviation  Quarterly. 

,  "Weird  Wonderful  Warplanes."  Air  Force  Magazine. 

Casey,  Louis,  and  John  Batchelor.  Naval  Aircraft,  1939-1945.  London:  Phoebus 
Publishing  Co.,  1975. 

Chamberlain,  Von  Del.  "The  Night  Tourist."  Astronomy,  volume  3  (1975), 
pages  43-47. 

.  "Stars  of  Wonder,"  Youth  News,  volume  56  (1974),  pages  20-22. 

Chamberlain,  Von  Del,  John  C.  Brandt,  Stephen  P.  Maran,  Ray  Williamson, 
Robert  S.  Harrington,  Clarion  Cochran,  Muriel  and  William  J.  Kennedy. 
"Possible  Rock  Art  Records  of  the  Crab  Nebula  Supernova  in  the  Western 
United  States."  In  Archaeoastronomy  in  Pre-Columbian  America,  edited  by 
A.  F.  Aveni.  University  of  Texas  Press,  1975. 

Collins,  Michael.  Carrying  the  Fire.  Farrar,  Straus  and  Giroux,  1974. 

Crouch,  Thomas  D.  "Mason's  Aerial  Steamship."  Journal  of  the  American 
Aviation  Historical  Society,  volume  19,  number  2  (Summer  1974). 

Durant,  F.  C.  Ill,  co-editor.  First  Steps  Toward  Space.  Smithsonian  Annals  of 
Flight,  number  10.  1974,  vi  -(-  307  pages,  illustrated.  Presented  at  the  First 
and  Second  Symposia  on  the  History  of  Astronautics  1967,  1968,  Congress 
of  the  International  Astronautical  Federation. 

El-Baz,  F.  "Orbital  Photographs  of  the  Moon — Why  We  Need  More."  In  Lunar 
Science  VI.  Sixth  Lunar  Science  Conference,  Goddard  Space  Flight  Center, 
Supplementary  Abstract  X-682-75-46.  1975,  pages  5-6. 

.  "A  Possible  History  of  the  Moon  and  the  Evolution  of  Its  Surface." 

In  NASM  Center  Set  Up  to  Study  Apollo  Data,  by   R.   Friedman.   Smith- 
sonian Institution  Research  Reports,  Number  8.  1974,  pages  5  and  8. 

"Surface  Geology  of  the  Moon."  Annual  Reviews  of  Astronomy  and 

Astrophysics,  volume  12  (1974),  pages  135-165. 

[Review]   The  Moon:  Its  Past  Development  and  Present  Behavior,  by 

J.    H.   Tatsch.    Sudbury,    Mass.:    Tatsch   Assoicates.    Geotimes,   volume   19, 

number  12  (1974),  page  34. 
El-Baz,  F.,  and  D.  A.  Mitchell.  "Remote  Sensing  as  a  Tool  for  Development." 

First  Islamic  Conference  on  Science  and  Technology,  University  of  Riyad, 

Riyad,  Saudi  Arabia:  1975,  pages  1-11. 
El-Baz,    F.,    and    D.   E.    Wilhelms.    "Photogeological,   Geophysical,   and   Geo- 

chemical  Data  on  the  East  Side  of  the  Moon."  In  Lunar  Science  VI,  Lunar 

Science  Institute,  Houston,  1975,  pages  239-241. 
Mikesh,  Robert  C.  "Art  and  the  Airman."  American  Aviation  Historical  So- 
ciety Journal,  Winter  1974,  pages  324-325. 

Appendix  7 .  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  375 

.   "Bars   for  the  Star."   American  Aviation   Historical  Society  Journal, 

Fall  1974,  pages  205-207. 

.  "Dinner  Key."  Aviation  Quarterly,  volume  1,  number  1  (1974). 

"LTA's  Parasite  Sparrowhawk."  Koku  Fan,  January  1975,  pages  90-92, 

108-117;  February  1975,  pages  86-89;  136-138. 
.   "Messerschmidtt   Bf.l09G   Reborn."   Koku   Fan,   August   1974,   pages 

.   "Return   of   the   Ausburg   Eagle."   Airpower,   November   1974,   pages 

.  "A  Study  of  Zero  Fighter  Serial  Sequencing,"  Koku  Fan,  May  1975, 

pages  80-83. 
.    "That   Great    Hook-Up   in   the   Sky."   Wings,   February   1975,   pages 


Strain,  P.  L.,  and  El-Baz,  F.  "Sinuous  Rilles  of  the  Harbinger  Mountains  Re- 
gion of  the  Moon."  In  Lunar  Science  VI,  Lunar  Science  Institute,  Houston, 
1975,  pages  786-788. 

Winter,  Frank  H.,  co-author.  "Edward  M.  Boxer  and  His  Rockets  in  Peace  and 
War."  Spaceflight,  November  1974. 

Wolfe,  R.  W.,  and  Giese,  R.  F.  "Hydroxyl  Orientation  and  Interlayer  Bonding 
in  Trioctahedral  1:1  Phyllosilicates."  23rd  Annual  Clay  and  Minerals  Con- 
ference, Cleveland,  Ohio,  October  1974. 

.  "Interlayer  Bonding  in  1-Layer  Kaolin   Structures."   Clays   and  Clay 

Minerals,  volume  22  (1974),  page  137. 

Zisfein,  M.  B.  "A  Home  for  the  National  Air  and  Space  Museum."  Virginia 
Aviation,  January-March  1975. 


Department  of  Anthropology 

Angel,  J.  Lawrence.  "Early  Neolithic  People  of  Nea  Nikomedeia.  Fundamenta. 
Die  Anfange  des  Neolithikums  von  Orient  bis  Nordeuropa."  In  Anthro- 
pologic, edited  by  I.  Schwidetzky,  volume  8,  pages  103-112.  1974. 

.    "Patterns   of   Fractures   from   Neolithic   to   Modern   Times."   Anthro- 

pologiai  Kozlemenyek  18,  pages  9-18.  Budapest:  Akademiai  Kiado,  1974. 

Evans,  Clifford,  and  Betty  J.  Maggers.  "Introducao.  Programa  Nacional  de 
Pesquisas  Arqueologicas,  Resultados  Preliminares  do  Quinto  Ano,  1969- 
1970."  Museu  Paraense  Emilio  Goeldi,  Pubis.  Avulsas  No.  26,  pages  7-10. 
Belem,  1974. 

Ewers,  John  C.  Ethnological  Report  on  the  Blackfeet  and  Gros  Ventres  Tribes 
of  Indians.  New  York  and  London:  Garland  Publishing  Company,  Inc., 
1974,  pages  23-202. 

.  Ethnological  Report  on  the  Chippewa-Creek  Tribe  of  the  Rocky  Roys 

Reservation  and  the  Little  Shell  Bank  of  Indians.  New  York  and  London: 
Garland  Publishing  Co.,  Inc.,  1974,  pages  9-182. 

"The  American  West  as  a  Theater  of  Conflict."  Chapter  in  Frontier 

America:  The  Far  West.  [Exhibition  Catalog]  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Boston, 
Massachuetts,  pages  78-85.  1975. 

"Horsemen  of  the  Plains."  Chapter  in  The  World  of  the  American 

Indian.  Washington,  D.C. :  National  Geographic  Society,  1974. 

Introduction  to  Indians  of  the  United  States  and  Canada,  a  Bibliog- 

raphy, edited  by  Dwight  L.  Smith,  pages  xiii-xvi.  Santa  Barbara,  California: 
American  Bibliographical  Center,  1974. 
Fitzhugh,  William  W.  "Ground  Slates  in  the  Scandinavian  Younger  Stone  Age 
with  Reference  to  Circumpolar  Maritime  Adaptations."  Proceedings  of  the 
Prehistoric  Society.  1974. 

376  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

.  "Smithsonian   Fieldwork   on  the  Central   Labrador  Coast."   Canadian 

Archeological  Associatioii,  Bulletin  6.    1974. 

-.  "Comparative  Approach  to  Maritime  Adaptations,  ICAES  Congress, 

Chicago,   1973."   In   Maritime  Adapitations   of  the  Circumpolar   Zone.   The 
Hague:  Mouton,  1975. 

-,  editor.  Maritime  Adaptations  of  the  Circtimpohir  Zone.   ICAES  Con- 

gress, 1973,  Chicago.  The  Hague:  Mouton,  1975. 
Hare,  P.  E.,  D.  J.  Ortner,  D.  W.  Von  Endt,  and  R.  E.  Taylor.  "Amino  Acid 

Dating  of  Bone  and  Teeth."  Abstracts  with  Programs  1974,  Annual  Meetings 

of  the  Geological  Society  of  America,  volume  6  (1974),  page  778. 
Meggers,  Betty   J.   "Environment  and  Culture  in  Amazonia."  In  Man  in  the 

Amazon,  edited  by  Charles  Wagley,  pages  91-110.  Gainesville:  University 

of  Florida  Press,  1974. 
.   "The  Transpacific  Origin  of  MesoAmerican  Civilization:  A  Prelimi- 
nary Review  on  the  Evidence  and  its  Theoretical  Implications."  American 

Anthropologist,  volume  77  (1975),  pages  1-27. 
Ortner,  Donald  J.  "Porotic  Hyperostosis  of  the  Skull  in  Metabolic  Disease." 

[Abstract]  American  Journal  of  Physical  Anthropologists,  volume  42  (1975), 

page  321. 
.  "A  Precision  Microdissection  Procedure  for  Undecalcified  Bone  Thin 

Sections."  Calcified  Tissue  Research,  volume  17   (1975),  pages  169-172. 
Riesenberg,  Saul  M.  "Six  Pacific  Island  Discoveries."  The  American  Neptune, 

volume  34,  number  4  (1974),  pages  249-257. 
Rose,  Carolyn  L.  "A  New  Approach  to  Archeological  Conservation."  Bulletin 

of   the    International    h^stitute    for    Conservation    of    Historic    and    Artistic 

Works,  1975. 
Stanford,  Dennis  J.  "Preliminary  Report  of  the  Excavation  of  the  Jones-Miller 

Hell  Gap   Site,   Yuma   County,   Colorado."   Southwestern    Lore,  volume  40, 

numbers  3  and  4  (1975),  page  29. 
Stewart,  T.  D.  Human  Skeletal  Remains  from  Dzibilchaltun,  Yucatan,  Mexico, 

with  a   Revieiv   of  Cranial   Deformity   Types    in    the   Maya   Region.   Middle 

American   Research   Institute,  Tulane  University,  Publication   31.   National 

Geographic   Society:   Tulane   University   Program   of   Research   in    Yucatan, 

1974,  pages  199-225. 
.  "Recent  Developments  in  Understanding  the  Relationship  Between  the 

Neanderthals  and  Modern  Man."  Chapter  5  in  Sir  Grafton  Elliot  Smith,  the 

Man  and  his  Works,  edited  by  A.  P.  Elkin  and  N.  M.  G.  Macintosh,  pages 

67-82.  Sydney:  University  of  Sydney  Press,  1974. 

"Perspectives  on  Some  Problems  of  Early  Man  Common  to  America 

and  Australia."  Chapter  10  in  Sir  Grafton  Elliot  Smith,  the  Man  and  his 
Works,  edited  by  A.  P.  Elkin  and  N.  M.  G.  Macintosh,  pages  114-135. 
Sydney:  University  of  Sydney  Press,  1974. 

"Cranial  Dysraphism  Mistaken  for  Trephination."  American  Journal 

of  Physical  Anthropology,  volume  42,  number  3  (1975),  pages  435-437. 

-.    "Nonunion    of    Fractures    in    Antiquity,    with    Descriptions    of    Five 

Cases  from  the  New  World  Involving  the  Forearm."  Bulletin  of  the  New 
York  Academy  of  Medicine,  second  series,  volume  50,  number  8  (1974), 
pages  875-891. 

Sturtevant,  William  C.  "Woodsmen  and  Villagers  of  the  East."  In  The  World 
of  the  American  Indian,  edited  by  Jules  B.  Billard.  Washington:  National 
Geographic  Society,  1974. 

.  "Huns,  Free-Thinking  Americans,  and  the  AAA."  History  of  Anthro- 
pology Newsletter,  volume  2,  number  1  (1975),  pages  4-6. 

-.    "Commentary    on    Papers   by   TePaske   and   Tanner."   In   Eighteenth- 

Century    Florida    and    its    Borderlands,    edited    by    Samuel    Proctor,    pages 
40-47.  Gainesville:  University  Presses  of  Florida,  1975. 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  377 

,  editor.  Boxes  and  Bowls:  Decorated  Containers  by  Nineteenth-Century 

Haida,  Tlingit,  Bella  Bella,  and  Tsimshian  Indian  Artists.  [Exhibition  Cata- 
logue] Washington:  Smithsonian  Institution  Press  for  the  Renwick  Gallery, 
1974,  93  pages. 

Trousdale,  William.  "The  Long  Sword  and  Scabbard  Slide  in  Asia."  Smith- 
sonian Contributions  to  Anthropology,  number  17.  1975. 

Ubelaker,  Douglas  H.  "Reconstruction  of  Demographic  Profiles  from  Ossuary 
Skeletal  Samples,  A  Case  Study  From  the  Tidewater  Potomac."  Smith- 
sonian Contributions  to  Anthropology,  number  18.  1975. 

Van  Beek,  Gus  W.  "Tell  Gemmeh."  Israel  Exploration  Journal,  volume  24 

Von  Endt,  D.  W.,  and  P.  E.  Hare.  "The  Chemical  Basis  for  Amino  Acid 
Dating  of  Bone."  [Abstract]  American  Journal  of  Physical  Anthropology, 
volume  42  (1975),  page  337. 

Von  Endt,  D.  W.,  P.  E.  Hare,  D.  J.  Ortner,  and  A.  I.  Stix.  "Amino  Acid 
Isomerization  Rates  and  Their  Use  in  Dating  Archeological  Bone."  Proceed- 
ings of  the  Society  of  American  Archeology,  volume  66  (1975). 

Wedel,  Mildred  M.  "The  Benard  de  la  Harpe  Historiography  on  French  Co- 
lonial Louisiana."  Louisiana  Studies,  volume  13,  number  1  (1974),  pages 
9-67.  Natchitoches. 

.  "Le  Sueur  and  the  Dakota  Sioux."  In  Aspects  of  Great  Lakes  Anthro- 
pology, Papers  in  Honor  of  Lloyd  A.  Wilford,  edited  by  Elden  Johnson, 
pages  157-171.  Minnesota  Historical  Society. 

.    "The    Prehistoric    and    Historic    Habitat    of    the    Missouri    and    Oto 

Indians."  In  American   Indian  Ethnohistory,   Plains   Indians,   compiled   and 

edited  by  David  Agee  Horr,  pages  25-76.  Garland  Publishing  Co.,  1974. 
Wedel,  Waldo  R.  "The  Prehistoric  and  Historic  Habitat  of  the  Kansa  Indians." 

In  Pawnee  and  Kansas  (Kaw)  Indians,  compiled  and  edited  by  David  Agee 

Horr,  pages  421-453.  Garland  Publishing  Co.,  1974. 
.  "Some  Early  Euro-American  Percepts  of  the  Great  Plains  and  Their 

Influence    on    Anthropological   Thinking."    In    Images   of  the   Great   Plains, 

edited  by  B.  W.  Blouet  and  M.  P.  Lawson.  University  of  Nebraska  Press, 


Department  of  Botany 

Agostini,  Getulio,  and  Dieter  C.  Wasshausen.   "Tetramerium   (Acanthaceae), 

Un  Genero  Nuevo  para  la  Flora  de  Venezuela."  Acta  Botanica  Venezuelica, 

volume  8,  numbers  1-4  (1973),  pages  163-166. 
Ayensu,    Edward    S.    "Science    and   Technology    in    Black    Africa."    In    World 

Encyclopedia  of  Black  Peoples,  edited  by  Keith  Irvine,  pages  306-317.  St. 

Clair  Shores,  Michigan:  Scholarly  Press  Inc.,  1975. 
.  "Beautiful  Gamblers  of  the  Biosphere."  Natural  History,  volume  83, 

number  8  (1974),  pages  37-45. 

"Endangered  and  Threatened  Orchids  of  the  United  States."  American 

Orchid  Society  Bulletin,  volume  44,  number  5   (1975),  pages  384-394. 

-.  "Leaf  Anatomy  and  Systematics  of  New  World  Velloziaceae."  Smith- 

sonian  Contributions   to  Botany,  number  15   (1974),  pages  1-125. 

-.  "Plant  and  Bat  Interactions  in  West  Africa."  Annals  of  the  Missouri 

Botanical  Garden,  volume  61,  number  3  (1974),  pages  702-727. 
Ayensu,  Edward  S.,  and  Albert  Bentum.  "Commercial  Timbers  of  West  Africa." 

Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Botany,  number  14  (1974),  pages  1-69. 
Ayensu,    Edward    S.,    and   John   J.    Skvarla.   "Fine   Structure   of   Velloziaceae 

Pollen."  Bulletin  of  the  Torrey  Botanical  Club,  volume  101,  number  5  (1974), 

pages  250-266. 

378  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Chater,  Arthur  O.,  Robert  A.  DeFilipps,  and  Vernon  H.  Heywood.  "Report  of 

a  Discussion  on  the  Future  of  the  Flora  Europaea  Organization."  Boletim  da 

Sociedade  Broteriana,  volume  47,  Suplemento   (1974),   pages   409-412. 
Cuatrecasas,  J.   "Miscellaneous   Notes  on   Neotropical  Flora  VI."  Phytologia, 

volume  29,  number  5  (1975),  pages  369-385. 
DeFilipps,    Robert    A.    "Cuzmania    megastachya    (Baker)    Mez."    Ashingtonia, 

volume  1,  number  7  (July  1974),  pages  74-75. 
.  "A  New  Combination  in  Platanthera  L.  C.  Rich."  American  Orchid 

Society  Bulletin,  volume  44,  number  5   (May  1975),  page  405. 
Fosberg,  F.  R.  "Dr.  Raven's  Proposals."  Taxon,  volume  24  (1975),  pages  192- 

.    "Miscellaneous    Notes    on    the    Flora    of    Aldabra    and   Neighboring 

Islands.  III."  Kew  Bulletin,  volume  29  (1974),  pages  253-266. 
Hale,  Mason  E.,  Jr.  "Morden-Smithsonian  Expedition  to  Dominica:  The  Lichens 

(Thelotremataceae)."    Smithsonian    Contributions    to    Botany,    number    16 

(1974),  46  pages. 
.    "Bulbothrix,    Parmelina,    Relicina,    and    Xanthoparmelia,    Four    New 

Genera  in  the  Parmeliaceae  (Lichens)."  Phytologia,  volume  28  (1974),  pages 


"Delimitation    of    the    Lichen    Genus    Hypotrachyna    (Vainio)    Hale." 

Phythologia,  volume  28  (1974),  pages  340-342. 

"New  Combinations  in  the  Lichen  Genus  Parmotrema  Massalongo." 

Phytologia,  volume  28  (1974),  pages  334-339. 

"New    Combinations    in    the    Lichen    Geus    Pseudoparmelia    Lynge." 

Phytologia,  volume  29  (1974),  pages  188-191. 

-.  "Notes  on  Species  of  Parmotrema  (Lichenses:  Parmeliaceae)  Contain- 

ing Yellow  Pigments."  Mycotaxon,  volume  1   (1974),  pages  105-116. 

Hermann,  F.  J.,  and  H.  Robinson.  "Additions  to  the  Bryophyte  Flora  of  Bo- 
livia." The  Bryologist,  volume  77  (1974),  pages  643-645. 

Jenkins,  Dale  W.,  and  Edward  S.  Ayensu.  "The  Nation's  First  Census  of  En- 
dangered Plants  Finds  One-Tenth  May  be  Marked  for  Extinction."  Smith- 
sonian, volume  5,  number  10  (1975),  pages  92-96. 

King,  R.  M.,  and  H.  Robinson.  "Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae). 
CXX.  Additions  to  the  Genus  Koanophyllon  in  Panama."  Phytologia,  vol- 
ume 28  (1974),  pages  67-72. 

.    "Studies    in   the   Eupatorieae    (Asteraceae).    CXXI.    Additions    to   the 

Genus  Fleischmannia."  Phytologia,  volume  28  (1974),  pages  73-96. 

"Studies    in    the    Eupatorieae    (Asteraceae).    CXXII.    A    New    Genus, 

Sartorina."  Phytologia,  volume  28  (1974),  pages  97-100. 

"Studies   in   the  Eupatorieae   (Asteraceae).   CXXIII.   Additions   to  the 

Genus  Mikania."  Phytologia,  volume  28  (1974),  pages  272-281. 

"Studies    in    the    Eupatorieae    (Asteraceae).    CXXIV,   A   New   Genus, 

Eitenia."  Phytologia,  volume  28  (1974),  pages  282-285. 

-.   "Studies   in   the   Eupatorieae    (Asteraceae).   CXXV.   Additions   to   the 

Genus  Bartlettina."  Phytologia,  volume  28  (1974),  pages  286-293. 

"Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CXXVI.  A  New  Species  of 

Ageratum."  Phytologia,  volume  28  (1974),  pages  491-493. 

-.  "Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CXXVIII.  Four  Additions  to 

the    Genus    Ageratina    from    Mexico    and    Central    Am.erica."    Phytologia, 
volume  28  (1974),  pages  494-502. 

-.  "Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae   (Asteraceae).  CXX VII.  Additions  to  the 

American    and    Pacific    Adenostemmatinae.    Adenostemma,    Cymnocoronis 
and  Sciadocephala."  Phytologia,  volume  29  (1974),  pages  1-20. 

-.  "Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CXXIX.  A  New  Genus,  Vit- 

tetia."  Phytologia,  volume  29  (1974),  pages  121-122. 
.  "Studies  in  the   Eupatorieae   (Asteraceae).   CXXX.   Notes  on   Campu- 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  2>79 

lodinium,  Koanophyllon,  Mikania  and  Symphyopappus."  Phytologia,  volume 
29  (1974),  pages  123-129. 

"Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae   (Asteraceae).   CXXXII.  The  Genus   Pha- 

lacraea."  Phytologia,  volume  29  (1974).  pages  251-256. 

"Studies    in    the   Eupatorieae    (Asteraceae).    CXXXI.    A    New    Genus, 

Cuevaria."  Phytologia,  volume  29  (1974),  pages  257-263. 

"Studies   in   the  Eupatorieae   (Asteraceae).   CXXXIII.   A  New   Genus, 

Piqeriella."  Phytologia,  volume  29  (1974),  pages  264-266. 

-.  "Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CXXXIV.  A  New  Species  of 

Sciadocephala  from  Panama."  Phytologia,  volume  29  (1975),  pages  343-346. 
"Studies   in   the   Eupatorieae    (Asteraceae).   CXXXV.   A   New   Species 

of  Ageratina  from  Panama."  Phytologia,  volume  29  (1975),  pages  347-350. 
"Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CXXXVI.  Four  New  Species 

of  Neomirandea."  Phytologia,  volume  29   (1975),  pages  351-361. 

-.  "Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CXXXVII.  Two  New  Species 

of  Neomirandea."  Phytologia,  volume  30  (1975),  pages  9-14. 

"Studies  in  the  Eupatorieae  (Asteraceae).  CXXXVIII.  A  New  Genus, 

Critoniella."  Phytologia,  volume  30  (1975),  pages  284-285. 

"Studies   in   the   Eupatorieae   (Asteraceae).   CXXXIX.   A  New   Genus, 

Aristeguietia."  Phytologia,  volume  30  (1975),  pages  217-220. 

"Studies    in    the    Eupatorieae    (Asteraceae).    CXL.    A    New    Genus 

Grosvenoria."  Phytologia,  volume  30  (1975),  pages  221-222. 

"Studies    in    the    Eupatorieae    (Asteraceae).    CXLI.    A    New    Genus, 

Asplundianthus."  Phytologia,  volume  30  (1975),  pages  223-228. 

"Studies    in    the    Eupatorieae    (Asteraceae).    CXLII.    A    New    Genus, 

Badilloa."  Phytologia,  volume  30  (1975),  pages  229-234. 

Lellinger,  David  B.  "The  Correct  Name  of  a  Lycopodium  New  to  Panama." 
American  Pern  Journal,  volume  64,  number  2  (1974),  page  64. 

.   "Publication   of  the   Ferns    and  Fern-Allies   in   the   "Primitiae    Florae 

Costaricensis.'  "  American  Fern  Journal,  volume  64,  number  3  (1974),  pages 

Maguire,  B.,  J.  J.  Wurdock,  and  Y.  Huang.  "Pollen  Grains  of  Some  American 
Olacaceae."  Crana,  volume  14,  number  1  (December  1974),  pages  26-38. 

Mueller-Dombois,  D.,  and  F.  R.  Fosberg.  "Vegetation  Map  of  Hawaii  Vol- 
canoes National  Park  (at  1:  52,000)."  Technical  Report  (Cooperative  Na- 
tional Park  Resources  Studies  Unit),  number  4  (1974),  pages  1-44. 

Nicolson,  D.  H.  Introduction  to  Flora  Idica,  by  W.  Roxburgh  (facsimile  re- 
print of  1st  edition,  1820-1824),  pages  vii-ix.  New  York:  Oriole  Editions, 

.   "A   New   Lectotypification   of   the   Genus   Xanthosoma   Schott    (Aca- 

ceae)."  Taxon,  volume  24  (1975),  pages  345-347. 

"Orthography  of   Names   and   Epithets:   The  i/j   and  u/v  Problem." 

Taxon,  volume  23  (1974),  pages  843-851. 

"Orthography    of    Names    and    Epithets:    Latinization    of    Personal 

Names."  Taxon,  volume  23  (1974),  pages  549-561. 
Nowicke,    Joan    W.    "Three    New    Species    of    Tournefortia    (Boraginaceae) 

from  the  Andes  and  Comments  on  the  Manuscripts  of  E.  P.  Killip."  Bulletin 

of  the  Torrey  Botanical  Club,  volume  101   (1975).  pages  229-234. 
Nowicke,  Joan  W.,  and  John  J.  Skvarla.  "A  Palynological  Investigation  of  the 

Genus  Tournefortia  (Boraginaceae)."  American  Journal  of  Botany,  volume 

61  (1974),  pages  1021-1036. 
Porter,  D.  M.,  and  J.  Cuatrecasas.  "Brunelliaceae."  In  "Flora  of  Panama,"  by 

Robert  E.   Woodson,  Jr.,  Robert  W.  Schery  and   Collaborators,  Annals  of 

the  Missouri  Botanical  Garden,  volume  62,  number  1   (1975),  pages  11-14. 
Read,  Robert  W.  "The  Genus  Thrinax  (Palmae:  Coryphoideae)."  Smithsonian 

Contributions  to  Botany,  number  19  (1975),  pages  iii-98. 

380  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Read,  Robert  W.,  and  G.  E.  Daniels.  "Puya  in  Costa  Rica."  Journal  of  the 
Bromeliad  Society,  volume  25,  number  2  (1975),  pages  43-47. 

Robinson,   H.    "Additions   to   the   Genus    Taxiphyllum    (Hypnaceae,   Musci)." 
Phytologia,  volume  28  (1974),  pages  64-66. 

.    "Notes    on    the    mosses    of    Juan    Fernandez    and    Southern    South 

America."  Phytologia,  volume  29  (1974),  pages  116-120. 

"Studies    in    the    Heliantheae    (Asteraceae).    III.    A    New    Species    of 

Schistocarpha."  Phytologia,  volume  29  (1974),  pages  247-250. 

-.    "Studies   in    the   Heliantheae    (Asterasceae).   IV.    A   New   Species   of 

Schistocarpha  from  Panama."  Phytologia,  volume  29  (1975),  pages  339-342. 
-.  "Studies   in  the  Senecioneae   (Asteraceae).  XI.  The  Genus  Arrioglos- 

siim."  Phytologia,  volume  28  (1974),  pages  294-295. 

Robinson,  H.,  and  F.  D.  Bowers.  "A  New  Species  of  Oreoweisia  from 
Mexico  (Dicranaceae,  Musci)."  Phytologia,  volume  29  (1974),  pages 

Robinson,  H.,  and  R.  D.  Bretell.  "Studies  in  the  Liabeae  (Asteraceae).  II. 
Preliminary  Survey  of  the  Genera."  Phytologia,  volume  28  (1974),  pages 

Robinson,  H.,  and  D.  Griffin  III.  "A  New  Species  of  Rhynchotegiopsis  from 
Costa  Rica  (Hookeriaceae,  Musci)."  Phytologia,  volume  30  (1975),  pages 

Sachet,  M.-H.  "State  of  Knowledge  of  Coral  Reefs  as  Ecosystems."  In  "Com- 
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Schubert,  Bernice  G.,  and  Lyman  B.  Smith.  "Begoniales."  Encyclopedia  Bri- 
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Shetler,  Stanwyn  G.  "The  Flora  North  America  Generalized  System  for  De- 
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"Natural  History  for  Everyone."  Audubon  Naturalist  News,  volume  1, 

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"Natural    History    of    the    Season:    April's    Riot    of    Wildflowers." 

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"Natural  History  of  the  Season:  March  is  for  the  Bluebirds."  Audu- 

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Simpson,  Beryl  B.  "Glacial  Climates  in  the  Eastern  Tropical  Pacific."  Nature, 

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Science,  volume  185  (1974),  pages  698-700. 
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number  3  (1974),  pages  233-240. 
Smith,    Lyman    B.    "Bromeliales."    Encyclopedia    Britannica,    fifteenth   edition. 

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Bromeliads,  a  Cultural  Handbook,  by  Mulford  B.  Foster  and  others,  second 
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volume  24,  number  5  (1974),  page  196. 

"Notes  on  Bromeliaceae,  XXXV."  Phytologia,  volume   28,  number  1 

(1974),  pages  24-42. 

"Notes  on  Bromeliaceae,  XXXVI."  Phytologia,  volume  28,  number  4 

(1974),  pages  319-333. 

"Tillandsia  velickeana."  Journal  of  the  Bromeliad  Society,  volume  24, 

number  6  (1974),  page  224. 
Smith,  Lyman  B.,  and  Edward  S.  Ayensu.  "Velloziaceae."  In  Flora  of  Tropical 

East  Africa,  edited  by  R.   M.   Polhill,   pages  1-8.   London:   Crown  Agents, 

Smith,   Lyman    B.,    and    R.    J.    Downs.    "Pitcairnioideae,   Bromeliaceae."    Flora 

Neotropica,  monograph  number  14  (1974),  pages  1-658. 
Smith,   Lyman  B.,  and   Robert   W.   Read.  "Notes  on  Bromeliaceae,   XXXVII." 

Phytologia,  volume  30,  number  5  (1975),  pages  289-303. 
Smith,    Lyman   B.,    Harold    E.    Robinson,    and   Roberto   M.    Klein.    "Hipocra- 

teaceas."   Florula   da   llha   de  Santa   Catarina,   fascicle   HIPO   (1974),   pages 

Solbrig,   Otto   T.,   and   Beryl   B.    Simpson.    "Components   of   Regulation   of  a 

Natural   Population  of  Dandelions   in   Michigan."  Journal   of  Ecology,  vol- 
ume 62  (1974),  pages  473-486. 
Soderstrom,  T.  R.,  and  C.  E.  Calderon.  "Primitive  Forest  Grasses  and  Evolution 

of  the  Bambusoideae."  Biotropica,  volume  6  (1974),  pages  141-153. 
Soderstrom,  T.  R.,  and  J.  E.  Vidal.  "An  Ecological  Study  of  Vegetation  of  the 

Nam  Ngum  Reservoir  (Laos)."  Prepared  for  the  Mekong  Committee  through 

the  Smithsonian  Office  of  Ecology  (xeroxed).  46  pages. 
Stern,  William  Louis.  "The  Bond  Between  Botany  and  Medicine."  Bulletin  of 

the  Pacific  Tropical  Botanical  Garden,  volume  4  (1974),  pages  41-60. 
.   "The   Botanist   as   Sleuth."   Bulletin   of  the   International  Wood  Col- 
lectors Society,  volume  27,  number  7  (1974),  pages  4-9. 

"Comparative    Anatomy    and   Systematics   of   Woody    Saxifragaceae. 

Escallonia."  Botanical  Journal  of  the  Linnean  Society  of  London,  volume  68 
(1974),  pages  1-20. 

"Development   of   the   Amentiferous   Concept."   Brittonia,  volume  25 

(1974),  pages  316-333. 

"Saxifragales."  Encyclopedia  Britannica.  1974,  volume  16,  pages  291- 

Steyermark,  J.  A.,  and  Lyman  B.  Smith.  "A  New  Drosera  from  Venezuela." 

Rhodora,  volume  76,  number  807  (1974),  pages  491-493. 
Terrell,   E.   E.,   and   H.    Robinson.    "Luziolinae,    a    New   Subtribe   of   Oryzoid 

Grasses."  Bulletin  of  the  Torrey  Botanical  Club,  volume  101  (1974),  pages 

Wasshausen,  Dieter  C.  "The  Genus  Aphelandra  (Acanthaceae)."  Smithsonian 

Contributions  to  Botany,  number  18  (1975),  pages  1-157. 
Wetmore,  Ralph  H.,  Elso  5.  Barghoorn,  and  William  Louis  Stern.  "The  Harvard 

University    Wood    Collection    in    the    Rejuvenation    of    Systematic    Wood 

Anatomy."  Taxon,  volume  23  (1974),  pages  739-745. 
Wurdack,  J.  J.  "Notes  on  Brazilian  Polygalaceae."  Phytologia,  volume  28,  num- 
ber 1  (May  1974),  pages  10-14. 
.  "Certamen  Melastomataceis  XXIII."  Phytologia,  volume  28,  number  2 

(October  1974),  pages  135-151. 

Depari^ment  of  Entomology 

Baumann,  Richard  W.  "What  is  Alloperla  imbecilla  (Say)?  Designation  of  a 
Neotype,  and  a  New   Alloperla  from  Eastern  North   America   (Plecoptera: 

382  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Chloroperlidae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington, 
volume  87  (1974),  pages  257-264. 

Baumann,  Richard  W.,  and  Arden  R.  Gaufin.  "Relocation  of  Plecoptera  Type 
Specimens."  Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington, 
volume  76  (1974),  pages  450-451. 

Burger,  John  F.  "Horse  Flies  of  Arizona  IV.  Notes  on  the  Keys  to  the  Adult 
Tabanidae  of  Arizona,  Subfamily  Tabaninae,  Genus  Tabanus  (Diptera). 
Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  77  (1975), 
pages  15-33. 

Clarke,  J.  F.  Gates.  "The  National  Collection  of  Lepidoptera."  Journal  of  the 
Lepidopterists'  Society,  volume  28  (1975),  pages  181-204. 

Davis,  Donald  R.  "A  New  Species  of  Paraclemensia  from  Europe  with  Com- 
ments on  the  Distribution  and  Speciation  of  the  Genus  (Lepidoptera:  In- 
curvariidae)."  Alexanor,  volume  8  (1974),  pages  342-348,  12  figures. 

.  "Two  New  Species  of  Bagworm  Moths  from  Venezuela  with  Special 

Remarks  on  Reproductive  Morphology  in  Psychidae  (Lepidoptera:  Psy- 
chidae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  volume 
77  (1975),  pages  66-77. 

Duckworth,  W.  Donald,  and  Thomas  D.  Eichlin.  "Clearwing  Moths  of  Aus- 
tralia and  New  Zealand  (Lepidoptera:  Sesiidae)."  Smithsonian  Contributions 
to  Zoology,  number  180  (1974),  45  pages. 

Erwin,  Terry  L.  "The  Genus  Coptocarpus  Chaudoir  of  the  Australian  Region 
with  Notes  on  Related  African  Species  (Coleoptera:  Carabidae:  Oodini)." 
Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  184  (1974),  pages  1-25. 

.   "Studies   of   the   Subtribe   Tachyina    (Coleoptera:   Carabidae:   Bembi- 

diini).  Part  II:  A  Revision  of  the  New  World-Australian  Genus  Pericompsus 
LeConte."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  162  (1974),  pages 

"Studies   of   the   Subtribe  Tachyina    (Coleoptera:   Carabidae:   Bembi- 

diini)  Supplement  A:  Lectotype  Designations  for  New  World  Species,  Two 
New  Genera,  and  Notes  on  Generic  Concepts."  Proceedings  of  the  Entomo- 
logical Society  of  Washington,  volume  76,  number  2  (1974),  pages  123- 

[Review]  Surtsey,  Iceland:  The  Development  of  a  New  Fauna,  1963- 

1970,  Terrestrial  Invertebrates,  by  Carl  H.  Lindroth,  Hugo  Anderson,  Hogni 
Bodvarsson,  and  Sigurdur  H.  Richter.  Entomologica  Scandinavica,  Suppl.  5, 
1973.  Copenhagen,  Denmark:  Munksgaard,  International  Booksellers  and 
Publishers  Ltd. 

Field,  William  D.  "Ctenuchid  Moths  of  Ceramidia  Butler,  Ceramidiodes  Hamp- 
son  and  the  Caca  Species  Group  of  Antichloris  Hiibner."  Smithsonian 
Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  198  (1975),  45  pages. 

Flint,  Oliver  S.,  Jr.  "The  Genus  Culoptila  in  the  United  States  with  Two  New 
Combinations  (Trichoptera:  Glossosmatidae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Ento- 
mological Society  of  Washington,  volume  76  (1974),  page  284. 

.  "Studies  of  Neotropical  Caddisflies,  XV:  The  Trichoptera  of  Surinam." 

Studies  on  the  Fauna  of  Suriname  and  other  Cuyanas,  volume  14  (1974), 
pages  1-151. 

"Studies  of  Neotropical  Caddisflies,  XVII:  The  Genus  Smicridea  from 

North  and  Central  America   (Trichoptera:   Hydropsychidae)."  Smithsonian 
Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  167  (1974),  65  pages. 

"Studies    of    Neotropical    Caddisflies,    XIX:    The    Genus    Cailloma 

(Trichoptera:    Rhyacophilidae)."   Proceedings   of    the    Biological   Society   of 
Washington,  volume  87  (1974),  pages  473-484. 

-.  "Studies  of  Neotropical  Caddisflies,  XX:  Trichoptera  Collected  by  the 

Hamburg   South — Peruvian   Expedition."   Entomologische   Mitteilungen   aus 
dem  Zoologischen  Museum  Hamburg,  volume  4  (1975),  pages  565-573. 
.    [Review]    Trichoptera   (Kocherfliegen),  by  Hans  Malicky,  1973.   Pro- 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  383 

ceedings   of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  87   (1975), 
page  14. 

Froeschner,  Richard  C.  "Heteroptera."  Encyclopedia  Britannica,  fifteenth  edi- 
tion. 1974,  volume  8,  pages  845-853. 

.   "Three  New  Species  of  Burrowing  Bugs  Found  in  Association  with 

Ants  in  Brazil  (Hemiptera:  Cydnidae)."  Journal  of  the  Kansas  Entomological 
Society,  volume  48,  number  1  (1975),  pages  105-110. 

Harrison,  Bruce  A.,  and  J.  M.  Klein.  "A  Revised  List  of  the  Anopheles  of 
Cambodia."  Mospuito  Systematics,  volume  7  (1975),  pages  9-12. 

Harrison,  Bruce  A.,  J.  F.  Reinert,  S.  Sirivanakarn,  Y-M,  Huang,  E.  L.  Peyton, 
and  Botha  de  Meillon.  "Distributional  and  Biological  Notes  on  Mosquitoes 
from  Sri  Lanka  (Ceylon)  (Diptera:  Culicidae)."  Mosquito  Systematics,  vol- 
ume 6  (1974),  pages  142-162. 

Huang,  Yiau-Min.  "Lectotype  Designation  for  Aedes  (Stegomyia)  chemul- 
poensis  Yamada  with  a  Note  on  its  Assignment  to  the  aegypti  Croup  of 
Species  (Diptera:  Culicidae).  Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of 
Washington,  volume  76  (1974),  pages  208-211. 

.   "A  New  Species   of  Aedes  (Stegomyia)   from   the  Andaman  Islands 

(Diptera:  Culicidae)."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  6   (1974),  pages  137- 

"Occurrence  of  Two  Types  of  Gynandromorphism  in  a  Sibling  Series 

of    Aedes    (Stegomyia)    craggi    (Barraud)    (Diptera:    Culicidae)."    Mosquito 
News,  volume  34  (1974),  pages  428-430. 

"A    Redescription    of    Aedes    (Stegomyia)    pseudoscutellaris    (Theo- 

bald) with  a  Note  on  the  Taxonomic  Status  of  Aedes  (Stegomyia)  poly- 
nesiensis  Marks  (Diptera:  Culicidae)."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  7 
(1975),  pages  87-101. 

Hurd,  Paul  D.,  Jr.,  Roland  L.  Fisher,  Kenneth  L.  Knight,  Charles  D.  Michener, 
W.  Wayne  Moss,  Paul  Oman,  and  Jerry  A.  Powell.  "Report  of  the  Ad- 
visory Committee  for  Systematics  Resources  in  Entomology."  Bulletin  of  the 
Entomological  Society  of  America,  volume  20  (1974),  pages  237-242,  1 
figure,  1  table. 

Hurd,  Paul  D.,  Jr.,  and  E.  Gorton  Linsley.  "The  Principal  Larrea  Bees  of  the 
Southwestern  United  States  (Hymenoptera:  Apoidea)."  Smithsonian  Con- 
tributions to  Zoology,  volume  193  (1975),  74  pages,  18  figures,  15  tables. 

.  "Some  Insects  Other  Than  Bees  Associated  with  Larrea  tridentata  in 

the  Southwestern  United  States."  Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society 
of  Washington,  volume  77  (1975),  pages  100-120. 

"The  Status  of  Nomia  mesillensis  Cockerell   (Hymenoptera:  Halicti- 

dae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  76 
(1974),  pages  198-199. 

Krombein,  Karl  V.  "Supplement  to  a  List  of  the  Wasps  of  Gebel  'Uweinat, 
Libyan  Desert  (Hymenoptera:  Aculeata)."  Revue  Zoologique  Africaine,  vol- 
ume 88,  number  2  (1974),  pages  450-452. 

Peyton,  E.  L.  "Uranotaenia  srilankensis,  A  New  Species  of  the  Subgenus 
Pseudoficalhia  from  Sri  Lanka  (Diptera:  Culicidae)."  Mosquito  Systematics, 
volume  6  (1974),  pages  222-227. 

Reinert,  John  F.  "Medical  Entomology  Studies — I.  A  New  Interpretation  of 
the  Subgenus  Verrallina  of  the  Genus  Aedes  (Diptera;  Culicidae)."  Con- 
tributions of  the  American  Entomological  Institute,  volume  II,  number  1 
(1974),  pages  1-249. 

Sirivanakarn,  Sunthorn.  "Redescription  of  Culex  (Culex)  bihamatus  Edwards 
with  a  Discussion  of  its  Affinity."  Mosquito  Systematics,  volume  6  (1974), 
pages  259-262. 

.  "The  Systematics  of  Culex  vishnui  Complex  in  Southeast  Asia  with 

the  Diagnosis  of  Three  Common  Species  (Diptera:  Culicidae)."  Mosquito 
Systematics,  volume  7  (1975),  pages  69-85. 

384  /  Sniithsonian  Year  1975 

Spangler,  Paul  J.  "A  Description  of  the  Larva  of  Hydrobiomorpha  casta 
(Coleoptera:  Hydrophilidae)."  Journal  of  the  Washington  Academy  of 
Sciences,  volume  63,  number  4  (1974),  pages  160-164. 

Ward,  Ronald  A.  "African  Trypanosomiasis."  In  Medical  Entomology,  edited 
by  Vernon  J.  Tipton,  pages  201-214.  Entomological  Society  of  American  and 
Brigham  Young  University,  1974. 

.  [Review]  Insects  and  Disease,  by  Keith  R.  Snow,  1974.  American  So- 
ciety for  Microbiology  News,  volume  41  (1975),  page  252. 

-.    [Review]    Man    Against    Tsetse.    Struggle    for    Africa,    by    John    J. 

McKelvey,  Jr.,  1973.  Bulletin  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  America,  vol- 
ume 20  (1974),  page  208. 

Department  of  Invertebrate  Zoology 

Barnard,  J.  L.  "Evolutionary  Patterns  in  Gammaridean  Amphipoda."  Crusta- 
ceana,  volume  27  (1974),  pages  137-146. 

.    "Identification    of    Gammaridean    Amphipods."    In    Light's    Manual: 

Intertidal  Invertebrates  of  the  Central  California  Coast,  pages  314-352. 
Berkeley:  University  of  California  Press,  1975. 

Bayer,  Frederick  M.  "A  New  Species  of  Trichogorgia  and  Records  of  Two 
Other  Octocorals  New  to  the  Palau  Islands."  Micronesica,  volume  10, 
number  2  (1974),  pages  257-271,  3  plates. 

Bowman,  T.  E.  "The  California  Freshwater  Isopod,  Asellus  tomalensis,  Re- 
discovered and  Compared  with  Asellus  occidentalis.  Hydrobiologia,  volume 
44,  number  4  (1974),  pages  431-441. 

.  "A  New  Genus  and  Species  of  Troglobitic  Cirolanid  Isopod  from  San 

Luis  Potosi,  Mexico."  Occasional  Papers,  The  Museum,  Texas  Tech  Uni- 
versity, volume  27  (1975),  pages  1-7. 

Bowman,  T.  E.,  Peter  W.  Glynn,  and  Deborah  M.  Dexter.  "Excirolana  bra- 
ziliensis,  a  Pan-American  Sand  Beach  Isopod:  Taxonomic  Status,  Zonation 
and  Distribution."  Journal  of  Zoology,  London,  volume  175  (1975),  pages 

Bowman,  T.  E.,  and  Charlotte  Holmquist.  "Asellus  (Asellus)  alaskensis,  n.  sp., 
the  First  Alaskan  Asellus,  with  Remarks  on  its  Asian  Affinities  (Crustacea: 
Isopoda:  Asellidae)."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington, 
volume  88,  number  7  (1975),  pages  59-72. 

Bowman,  T.  E.,  and  Helmut  Kiihne.  "Cymodetta  gambosa,  a  New  Sphaeromatid 
Isopod  (Crustacea)  from  Australia,  with  Notes  on  its  Mating  Behavior." 
Records  of  the  Australian  Museum,  volume  29,  number  9  (1974),  pages 
235-244,  plate  8. 

Bowman,  T.  E.,  and  George  A.  Schultz.  "The  Isopod  Crustacea  Genus  Mun- 
nogonium  George  and  Stromberg,  1968  (Munnidae,  Asellota)."  Proceedings 
of  the  Biological  Sdciety  of  Washington,  volume  87,  number  25  (1974),  pages 

Bowman,  T.  E.,  Austin  B.  Williams,  and  David  M.  Damkaer.  "Distribution, 
Variation  and  Supplemental  Description  of  the  Opossum  Shrimp,  Neo- 
mysis  americana  (Crustacea:  Mysidacea)."  Fishery  Bulletin,  volume  72, 
number  3  (1974),  pages  835-842. 

Chace,  Fenner  A.,  Jr.  "Cave  Shrimps  (Decapoda:  Caridea)  from  the  Do- 
minican Republic."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington, 
volume  88,  number  4  (1975),  pages  29-44,  7  figures. 

Child,  C.  A.  "Hedgpethius  tridentatus,  a  New  Genus  and  New  Species,  and 
Other  Pycnogonida  from  Key  West,  Florida,  U.S.A."  Proceedings  of  the 
Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  87,  number  43  (31  December 
1974),  pages  493-500. 

.  "Pycnogonida  of  Western   Australia."  Smithsonian   Contributions    to 

Zoology,  190  (1975),  pages  1-29,  11  figures. 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  385 

Cressey,  R.  F.  A  New  Family  of  Parasitic  Copepods  (Cyclopoida:  Shiinoidea)." 
Crustaceana,  volume  28,  number  2  (1975),  pages  211-219,  22  figures. 

.  "A  Redistribution  of  Hermilius  pyriventris  Heller  with  the  First  De- 
scription of  the  Male."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Wash- 
ington, volume  87,  number  22  (1974),  pages  235-244. 

Harshbarger,  J.  C,  and  Dawe,  C.  J.  "Neoplasms  in  Feral  Fishes:  Their  Sig- 
nificance to  Cancer  Research."  Chapter  35  in  The  Pathology  of  Fishes, 
edited  by  W.  E.  Ribelin  and  G.  Migaki,  pages  871-894.  Madison:  The  Uni- 
versity of  Wisconsin  Press,  1975. 

.  "Radiation,  Neoplasms,  Carcinogenic  Chemicals,  and  Insects."  Chap- 
ter 8  in  Insect  Diseases,  edited  by  G.  E.  Cantwell,  pages  377-416.  New 
York:  Marcel  Dekker,  Inc.,  1974. 

"Integumentary  Papillomas  and  Carcinomas  in  Fish.  Symposium  No. 

43:  Environmental  Carcinogens  in  Feral  Aquatic  Animals."  In  Abstracts: 
Xlth  International  Cancer  Congress,  Florence,  [Italy],  20-26  October  1974, 
volume  1,  pages  218-219.  Milan:  Casa  Editrice  Ambrosiana,  1974. 

-.  "The  Study  of  Invertebrate  and  Poikilothermic  Vertebrate  Neoplasms 

by  the  Registry  of  Tumors  in  Lower  Animals."  Bulletin  of  the  Society  of 
Pharmacology  and  Environmental  Pathology,  volume  2,  number  3  (1974), 
pages  10-14. 

Hart,  C.  W.,  Jr.  The  Ostracod  Family  Entocytheridae.  The  Academy  of  Nat- 
ural Sciences  of  Philadelphia,  Monograph  18.  1974,  239  pages,  49  text 
figures,  62  plates. 

.  Ostracoda:  Podocopa:  Entocytheridae."  Crustaceorum  Catalogus  (Den 

Haag).  1975,  part  4,  pages  1-64. 

-.  "Surface  Water  Pollution  Surveys."  In  Environmental  Engineers  Hand- 

book,  edited   by   Bela   G.    Liptak,   volume    1,   pages    244-253.    Philadelphia: 
Chilton  Co.,  1974. 

Hart,  C.  W.,  and  Samuel  L.  H.  Fuller,  editors.  Pollution  Ecology  of  Freshwater 
Invertebrates.  New  York:  Academic  Press,  Inc.,  1974,  389  pages. 

Hobbs,  Horton  H.,  Jr.  "A  Checklist  of  the  North  and  Middle  American  Cray- 
fishes (Decapoda:  Astacidae  and  Cambaridae)."  Smithsonian  Contributions 
to  Zoology,  166  (1974).  161  pages,  294  figures. 

.  "Crayfishes  (Decapoda:  Astacidae)."  In  Pollution  Ecology  of  Fresh- 
water Invertebrates,  by  C.  W.  Hart,  Jr.,  and  S.  L.  H.  Fuller,  pages  195-214. 
New  York:  Academic  Press,  1974. 

"New   Entocytherid    Ostracods    from    Tennessee    with    a    Key    to    the 

Species  of  the  Genus  Ascetocythere."  Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society 
of  Washington,  volume  88,  number  2  (1975),  pages  5-20,  2  figures. 

Hope,  W.  Duane.  "Nematoda."  In  Reproduction  of  Marine  Invertebrates,  by 
A.  C.  Giese  and  J.  S.  Pearse,  volume  1,  pages  391-469.  New  York:  Aca- 
demic Press  Inc.,  pages  391-469. 

.  "Deontostoma  timmerchioi  n.  sp.,  a  New  Marine  Numatode   (Lepto- 

somatidae)  from  Antarctica,  with  a  Note  on  the  Structure  and  Possible 
Function  of  the  Ventromedian  Supplement."  Transactions  of  the  American 
Microscopical  Society,  volume  93,  number  3  (1974),  pages  314-324. 

Jones,  M.  L.  "On  the  Caobangiidae,  a  New  Family  of  the  Polychaeta,  with  a 
Redescription  of  Caohangia  billeti  Giard."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to 
Zoology,  Number  175  (1974),  55  pages,  25  figures,  11  plates. 

.  "Brandtika  asiatica  New  Genus,  New  Species,  from  Southeastern  Asia 

and  a  Redescription  of  Monroika  africana  (Monro)  (Polychaeta:  Sabellidae)." 
Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  87  (1974), 
pages  217-230,  4  figures. 

.  "Gatun  Lake  as  a  Freshwater  Barrier  in  the  Panama  Canal."  [Ab- 
stract]. Bulletin  of  the  American  Malacological  Union  for  1973  (1974), 
page  46. 

386  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Kenk,  R.  "Index  of  the  Genera  and  Species  of  the  Freshwater  Triclads  (Tur- 
bellaria)  of  the  World."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  No.  183 
(1975),  80  pages. 

.   "Phagocata   cornuta    Shishkov,   1903    (Platyhelminthes:    Turbellaria) : 

Request  for  Suppression  under  the  Plenary  Powers  Z.N.(S.)  2055."  Bulletin 
of  Zoological  Nomenclature,  volume  31,  number  1   (1974),  pages  62-63. 

"Flatworms    (Platyhelminthes:   Tricladida)."   In   Pollution   Ecology   of 

Freshwater  Invertebrates,  edited  by  C.  W.  Hart  and  Samuel   L.   H.   Fuller, 
pages  67-80.  New  York  and  London:  Academic  Press,  1974. 

Kornicker,  Louis  5.  "Ostracoda  (Myodocopina)  of  Cape  Cod  Bay,  Massachu- 
setts." Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  Number  173  (1974),  20  pages, 
11  figures. 

.  "Revision  of  the  Cypridinacea  of  the  Gulf  of  Naples   (Ostracoda)." 

Smithsonian   Contributions   to  Zoology,  Number   178    (1974),   64   pages,   26 

"Spread  of  Ostracodes  to  Exotic  Environs  on  Transplanted  Oysters." 

In  Biology  and  Paleobiology  of  Ostracoda,  Paleontological  Research  Institu- 
tion, pages  129-139,  3  figures.  Ithaca,  New  York,  1975. 

Kornicker,  Louis  S.,  and  F.  E.  Caraion.  "West  African  Myodocopid  Ostracoda 
(Cylindroleberididae)."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  Number  179 
(1974),  78  pages,  43  figures. 

Muzik,  Katherine  M.  and  Frederick  M.  Bayer.  "Rediscovery  of  Biological 
Treasures."  Sea  Frontiers,  volume  21,  number  2  (1975),  pages  110-120. 

Pawson,  David  L.  "Echinoderms."  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  fifteenth  edition. 
1974,  volume  6,  pages  178-186. 

Perez  Farfante,  Isabel.  "Range  Extension  of  Penaeus  (Litopenaeus)  occidentalis 
Streets,  1871  (Decapoda:  Penaeidae)  into  the  Golfo  de  Tehuantepec."  Crus- 
taceana,  volume  27,  number  3  (1974),  pages  316-319,  1  figure. 

Rehder,  H.  A.  "Marine  Biological  Research  in  Southeastern  Polynesia.  Na- 
tional Geographic  Society  Research  Reports,  1967  Projects,  (1974),  pages 
243-254,  5  figures. 

.  "Comment  on  the  Request  for  the  Designation  of  a  Type-Species  of 

Tutufa  Jousseaume,  1881.  Z.N.(S.)  2021."  Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomencla- 
ture, volume  31,  number  1  (1974),  pages  11-12. 

Rehder,  H.  A.,  and  J.  E.  Randall.  "Ducie  Atoll:  Its  History,  Physiography  and 
Biota."  Atoll  Research  Bulletin,  No.  183  (1975),  40  pages,  29  figures. 

Rice,  M.  "Gametogenesis  in  Three  Species  of  Sipuncula:  Phascolosoma  agas- 
sizii,  Colfingia  pugettensis,  and  Themiste  pyroides."  La  Cellule,  volume  70, 
numbers  2  and  3  (1974),  pages  295-313,  7  plates. 

.    "Sipuncula."    In    Reproduction    in    Marine    Invertebrates,    edited    by 

Giese  and  Pearse,  volume  2.  Academic  Press,  1975. 

"Unsegmented  Coelomate  Worms:   Sipuncula,  Echiura,  Priapula."  In 

Light's  Manual  of  Intertidal  Invertebrates  of  the  Coast  of  California,  edited 
by  R.  I.  Smith,  revised  edition.  University  of  California  Press:  1975. 

Roper,  C.  F.  E.  "The  Shell  in  Cephalopod  Phylogeny."  [Abstract]  Bulletin  of 
the  American  Malacological  Union,  vol.  40  (1975),  pages  71-72. 

Rosewater,  J.  "An  Annotated  List  of  the  Marine  Mollusks  of  Ascension  Is- 
land, South  Atlantic  Ocean."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  189 
(1975),  41  pages,  24  figures. 

.   1975.   "Mollusks   of  Gatun   Locks,   Panama   Canal."   Bulletin    of   the 

American  Malacological  Union  for  1974  (1975),  pages  42-43. 

Ruetzler,  Klaus.  "The  Burrowing  Sponges  of  Bermuda."  Smithsonian  Con- 
tributions to  Zoology,  165  (1974),  32  pages,  26  figures. 

.  "The  Role  of  Burrowing  Sponges  in  Bioerosion."  Oecologia  (Berlin), 

volume  19  (1975),  pages  203-216. 

Sohn,  I.  G.  and  L.  S.  Kornicker.  "Variation  in  Predation  Behavior  of  Ostra- 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  387 

code  Species  on  Schistosomiasis  Vector  Snails."  In  Biology  and  Paleobiology 

of  Ostracoda,  Paleontological  Research  Institution.  Ithaca,  New  York  (1975), 

pages  217-223,  2  figures. 
Villalobos,  Alejandro  and  Horton  H.  Hobbs,  Jr.  "Three  New  Crustaceans  from 

La   Media   Luna,   San   Luis   Potosi,   Mexico."   Smithsonian   Contributions    to 

Zoology,  174  (1974),  18  pages,  8  figures. 
Williams,  Austin  B.  "A  New  Species  of  Hypsophrys  [Decapoda:  Homolidae] 

from  the  Straits  of  Florida  with  Notes  on  Related  Crabs."  Proceedings  of 

The  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  87,  number  42  (1974),  pages 

485-492,  12  figures. 
.  "The  Swimming  Crabs  of  the  Genus  Callinectes  [Decapoda:  Portuni- 

dae]."   Fishery   Bulletin,   volume    72,   number   3    (1974),    pages    685-798,    27 


-.   "Two  New  Axiids    [Crustacea:   Decapoda:   Thalassinidea:    Calocaris] 

from  North  Carolina  and  the  Straits  of  Florida."  Proceedings  of  the  Bio- 
logical Society  of  Washington,  volume  87,  number  39  (1974),  pages  451-464, 
18  figures. 
Williams,  Austin  B.,  T.  E.  Bowman  and  D.  M.  Damkaer.  "Distribution,  Varia- 
tion, and  Supplemental  Description  of  the  Opossum  Shrimp,  Neomysis 
americana  [Crustacea:  Mysidacea]."  Fishery  Bulletin,  volume  72,  number  3 
(1974),  pages  835-842,  5  figures. 

Department  of  Mineral  Sciences 

Appleman,  D.   E.  "Sedimentary   Carbonate   Minerals,"   [Review],   Bulletin   of 

American   Association   of  Petroleum   Geologists,   volume   59    (1975),   pages 

Dunn,  P.  J.  "Chromian  Spinel  Inclusions   in  American  Peridots,"  Zeitschrift 

filr  Cemmologische  Gesellschaft,  volume  23,  number  4   (1974),  pages  304- 

.  "Elbaite  from  Newry,  Maine,"   The  Mineralogical  Record,  volume  6, 

number  1  (1975),  pages  22-25. 

-.   "Emeralds    in   the    Smithsonian,"    The   Lapidary   Journal,   volume    28, 

number  10  (1975),  pages  1572-1575. 

"Gem  Spodumene  and  Achroite  Tourmaline  from  Afghanistan,"  The 

Journal  of  Gemmology,  volume  14,  number  4  (1974),  pages  170-174. 

"Guest  Editorial:  On  Guest  Speakers  and  Courtesy,"  The  Mineralogi- 

cal Record,  volume  5,  number  3  (1974),  page  102. 

"Inclusions   in   Beryllonite   from   Stoneham,   Maine,"    The   Journal   of 

Gemmology,  volume  14,  number  5  (1975),  pages  208-212. 

"Inclusions  of  Albite  and  Phenakite  in  Gem  Topaz  from  the  Tarryall 

Mountains,  Colorado,"  Gems  and  Gemology,  volume  14,  number  11  (1974), 
pages  337-340. 

"Personality   Sketch:    C.    Wroe    Wolfe,"    The    Mineralogical    Record, 

volume  6,  number  1,  page  13. 

.  "Personality  Sketch:  John  Stewart,"  Rocks  and  Minerals,  April  1975. 

-.  "Wroewolfeite,  a  New  Copper  Sulfate  Hydroxide  Hydrate,"  Minera- 

logical Magazine,  volume  40  (1975),  pages  1-5. 
Fredriksson,  Kurt,  A.   Dube,  E.  Jarosewich,  J.   Nelen   and   A.   Noonan.   "The 

Pulsora  Anomaly:  A  Case  Against  Metamorphic  Equilibration  in  Chodrites." 

Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Earth  Sciences,  no.  14  (1975),  pages  44-53. 
Fredriksson,  Kurt,  J.  Nelen  and  A.  Noonan.  "Al-Ca  Rich  Chodrules   in   the 

Coolidge  Chondrite"   [Abstract],  Meteoritics,  volume  9   (1974),  pages  384- 

Fredriksson,   Kurt,   A.    Noonan,   and   J.    Nelen.    "The   Bhola    Stone — A    True 

Polymict  Breccia"  [Abstract],  Meteoritics,  volume  9  (1974),  pages  338-339. 

388  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Fudali,  Robert  F.  and  A.  Noonan.  "Gobabeb,  a  New  Chondrite  from  SW 
Africa:  The  Coexistence  of  Equilibrated  Silicates  and  Unequilibrated 
Spinels,"  Meteoritics,  volume  10,  number  1    (1975),  pages  31-39. 

Jarosewich,  E.,  R.  H.  Gibbs,  Jr.,  and  H.  L.  Windom.  "Heavy  Metal  Concentra- 
tion in  Museum  Fish  Specimens:  Effect  on  Preservatives  and  Time,"  Science, 
volume  160  (1974),  pages  457-477. 

Jarosewich,  E.,  and  G.  R.  Levi-Donati.  "The  Mills  New  Mexico  Chondrite — A 
New  Find,"  Meteoritics,  number  2  (1974),  pages  145-156. 

Mason,  Brian  H.  'Aluminum-Titanium-Rich  Pyroxenes,  with  Special  Reference 
to  the  AUende  Meteorite,"  American  Mineralogist,  volume  59  (1974),  pages 

.    "Compositional    Limits    of    Wollastonite    and    Bustamite,"    American 

Mineralogist,  volume  60  (1975),  pages  209-212. 

"Elements,   Geochemical    Distribution    of."    Encyclopedia    Britannica, 

fifteenth  edition.  1974,  volume  6,  pages  700-713. 

-.  "Notes  on  Australian  Meteorites,"  Records  of  the  Australian  Museum, 

volume  29  (1974),  pages  169-186. 
Mason,  Brian  H.,  and  P.  J.  Dunn.  "An  Unusual  Occurrence  of  Bobierrite  at 

Wodgina,  Western  Australia,"  Mineralogical  Record,  volume  5  (1974),  page 

Mason,   Brian   H.,   and   E.    P.    Henderson.    "Australian   Meteorite   Expedition, 

1967,"  National  Geographic  Society  Research  Reports,  1967  Projects  (1974), 

pages  158-159. 
Mason,  Brian  H.,  S.  Jacobson,  J.  A.  Nelen,  W.  G.  Melson,  T.  Simkin  and  G. 

Thompson.  "Regolith  Compositions  from  the  Apollo  17  Mission,"  Proceed- 
ings of  the  Fifth  Luriar  Science  Conference   (1974),  volume  1,  pages  879- 

Mason,  Brian  H.,  and  P.  M.  Martin.  "Major  and  Trace  Elements  in  the  Allende 

Meteorite,"  Nature,  volume  249  (1974),  pages  333-334. 
Melson,  W.  G.,  et  al.  "Deep  Sea  Drilling  Project:  Leg  37 — The  Volcanic  Layer," 

Ceotimes,  pages  16-18. 
Moreland,  G.,  R.  Johnson  and  M.  Goodway.  "An  Improved  Technique  for  the 

Presentation  of  Polished  Metallurgical  Sections,"  Metallography,  volume  8, 

number  5  (1975). 
Noonan,  A.  F.  "The  Clovis  (no.  1),  New  Mexico,  Meteorite  and  Ca,  Al  and 

Ti-Rich  Inclusions  in  Ordinary  Chondrites,"  Meteoritics,  volume  10  (1974), 

pages  51-60. 
.    "Glass    Particles    and    Shock    Features    in    the    Bununu    Howardite," 

Meteoritics,  volume  9  (1974),  pages  233-242. 
Noonan,  A.  F.,  R.  L.  Methot,  E.  Jarosewich,  and  A.  A.  DeGasparis.  "The  Isna 

Meteorite — A   C3   Find  From   Egypt,"   Meteoritics,   volume   9    (1974),   pages 

Noonan,   A.   F.,   R.   S.   Rajan   and   A.    A.    Chodos.   "Microprobe   Analyses    of 

Glassy   Particles   from   Howardites,"   Meteoritics,   volume   9    (1974),    pages 

Simkin,  T.,  and  J.  Filson.  "An  Application  of  a  Stochastic  Model  to  a  Vol- 
canic Earthquake  Swarm,"  Bulletin  and  Seismological  Record  of  America, 

volume  65  (1975),  pages  351-358. 
Simkin,  T.,  P.  T.  Taylor,  D.  J.  Stanley,  and  W.  Jahn,  "Gilliss  Seamount:  De- 
tailed Bathymetry  and  Modification  by  Bottom  Currents,"  Marine  Geology, 

volume  18  (1975). 
Switzer,  G.  S.  "Memorial   to  Victor  Ben   Meen,"   The   Geological  Society   of 

America,  3  pages.  1974. 
.   "Some   Famous   Jewels   and   their   History,"   In    The    Great   Book    of 

Jewels,  by  Ernst  A.  and  Jean  Heiniger,  pages  281-307.  New  York  Graphic 

Society  of  Boston,  1974. 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  389 

.  "Levyne-Offretite  Intergrowths  from  Basalt  near  Beech  Creek,  Grant 

County,  Oregon,"  American  Mineralogist,  volume  59  (1974),  pages  837-842. 

White,  John  C,  Jr.  "Collecting  Minerals,"  Encyclopedia  of  Earth  Science, 

.  "Encyclopedia  of  Minerals"  [Book  Review]  Mineralogical  Record. 

.  "Gemstone  and  Mineral  Data  Book"  [Review]  American  Scientist. 

.  editor  and  publishor,  Mineralogical  Record  (bimonthly  record). 

,  editor  and  publishor.  "Glossary  of  Mineral  Species,  1975." 

Department  of  Paleobiology 

Adey,  W.  H.,  Tomiataro  Masaki,  and  Hidetsuga  Akiota.  "Ezo  epiyessoense, 
a  New  Parasitic  Genus  and  Species  of  Corallinaceae."  Phycologia,  volume 
13  (1974),  pages  329-344. 

Banks,  H.  P.,  5.  Leclercq,  and  F.  M.  Huebner.  "Anatomy  and  Morphology  of 
Psilophyton  dawsonii,  sp.  n.,  from  the  Late  Lower  Devonian  of  Quebec 
(Gaspe),  and  Ontario,  Canada."  Paleontographica  Americana,  number  48 
(1975),  pages  77-127. 

Barnard,  L.  A.,  I.  G.  Macintyre,  and  J.  W.  Pierce.  "Tropical  Coral  Reefs:  Non- 
Carbonate  Detrital  Indicator."  Nature,  volume  252,  number  5480  (1974), 
pages  219-220. 

Benson,  R.  H.  "Preliminary  Report  on  the  Ostracodes  of  Leg  24:  Deep  Sea 
Drilling  Project  Initial  Reports."  hiitial  Reports  of  the  Deep  Sea  Drilling 
Project,  volume  24  (1974),  pages  1037-1043. 

.  "The  Origin  of  the  Psychrosphere  as  Recorded  in  Changes  of  Deep- 

Sea  Ostracode  Assemblages."  Lethaia,  volume  8,   number   1    (1975),   pages 

-.  "Morphologic  Stability  in  Ostracoda."  In  Biology  and  Paleobiology  of 

Ostracoda,  Symposium  University  of  Delaware,  1972,  edited  by  F.  M.  Swain, 
687  pages.  Bulletins  of  American  Paleontology,  volume  65,  number  282 

Benson,  R.  H.,  and  Guilliano  Ruggieri.  "The  End  of  the  Miocene,  a  Time  of 
Crisis  in  Tethys-Mediterranean  History."  Annals  of  the  Geological  Survey 
of  Egypt,  volume  4  (1974),  pages  237-250. 

Boardman,  R.  S.  "Taxonomic  Characters  for  Phylogenetic  Classification  of 
Cyclostane  Bryozoa."  In  Bryozoa — 1975:  Proceedings  of  the  Third  Inter- 
national Bryozoology  Association  Conference,  Lyon,  France,  edited  by  L. 
David.  Document  Laboratorie  Geologique,  Faculte  des  Science,  1975. 

Buzas,  M.  A.  "Vertical  Distribution  of  Ammohaculites  in  the  Rhode  River, 
Maryland."  Journal  of  Foraminiferal  Research,  volume  4,  number  3  (1974), 
pages  144-147. 

Cheetham,  A.  H.  "Taxonomic  Significance  of  Autozooid  Size  and  Shape  in 
Some  Early  Multiserial  Cheilostomes  from  the  Gulf  Coast  of  the  United 
States."  In  Bryozoa — 1975:  Proceedings  of  the  Third  International  Bryo- 
zoology Association  Conference,  Lyon,  France,  edited  by  L.  David,  12  pages, 
3  plates.  Document  Laboratorie  Geologique,  Faculte  des   Science,  1975. 

Cifelli,  R.  "Planktonic  Foraminifera  from  the  Mediterranean  and  Adjacent 
Atlantic  Waters  (Cruise  49  of  the  Atlantis  II,  1969)."  Journal  of  Foramini- 
feral Research,  volume  4,  number  4  (1974),  pages  171-183. 

Cifelli,  R.,  and  R.  K.  Smith.  "Distributional  Patterns  of  Planktonic  Foramini- 
fera in  the  Western  North  Atlantic."  Journal  of  Foraminiferal  Research, 
volume  4,  number  3  (1974),  pages  112-125. 

Colquhoun,  D.  J.,  J.  W.  Pierce,  and  D.  Comer.  "Nature  of  Estuarian  Deposits, 
Atlantic  Coast  of  North  America."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Symposium  on 
International  Relations  of  Estuarine  and  Continental  Shelf  Sedimentation, 
pages  247-252.  Memoires  de  I'Institut  de  Ceologie  du  Bassin  d'  Aquitaine, 
number  7  (1974). 

390  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Dahl,  A.  L.,  I.  G.  Macintyre,  and  A.  Antonius.  "A  Comparative  Survey  of 
Coral  Reef  Research  Sites."  Atoll  Research  Bulletin,  volume  172  (1974), 
pages  37-120. 

Got,  H.,  and  D.  J.  Stanley.  "Sedimentation  in  Two  Catalonian  Canyons, 
Northwestern  Mediterranean."  Marine  Geology,  volume  16,  number  10 
(1974),  pages  M91-M100. 

Grant,  R.  E.  "Methods  and  Conclusions  in  Functional  Analysis:  A  Reply." 
Lethaia,  volume  8,  number  1  (1975),  pages  31-33. 

Hickey,  L.  J.  "Classification  de  la  Arquitectura  de  las  Hojas  de  Dicotiladoneas." 
Boletin  de  la  Sociednd  Argentina  de  Botanica,  volume  16  (1974),  pages  1-26. 

.  "Earth  Science  in  the  New  Exhibits  Program  at  the  Smithsonian  Insti- 
tution." [Abstract]  Geological  Society  of  Ainerica  Abstracts  with  Programs, 
volume  7,  number  6  (1975),  p.  782. 

"Foliar  Venation."  In  Vascular  Plant  Systeniatics,  edited  by  A.  E.  Rad- 

ford et  al.,  pages  192-198.  New  York:  Harper  and  Row,  1974. 

Hotton,  Nicholas,  III.  "A  New  Dicynodont  (Reptilia,  Therapsida)  from  Cyno- 
gnathus  Zone  Deposits  of  South  Africa."  Annals  of  the  South  African 
Museum,  volume  64  (1974),  pages  157-165,  2  plates. 

Huang,  T.  C,  and  D.  J.  Stanley.  "Current  Reversal  at  10,000  Years  B.  P.  at 
the  Strait  of  Gibraltar — A  Discussion."  Marine  Geology,  volume  17,  number 
1  (1974),  pages  M1-M7. 

Kauffman,  E.  G.  "Cretaceous  Assemblages,  Communities,  and  Associations; 
Western  Interior  United  States  and  Caribbean  Islands."  In  Principles  of 
Benthic  Community  Analysis:  Sedimenta  IV,  edited  by  A.  M.  Ziegler  et  al., 
pages  12.1-12.27.  University  of  Miami  Comparative  Sedimentology  Labora- 
tories, 1974. 

.    "Evolution    of    Western    Interior    Cretaceous    Paleocommunities    and 

Faunal  Associations."  [Abstract]  American  Association  of  Petroleum 
Geologists  and  Society  of  Economic  Paleontologists  and  Mineralogists 
(Rocky  Mountain  Section)  Abstracts  with  Programs,  1975,  page  18. 

-.    "A   New   Look    at    Biostratigraphy."    [Abstract]    Proceedings    of    the 

Western  Interuniversities  Geological  Conference,  1974,  pages   1-3. 

Kauffman,  E.  G.,  and  B.  Runnegar.  "Atomodesma  (Bivalvia),  and  Permian 
Species  of  the  United  States."  Journal  of  Paleontology,  volume  49,  number 
1  (1974),  pages  23-51. 

Kauffman,  E.  G.,  and  R.  W.  Scott.  "Basic  Concepts  of  Community  and  Paleo- 
ecology."  [Abstract]  Geological  Society  of  American  Abstracts  with  Pro- 
grams, volume  7,  number  6  (1974),  pages  815-816. 

Kelling,  G.,  H.  Sheng,  and  D.  J.  Stanley.  "Mineralogic  Composition  of  Sand- 
Sized  Sediment  on  the  Outer  Margin  off  the  Mid-Atlantic  States:  Assess- 
ment of  the  Influence  on  the  Ancestral  Hudson  and  Other  Fluvial  Systems." 
Geological  Society  of  America  Bulletin,  volume  86,  number  6  (1975),  pages 

Kelling,  G.,  and  D.  J.  Stanley.  "Sedimentation  in  Canyon,  Slope,  and  Base-of- 
Slope  Environments."  In  The  Neiv  Concepts  of  Continental  Margin  Sedi- 
mentation, II,  edited  by  D.  J.  Stanley  and  D.  P.  J.  Swift,  pages  741-855. 
Washington,  D.  C. :  American  Geological  Institute,  1974. 

Macintyre,  I.  G.  Report  of  the  Harbor  Branch  Coral-Reef  Workshop.  Link 
Port,  Florida,  1974,  101  pages. 

.   "A   Diver-Operated   Drill   for   Coring   Submerged   Substrates."   Atoll 

Research  Bulletin,  volume  185  (1974),  pages  21-26. 

-.  "Some  Aspects  of  Recent  Coral-Reef  Geological  Research."  In  Recent 

Advances  in  Carbonate  Studies,  edited  by  L.  C.  Gerhard  and  H.  G.  Multer, 
50  pages.   Special  Publication  6,  West  Indies   Laboratory.   St.   Croix,  U.   S. 
Virgin  Islands,  1974. 
Macintyre,   I.   G.,   and   P.    W.   Glynn.    "Internal   Structure    and   Development 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  391 

Stages  of  a  Modern  Caribbean  Fringe  Reef,  Galeta  Point,  Panama."  In 
Proceedings  of  the  7th  Caribbean  Geological  Conference,  Guadeloupe, 
July  1-5,  1974. 

Macintyre,  I.  G.,  and  S.  V.  Smith.  "X-radiographic  Studies  of  Skeletal  De- 
velopment in  Coral  Colonies."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Second  International 
Coral  Reef  Symposium,  Great  Barrier  Reef  Committee,  pages  277-287. 
Brisbane,  1974. 

Macintyre,  I.  G.,  S.  V.  Smith,  and  J.  C.  Zieman.  "Carbon  Flux  Through  a 
Coral  Reef  Ecosystem:  A  Conceptual  Model."  journal  of  Geology,  volume 
82  (1974),  pages  161-171. 

Pierce,  J.  W.,  D.  J.  Colquhoun,  and  D.  D.  Nelson.  "Suspended  Sediment 
Effluent  from  Charleston  Harbor."  In  Proceedings  of  the  Symposiwn  on 
International  Relations  of  Estuarine  and  Continental  Shelf  Sedimentation, 
edited  by  G.  P.  Allen,  pages  95-102.  Memoires  de  I'Institut  de  Geologic  du 
Bassin  d'  Aquitaine,  number  7  (1974),  pages  95-102. 

Pierce,  J.  W.,  J.  B.  Southard,  and  D.  J.  Stanley.  "Shelf  Break  Processes  and 
Suspended  Sediment  Transport  on  the  Outer  Continental  Margin."  In  The 
New  Concepts  of  Continental  Margin  Sedimentation,  II,  edited  by  D.  J. 
Stanley,  and  D.  P.  J.  Swift,  pages  639-740.  Washington,  D.  C. :  American 
Geological  Institute,  1974. 

Roberts,  W.  P.,  and  J.  W.  Pierce.  "Sediment  Yield  in  the  Patuxent  River  (Md.) 
Undergoing  Urbanization,  1968-1969."  Sedimentary  Geology,  volume  12 
(1974),  pages  179-197. 

Rupke,  N.  A.,  and  D.  J.  Stanley.  "Distinctive  Properties  of  Turbiditic  and 
Hemipelagic  Mud  Layers  in  the  Algero-Balearic,  Western  Mediterranean." 
Smithsonian   Contributions   to  Earth  Science,  number  13   (1975),  40  pages. 

Rupke,  N.  A.,  D.  J.  Stanley,  and  R.  Stuckenrath.  "Late  Quaternary  Rates  of 
Abyssal  Mud  Deposition  in  the  Western  Mediterranean  Sea."  Marine 
Geology,  volume  17,  number  2  (1974),  pages  M9-M16. 

So,  C.  L.,  J.  W.  Pierce,  and  F.  R.  Siegel.  "Sand  Waves  in  the  Gulf  of  San 
Matias,  Argentina."  Ceografiska  Annaler,  volume  56,  series  A  (1974),  pages 

Sohl,  N.  F.,  E.  G.  Kauffman,  and  A.  G.  Coates.  "Macrofossil  Biostratigraphy 
and  Correlation  of  the  Jamaican  and  Puerto  Rican  Cretaceous  Succession." 
[Abstract]  7th  Carrihbean  Geological  Conference,  Recueil  des  Resumes  de 
Communications,  1974,  p.  64. 

Stanley,  D.  J.  "Suspended  Sediment  at  the  Shelf-Break  and  on  the  Slope, 
Wilmington  Canyon  off  Delaware  Bay."  National  Geographic  Society  Re- 
search Reports,  1967  Projects  (1974),  pages  271-275. 

Stanley,  D.  J.,  G.  Kelling,  J.  A.  Vera,  and  H.  Sheng.  "Sands  in  the  Alboran 
Sea:  A  Model  of  Input  in  a  Deep  Marine  Basin."  Smithsonian  Contributions 
to  Earth  Science,  number  15  (1975),  51  pages,  23  figures,  8  tables. 

Stanley,  D.  J.,  F.  W.  Mc  Coy,  and  L.  Diester-Haass.  "Balearic  Abyssal  Plain: 
An  Example  of  Modern  Basin  Plain  Deformation  by  Salt  Tectonism." 
Marine  Geology,  volume  17,  number  3  (1974),  pages  183-200. 

Urbanek,  Adam,  and  K.  M.  Towe.  "Ultrastructural  Studies  on  Graptolites,  2: 
The  Periderm  and  its  Derivatives  in  the  Graptoloidea."  Smithsonian  Con- 
tributions to  Paleobiology,  number  22  (1975),  24  pages,  24  plates. 

Department  of  Vertebrate  Zoology 

All,  Salim,  and  S.  Dillon  Ripley.  "Flowerpeckers  to  Buntings."  Handbook  of 
the  Birds  of  India  and  Pakistan,  volume  10.  Bombay,  London  &  New  York: 
Oxford  University  Press,  1974. 

Allen,  Gerald  R.,  and  Victor  G.  Springer.  "Amphiprion  calliops  Schultz,  a 
Junior  Synonym  of  the  Red  Saddleback  Anemonefish  Amphiprion  ephippium 

392  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

(Bloch)."  Tropical  Fish  Hobbyist,  volume  23   (April   1975),  pages   53-57,  4 
figures,  1  table. 

Ash,  John  S.  "The  Boran  Cisticola  in  Ethiopia."  Bulletin  of  the  British  Orni- 
thologists' Club,  volume  94,  number  1   (20  March  1974),  pages  24-26. 

Ash,  John  5.,  and  J.  F.  Monk.  "K.  D.  Smith."  [Obituary].  The  Ibis,  volume  116, 
number  2  (April  1974),  pages  235-236. 

Benson,  G.  W.,  H.  H.  Beamish,  C.  Jouanin,  J.  Salvan,  and  G.  E.  Watson.  "The 
Birds  of  the  lies  Glorieuses."  Atoll  Research  Bulletin,  number  176  (15  Jan- 
uary 1975),  pages  1-34. 

Delacour,  Jean,  and  S.  Dillon  Ripley.  "Description  of  a  New  Subspecies  of 
White-fronted  Goose  Anser  albifrons."  American  Mtiseum  hlovitates, 
number  2565  (1975),  4  pages. 

Divoky,  George  J.,  James  C.  Bartonek,  and  George  E.  Watson.  "The  Breeding 
of  the  Black  Guillemot  in  Northern  Alaska."  The  Condor,  volume  76  (25 
September  1974),  pages  339-343. 

Fink,  William  L.,  and  Stanley  H.  Weitzman.  "The  So-called  Cheirodontin 
Fishes  of  Central  America  with  Descriptions  of  Two  New  Species  (Pisces: 
Characidae)."  Sfnithsonia^^  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  172  (4  Sep- 
tember 1974),  46  pages,  26  figures,  15  tables. 

Heyer,  W.  Ronald,  and  M.  Judith  Diment.  "The  Karyotype  of  Vanzolinius 
discodactylus  and  Comments  on  Usefulness  of  Karyotypes  in  Determining 
Relationships  in  the  Leptodactylus-complex  (Amphibia,  Leptodactylidae)." 
Proceedings  of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  87,  number  29 
(22  October  1974),  10  pages,  3  figures,  1  table. 

Kaiser,  Makram  N.,  Harry  Hoogstraal,  and  George  E.  Watson.  "Ticks  (Ixodio- 
dea)  on  Migrating  Birds  in  Cyprus,  Fall  1967  and  Spring  1968,  and  Epidemi- 
ological Considerations."  Bulletin  of  Entomological  Research,  volume  64, 
number  1  (1974),  pages  97-110. 

Kemp,  Graham  E.,  Ottis  R.  Causey,  Henry  W.  Setzer,  and  Dorothy  L.  Moore. 
"Isolation  of  Viruses  from  Wild  Mammals  in  West  Africa,  1966-1970." 
Journal  of  Wildlife  Diseases,  volume  10  (July  1974),  pages  279-293. 

Lachner,  Ernest  A.,  and  James  F.  McKinney.  "Barbuligobius  boehlkei,  a  New 
Indo-Pacific  Genus  and  Species  of  Gobiidae  (Pisces),  with  Notes  on  the 
Genera  Callogobius  and  Pipidonia."  Copeia,  number  4  (31  December  1974), 
11  pages,  4  figures,  2  tables. 

Ma,  N.  S.  F.,  T.  C.  Jones,  R.  W.  Thorington,  and  R.  W.  Cooper.  "Chromosome 
Banding  Patterns  in  Squirrel  Monkeys."  Journal  of  Medical  Primatology, 
volume  3   (1974),  pages  120-137. 

Mead,  J.  G.,  and  R.  S.  Payne.  "A  Specimen  of  the  Tasman  Beaked  Whale, 
Tasmacetus  shepherdi,  from  Argentina."  Journal  of  Mammalogy,  volume 
56,  number  1   (1975),  pages  213-218. 

Monath,  Thomas  P.,  V.  F.  Newhouse,  Graham  E.  Kemp,  Henry  W.  Setzer  and 
Anthony  Cacciapuoti.  "Lassa  Virus  Isolation  from  Mastomys  natalensis 
Rodents  During  an  Epidemic  in  Sierra  Leone."  Science,  volume  185,  number 
4147  (19  July  1974),  pages  263-265. 

Olson,  Storrs  L.  "Paleornithology  of  St.  Helena  Island,  South  Atlantic  Ocean." 
Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Paleobiology,  number  23  (June  1975),  49 

.  "An  Evaluation  of  the  Supposed  Anhinga  of  Mauritius."  Auk,  volume 

92  (30  April  1975),  pages  374-376. 

-.  "The  Fossil  Rails  of  C.  W.  De  Vis,  Being  Mainly  an  Extinct  Form  of 

Tribonyx  mortierii  from  Queensland."  Emu,  volume  75  (April  1975),  pages 

"Ichthyornis  in  the  Cretaceous  of  Alabama."  Wilson  Bulletin,  volume 

87  (26  March  1975),  pages  103-105. 
.   "A    New   Species    of   Nesotrochis    from    Hispaniola,    with    Notes    on 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  393 

Other   Fossil   Rails   from   the   West   Indies    (Aves:   RalHdae)."   Proceedings 
of  the  Biological  Society  of  Washington,  volume  87   (31   December  1974), 
pages  439-450. 
.  "Remarks  on  the  Generic  Characters  of  Bulweria."  Ibis,  volume  117 

(January  1975),  pages  111-113. 
.   "The   South   Pacific   Gallinules   of   the   Genus    Pareudiastes."    Wilson 

Bulletin,  volume  87  (26  March  1975),  pages  1-5,  color  frontispiece. 
.  "Telecrex  Restudied:  A  Small  Eocene  Guineafowl."  Wilson  Bulletin, 

volume  86   (30  September  1974),  pages  246-250. 

[Review]   Ascension — The  Story  of  a  South   Atlantic   Island,  by   D. 

Hart-Davis.  Frontiers,  volume  38  (summer  1974),  page  29. 

-.   [Review]  Systematics  and  Ezwlution  of  the  Gruiformes  (Class  Aves). 

3.   Phylogeny   of  the  Suborder   Grues,   by  J.   Cracraft.    Auk,   volume   91    (9 

October  1974),  pages  862-865. 
Orejas-Miranda,   Braulio   R.,   and   George   R.   Zug.   "A   New   Tricolor    Lepto- 

typhlops    (Reptilia:   Serpentes)    from    Peru."   Proceedings    of   the   Biological 

Society  of  Washington,  volume  87  (1974),  pages  167-174. 
Ripley,  5.  Dillon.  "Ducks  on  Your  Pond,"  In  Raising  Wild  Ducks,  edited  by 

D.  O.  Hyde,  pages  23-25.  New  York:  Dutton,  1974. 
.  "Endangered  Waterfowl  of  the  World,"  In  Raising  Wild  Ducks,  edited 

by  D.  O.  Hyde,  pages  288-297.  New  York:  Dutton,  1974. 

[Review]    Ecology   and   Biogeography   in    India.    Science,   volume    186 

(1974),  pages  916-917. 

[Review]  The  Fozules  of  Heauen  or  History  of  Birdes.  Isis,  volume  66, 

number  1   (1975),  pages   137-138. 

-.   [Review]   To  Ride  the  Wind.  Atlantic  Naturalist,  volume  29,  number 

3  (1974),  pages  136-137. 

Springer,  Victor  G.,  and  Martin  F.  Gomon.  "Revision  of  the  Blenniid  Fish 
Genus  Omobranchus  with  Descriptions  of  Three  New  Species  and  Notes  on 
Other  Species  of  the  Tribe  Omobranchini."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to 
Zoology,  number  177  (2  April  1975),  135  pages,  52  figures,  12  tables. 

Springer,  Victor  G.,  and  John  E.  Randall.  "Two  New  Species  of  the  Labrid 
Fish  Genus  Cirrhilabrus  from  the  Red  Sea."  Israel  Journal  of  Zoology, 
volume  23,  number  1   (March  1975),  pages  45  54,  6  figures,  2  tables. 

Thorington,  Richard  W.,  Jr.  "The  Basic  Problems:  Introductory  Remarks  [to  a 
seminar  on  The  Present  Status  of  Primates  and  Methods  for  Conservation]." 
In  Proceedings  from  the  Symposia  of  the  Fifth  Congress  of  the  Interna- 
tional Primatological  Society,  1975,  edited  by  S.  Kondo,  M.  Kawai,  A.  Ehara, 
and  S.  Kawamura. 

.    "Conclusions    of    the    Primate    Surveys    in    Colombia    and    Peru."    In 

Primate    Censusing    in    Peru    and    Colombia,    pages    97-99.    Pan    American 
Health  Organization,  1975. 

-.  "Report  on  Primate  Conservation  Group."  Laboratory  Primate  News- 

letter, volume  13,  number  4   (1974),  pages  19-21. 

'The  Relevance  of  Vegetational  Diversity  for  Primate   Conservation 

in  South  America."  Proceedings  from  the  Symposia  of  the  Fifth  Congress 
of  the  International  Primatological  Society,  1975,  edited  by  S.  Kondo,  M. 
Kawai,  A.  Ehara,  and  S.  Kawamura. 

"A  Summary  of  Discussions  on  Primate  Conservation."  In   Proceed- 

ings from  the  Syinposia  of  the  Fifth  Congress  of  the  International  Primato- 
logical Society,  edited  by  S.  Kondo,  M.  Kawai,  A.  Ehara,  and  S.  Kawamura. 

Watson,  George  E.  "Addition  to  the  Application  Concerning  the  Suppression 
of  Diomedea  leptorhyncha  Coues,  1866."  Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomencla- 
ture, volume  31  (July  1974),  pages  8-9. 

.  "Charge  to  the  Committee  on  the  Scientific  and  Educational  Use  of 

Wild  Birds."  The  Auk,  volume  91,  number  4  (9  October  1974),  pages  347- 

394  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

.  "Observations  on  Lemche's  Comments  on  the  Proposed  Preservation 

of    Eudyptes    sclateri    BuIIer,    1888,    and    Eudyptes    robustus    Oliver    1953." 
Bulletin  of  Zoological  Nomenclature,  volume  31  (July  1974),  page  64. 

"Proceedings  of  the  Ninety-second  Stated  Meeting  of  the  American 

Ornithologists'  Union."   The   Auk,   volume   92,   number   2    (30   April   1975), 
pages  347-368. 

-.  "World  Check-lists,  a  Book  Commentary."  Atlantic  Naturalist,  volume 

30,  number  1  (Spring  1975),  pages  18-19. 

Watson,  George  E.  and  George  J.  Divoky.  "Marine  Birds  of  the  Western 
Beaufort  Sea."  In  "The  Coast  and  Shelf  of  the  Beaufort  Sea,"  Proceedings 
of  a  Symposium  on  Beaufort  Sea  Coast  and  Shelf  Research,  San  Francisco, 
California,  January  7-9,  1974,  pages  681-695.  Arlington,  Virginia:  Arctic 
Institute  of  North  America,  February  1975. 

Weitzman,  Stanley  H.  "Fish."  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  fifteenth  edition. 
1974,  volume  7,  pages  330-345,  6  figures. 

.   "Osteology   and   Evolutionary   Relationships   of   the   Sternoptychidae, 

with  a  New  Classification  of  Stomiatoid  Families."  Bulletin  of  the  American 
Museum  of  Natural  History,  volume  153,  article  3  (26  July  1974),  pages 
327-478,  113  figures,  1  table. 

.  "Teleostei."  Encyclopedia  Britannica,  fifteenth  edition.  1974,  volume 

18,  pages  81-82. 
Weitzman,  Stanley  H.,  and  J.  Stanley  Cobb.  "A  Revision  of  the  South  Ameri- 
can   Fishes   of   the   Genus    Nannostomus    Gunther    (Family    Lebiasinidae)." 

Smithsonian    Contributions    to   Zoology,   number   186    (5    March    1975),   36 

pages,  34  figures. 
Wingate,  David  B.  and  George  E.  Watson.   "First  North  Atlantic  Record  of 

the  White  Tern."   The  Auk,  volume   91,   number  3    (26   July   1974),   pages 

Zug,  George  R.  "Crocodilian  Galloping:  an  Unique  Gait  for  Reptiles."  Copeia, 

number  2  (1974),  pages  550-52. 
.     "Locomotion."    Encyclopaedia    Britannica,    fifteenth     edition.     1974, 

volume  11,  pages  15-24. 
Zusi,  R.  L.  "An  Interpretation  of  Skull  Structure  in  Penguins."  In  The  Biology 

of   Penguins,   edited   by   Bernard   Stonehouse,    pages    59-84.    London:    The 

Macmillan  Press,  Ltd.,  1975. 
.  "Charadriiformes."  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  fifteenth  edition.  1974, 

volume  4,  pages  33-42. 


Office  of  Zoological  Research 

Buechner,  H.  K.  "Implications  of  Social  Behavior  in  the  Management  of 
Uganda  Kob."  In  The  Behaviour  of  Ungulates  and  Its  Relation  to  Manage- 
ment, edited  by  V.  Geist  and  F.  Walther,  pages  853-870.  lUCN  Publications, 
new  series,  number  24.  1974. 

-.  [Review]  Mountain  Sheep,  by  V.  Geist.  Quarterly  Review  of  Biology, 

volume  49  (1974),  pages  168-169. 

Eisenburg,  J.  F.  "Design  and  Administration  of  Zoological  Research  Programs." 
In  Research  in  Zoos  and  Aquariums,  pages  12-18.  Washington,  D.  C:  ILAR 
National  Academy  of  Sciences,  1975. 

.  "The  Function  and  Motivational  Basis  of  Hystricomorph  Vocaliza- 
tions." In  The  Biology  of  Hystricomorph  Rodents,  edited  by  I.  W.  Rolands 
and  B.  Weir,  pages  211-244.  Symposium  of  Zoological  Society  of  London, 
No.  34.  1974. 

Eisenberg,  J.  F.  and  G.  M.  McKay  (Research  Associate).  "Comparison  of 
Ungulate  Adaptations  in  the  New  World  and  Old  World  Tropical  Forests 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  395 

with  Special  Reference  to  Ceylon  and  the  Rainforests  of  Central  America." 
In  The  Behaviour  of  Ungulates  and  Its  Relation  to  Management,  edited  by 
V.  Geist  and  F.  Walther,  volume  2,  pages  585-602.  lUCN  Publication  No. 
24.  1974. 

Kleiman,  D.  G.  "Management  of  Breeding  Programs  in  Zoos."  In  Research  in 
Zoos  and  Aquariums,  pages  157-177.  Washington,  D.  C. :  ILAR  National 
Academy  of  Sciences,  1975. 

.  "Patterns  of  Behavior  in  Hystricomorph  Rodents."  In  The  Biology  of 

Hysticomorph  Rodents,  edited  by  I.  W.  Rowlands  and  B.  Weir,  pages  171- 
209.  Symposium  of  Zoological  Society  of  London,  34.  1974. 

McKay,  G.  M.  (Research  Associate)  and  J.  F.  Eisenberg.  "Movement  Patterns 
and  Habitat  Utilization  of  Ungulates  in  Ceylon."  In  The  Behavioiu  of 
Ungulates  and  Its  Relation  to  Management,  edited  by  V.  Geist  and  F. 
Walther,  volume  2,  pages  708-721.  lUCN  Publication  24.  1974. 

Montgomery,  G.  G.  "Communication  in  Red  Fox  Dyads:  A  Computer  Simula- 
tion Study."  Smithsonian  Contributions  to  Zoology,  number  187  (1974), 
pages  1-30. 

Montgomery,  G.  G.  and  M.  E.  Sunquist.  "Impact  of  Sloths  on  Neo-tropical 
Forest  Energy  Flow  and  Nutrient  Cycling."  In  Tropical  Ecological  Systems: 
Trends  in  Terrestrial  and  Aquatic  Research,  edited  by  Frank  B.  Golley  and 
Ernesto  Medina,  pages  69-111.  Ecological  Studies  11.  New  York:  Springer- 
Verlag,  1975. 

Morton,  E.  S.  "Ecological  Sources  of  Selection  on  Avian  Sounds."  American 
Naturalist,  volume  109  (1974),  pages  17-34. 

Wilson,  S.  C.  "Juvenile  Play  of  the  Common  Seal  (Phoca  vitulina  vitulina) 
with  Comparative  Notes  on  the  Grey  Seal  {Halichoerus  grypiis)."  Behavior, 
volume  48  (1974),  pages  37-60. 

.   "Mother-Young   Interactions    in    the    Common    Seal    {Phoca    vitulina 

vitulina)."  Behavior,  volume  48  (1974),  pages  23-36. 


Center  for  Short-Lived  Phenomena 

Citron,  Robert  A.,  and  John  R.  Whitman,  et  al.,  editors  Directory  of  EPA, 
State,  and  Local  Environmental  Quality  Monitoring  and  Assessment  Actiin- 
ties.  United  States  Environmental  Protection  Agency,  December,  1974. 

Feininger,  Coman  (Research  Correspondent).  "The  La  Gasca  Debris  Flow  of 
25  February  1975:  A  Geomorphologic  Report."  Quito,  Ecuador,  April,  1975. 

Maina,  Shirley  L.  2974  CSLP  Pollution  Review.  Smithsonian  Institution,  1975. 

Maina,  Shirley  L.,  and  David  R.  Squires,  editors.  CSLP  1974,  Annual  Report 
and  Review  of  Events.  June  1975. 


Andrews,  J.  T.,  R.  Stuckenrath,  H.  Nichols  and  G.  H.  Miller.  "Radiocarbon 
Dates  and  Pollen  Analyses  from  the  Baffin  Island  National  Park."  Parks 
Canada,  volume  73-66  (1974),  41  pages. 

Bender,  M.  E.,  and  D.  L.  Correll.  "The  Rise  of  Wetlands  as  Nutrient  Removal 
Systems."  Chesapeake  Research  Consortium  Publication  No.  29  (1974), 
12  pages.  t 

Correll,  D.  L.,  "Indirect  Effects  of  Tropical  Storm  Agnes  Upon  the  Rhode 
River."  In  Symposium  on  the  Effects  of  Tropical  Storm  Agnes  Upon  the 
Chesapeake  Bay  Estuarine  System,  College  Park,  Md.,  May  1974,  pages 
C47-58.  Chesapeake  Research  Consortium  Publication  No.  34. 

Gantt,  Elisabeth,  and  Claudia  A.  Lipschultz.  "Phycobilisomes  of  Porphyridium 

396  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

cruentum:  Pigment  Analysis."  Biochemistry ,  volume  13  (1974),  pages  2960- 

Gray,  Brian  H.,  and  E.  Gantt.  "Spectral  Properties  of  Phycobilisomes  and 
Phycobiliproteins  from  the  Blue-Green  Alga  Nostoc  sp."  Photochemistry 
and  Photobiology,  volume  21  (1975),  pages  121-128. 

Harding,  Roy  W.  "The  Effect  of  Temperature  on  Photoinduced  Carotenoid 
Biosynthesis  in  Neurospora  crassa."  Plant  Physiology,  volume  54  (1974), 
pages  142-147. 

Hayes,  Rebecca  Gettens,  and  William  H.  Klein.  "Spectral  Quality  Influence 
of  Light  During  Development  of  Arahidopsis  thaliana  Plants  in  Regulating 
Seed  Germination."  Plant  and  Cell  Physiology,  volume  15  (1974),  pages 

Klein,  W.  H.,  and  B.  Goldberg.  Solar  Radiation  Measurements/1968~1973. 
Smithsonian  Institution  Press,  1975,  76  pages. 

Margulies,  Maurice  M.,  H.  Lee  Tiffany,  and  Allan  Michaels,  "Vectorial  Dis- 
charge of  Nascent  Polypeptides  Attached  to  Chloroplast  Thylakoid  Mem- 
branes." Biochemical  and  Biophysical  Research  Cotnmunications,  volume  64 
(1975),  pages  735-739. 

Michaels,  Allan,  and  Maurice  M.  Margulies.  "Amino  Acid  Incorporation  Into 
Protein  by  Ribosomes  Bound  to  Chloroplast  Thylakoid  Membranes:  Forma- 
tion of  Discrete  Products."  Biochimica  et  Biophysica  Acta,  volume  390  (1975), 
pages  352-362. 

Mitrakos,  K.,  L.  Price  and  H.  Tzanni.  "The  Growth  Pattern  of  the  Flowering 
Shoot  of  Urginea  Maritima."  American  Journal  of  Botany,  volume  61  (1974), 
pages  920-924. 

Shropshire,  W.,  Jr.  "A  Consortium  Experiment  in  Graduate  Training  in  Biol- 
ogy: Phase  I."  AIB5  Education  Review,  volume  3,  no.  3  (September  1974), 
pages  1-4. 

.  "Phototropism — Introductory  Lecture.   Progress   in  Photobiology."   In 

Proceedings  of  the  VI  International  Congress  on  Photobiology,  edited  by 
Giinther  O.  Schenck,  pages  1-5.  Frankfurt:  Deutsche  Gesellschaft  fur 
Lichtforschung  e.V.,  1974. 

"Unicellular-Plant    Transducers."     In     Interdisciplinary    Aspects     of 

General  Systems  Theory,  Proceedings  of  the  3rd  Annual  Meeting  of  the 
Middle  Atlantic  Regional  Division.  Society  for  General  Systems  Research, 
pages  50-57.  1975. 
Suraqui,  S.,  H.  Tabor,  W.  H.  Klein,  and  B.  Goldberg.  "Solar  Radiation  Changes 
at  Mt.  St.  Katherine  After  Forty  Years."  Solar  Energy,  volume  16  (1974), 
pages  155-158. 


Aaronson,  M.,  J.  H.  Black,  and  C.  F.  McKee.  "A  Search  for  Molecular  Hydro- 
gen in  Quasar  Absorption  Spectra."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume 
191  (1974),  pages  L53-L56. 

Aaronson,  M.,  C.  F.  McKee,  and  J.  C.  Weisheit.  "The  Identification  of  Absorp- 
tion Redshift  Systems  in  Quasar  Spectra."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume 
198  (1975),  pages  13-30. 

Aksnes,  K.  "Short-Period  and  Long-Period  Perturbations  of  a  Spherical 
Satellite  due  to  Direct  Solar  Radiation."  [Abstract]  Bulletin  of  the  American 
Astronomical  Society,  volume  7  (1975),  page  341. 

Aksnes,  K.,  and  F.  A.  Franklin.  "Reduction  Techniques  and  Some  Results  from 
Occultations  of  Europa  by  lo."  [Abstract]  Bulletin  of  the  American 
Astronomical  Society,  volume  6   (1974),  page  382. 

.  "Mutual  Phenomena  of  the  Galilean  Satellites  in  1973.  I.  Total  and 

Near-Total  Occultations  of  Europa  by  lo."  Astronomical  Journal,  volume  80 
(1975),  pages  56-63. 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  397 

Aksnes,  K.,  and  B.  G.  Marsden.  "The  Orbit  of  Jupiter  XIII."  [Abstract]  Bulle- 
tin of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  7  (1975),  page  342. 

Argyle,  E.,  G.  Baird,  J.  Grindlay,  H.  Helmken,  and  E.  O'Mongain.  "Search  for 
Correlations  between  Giant  Radio-Pulses  and  10'^  eV  Gamma-Rays  from 
NP  0532."  //  Nuovo  Cimento,  volume  24  (1974),  pages  153-156. 

Avrett,  E.  H.  "Formation  of  the  Solar  EUV  Spectrum."  [Abstract]  Bulletin  of 
the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  7  (1975),  page  360. 

Avrett,  E.  H.,  R.  J.  Davis,  W.  A.  Deutschman,  K.  L.  Haramundanis,  C.  Payne- 
Gaposchkin,  R.  L.  Kurucz,  E.  Peytremann,  and  R.  E.  Schild.  "Report  on  the 
Celescope  Ultraviolet  Observations  from  the  OAO-2  Satellite  and  Asso- 
ciated Research  at  the  Smithsonian  Astrophysical  Observatory."  In  Space 
Research  XIV,  edited  by  M.  J.  Rycroft  and  R.  D.  Reasenberg,  pages  515-521. 
Berlin:  Akademie-Verlag,  1974. 

Ball,  J.  A.  "Reverse-Polish  or  Algebraic  Entry."  Electronic  Design,  volume  23 
(1975),  pages  50-52. 

Barkat,  Z.  K.,  J.C.  Wheeler,  J.-R.  Buchler,  and  G.  Rakavy.  "Envelope  Dynamics 
of  Iron-Core  Supernova  Models."  Astrophysics  and  Space  Science,  volume 
29  (1974),  pages  267-283. 

Bieniek,  R.  J.  "Semi-Classical  Uniform  Approximation  in  Penning  Ionization." 
Journal  of  Physics  B:  Atomic  and  Molecular  Physics,  volume  7  (1974),  pages 

Billiris,  H.  G.,  M.  D.  Papagiannis,  C.  G.  Lehr,  and  M.  R.  Pearlman.  "Beam 
Wavefront  Distortions  in  a  Laser  Ranging  System."  Smithsonian  Astro- 
physical  Observatory  Laser  Report,  No.  7  (1975),  19  pages. 

Black,  J.  H.,  E.  J.  Chaisson,  J.  A.  Ball,  H.  Penfield,  A.  E.  Lilley.  "Radiofrequency 
Emission  from  CH  in  Comet  Kohoutek  (1973f)."  Astrophysical  Journal 
(Letters),  volume  191  (1974),  pages  L45-L47. 

Bokhari,  S.  H.,  A.  Javed,  and  M.  D.  Grossi.  "Data  Storage  for  Adaptive 
Meteor  Scatter  Communications."  Institute  of  Electrical  and  Electronics 
Engineers  Transactions  on  Communications,  volume  COM-23,  number  3 
(1975),  pages  397-399. 

Bottcher,  C,  and  A.  Dalgarno.  "A  Constructive  Model  Potential  Method  for 
Atomic  Interactions."  Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Society,  London,  series  A, 
volume  340  (1974),  pages  187-198. 

Brumer,  P.  "Rotational  Excitation  and  Interference  Effects  in  Atom-Rotor 
Collisions."  Chemical  Physics  Letters,  volume  28  (1974),  pages  345-351. 

Cameron,  A.  G.  W.  "Concluding  Remarks."  In  Physics  of  Dense  Matter,  edited 
by  C.  J.  Hansen,  pages  321-327.  Dordrecht,  Holland:  D.  Reidel  Publishing 
Company,  1974. 

.  "Clumping  of  Interstellar  Grains  during  Formation  of  the  Primitive 

Solar  Nebula."  Icarus,  volume  24  (1975),  pages  128-133. 

"Cosmogonical  Considerations  Regarding  Uranus."  Icarus,  volume  24 

(1975),  pages  280-284. 

-.  "Hot  Vibrating  White  Dwarf  Models   of  Pulsating   X-Ray  Sources." 

Astrophysics  and  Space  Science,  volume  32  (1975),  pages  215-229. 
Cameron,  A.  G.   W.,  and  V.   Canuto.   "Neutron   StSrs:   General   Review."   In 

Astrophysics  and  Gravitation,  pages  221-278.  Bruxelles,  Belgium:  Editions 

de  I'University  de  Bruxelles,  1974. 
Carleton,  N.   P.,  and  W.   A.  Traub.   "Observations   of  Spatial  and  Temporal 

Variations  of  the  Jovian  H-  Quadrupole  Lines."  Exploration  of  the  Planetary 

System,   edited   by    A.    Woszczyk    and    C.    Iwaniszewska-Lubienska,    pages 

345-349.  Dordrecht,  Holland:  D.  Reidel  Publishing  Company,  1974. 
Carleton,  N.  P.,  W.  A.  Traub,  and  J.  Noxon.  "A  Search  for  Martian  Dayglow 

Resulting   from   Ozone   Photolysis"    [Abstract].    Bulletin    of    the    American 

Astronomical  Society,  volume  6  (1974),  page  372. 
Carlsten,  J.  L.  "Laser  Selective  Excitation  of  a  Three-Level  Atom:   Barium." 

398  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Journal  of  Physics  B:  Atomic  and  Molecular  Physics,  volume  7  (1974),  pages 

"Photoionization  of  Barium  Clouds   via   the   ^D   Metastable   Levels." 

Planetary  Space  Science,  volume  23  (1975),  pages  53-60. 
Carlsten,  J.   L.,   and  P.   C.   Dunn.   "Stimulated   Stokes   Emission   with   a   Dye 

Laser:  Intense  Tuneable  Radiation  in  the  Infrared."  Optics  Communications, 

volume  14  (1975),  pages  8-12. 
Carlsten,  J.  L.,  T.  J.  Mcllrath,  and  W.  H.   Parkinson.   "Measurement   of   the 

Photoionization    Cross    Section    from    the    Laser-Populated    ^D    Metastable 

Levels  in  Barium."  Journal  of  Physics  B:  Atomic  and  Molecular  Physics, 

volume  7  (1974),  pages  L244-L248. 
.  "Absorption  Spectrum  of  the  Laser-Populated  ■''D  Metastable  Levels 

in  Barium."  Journal  of  Physics  B:  Atomic  and  Molecular  Physics,  volume  8 

(1975),  pages  38-51. 
Chaisson,   E.   J.   "High-Frequency   Observations   of   Possible   'Heavy-Element' 

Recombination    Lines."   Astrophysical    Journal,   volume    191    (1974),    pages 

.  "Microwave  Observations  of  Rho  Ophiuchi."   [Abstract]   Bulletin  of 

the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  6  (1974),  page  436. 

"Microwave  Observations  of  the  Rho  Ophiuchi  Dark  Cloud."  Astro- 

physical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  197  (1975),  pages  L65-L68. 

-.  "On  Nebular  Non-Equilibrium  Thermodynamics."  United  States  Na- 

tional Committee / International  Union  of  Radio  Science  Meeting,  Boulder, 

Colorado,  October  1974;  Program  of  Abstracts,  page  73. 
Chaisson,  E.  J.,  and  C.  A.  Beichman.  "Magnetism  in  Dense  Interstellar  Clouds." 

[Abstract]  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  6  (1974), 

page  336. 
Chaisson,  E.  J.,  R.  I.  Ingalls,  A.  E.  E.  Rogers,  and  I.  I.  Shapiro.  "An  Upper 

Limit  on  the  Radar  Cross-Section  of  Comet  Kohoutek."  Icarus,  volume  24 

(1975),  pages  188-189. 
Chase,  R.  C,  L.  Golub,  A.  Krieger,  J.  K.  Silk,  G.  S.  Vaiana,  M.  Zombeck,  and 

A.    F.    Timothy.    "Temperature    and    Density    Measurements    of    Coronal 

Loops."  [Abstract]  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume 

7  (1975),  page  346. 
Chetin,  T.,  C.  J.  Forman,  and  W.  Liller.  "Optical  Characteristics  of  Candidate 

Stars  for  X-Ray  Sources  in  the  Large  Magellanic  Cloud."  [Abstract]  Bulletin 

of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  6   (1974),  page  304. 
Chu,   S.-I.,   and  A.   Dalgarno.   "Fine   Structure   of   C*   in   Collision   with   H^." 

Journal  of  Chemical  Physics,  volume  62   (1975),  pages  4009-4015. 
.  "The  Rotational  Excitation  of  Carbon  Monoxide  by  Hydrogen  Atom 

Impact."  Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Society,  London,  series  A,  volume  342 

(1975),  pages  191-207. 

"Rotational  Excitation  of  CH*  by  Electron  Impact."  Physical  Review 

A,  volume  10  (1974),  pages  788-792. 
Dalgarno,    A.    "The    Formation    of    Interstellar    Molecules    by    Ion-Molecule 

Reactions."    In    Interactions    Between    Ions    and    Molecules,    edited    by    P. 

Ausloos,  pages  341-352.  New  York:  Plenum  Publishing  Corporation,  1975. 
Dalgarno,   A.,   T.    de   Jong,   M.    Oppenheimer,   and   J.    H.    Black.    "Hydrogen 

Chloride    in    Dense    Interstellar    Clouds."    Astrophysical    Journal    (Letters), 

volume  192  (1974),  pages  L37-L39. 
Dalgarno,  A.,  and  M.  Oppenheimer.  "Chemical  Heating  of  Interstellar  Clouds." 

Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  192   (1974),  pages  597-599. 
Davis,  M.   "Television  Surface  Photometry   of  the   Edge-On   Spiral   Galaxies 

NGC  3987  and  NGC  5907."  Astronomical  Journal,  volume  80  (1975),  pages 


Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  399 

Davis,  M.,  and  D.  T.  Wilkinson.  "Search  for  Primeval  Galaxies  at  Large 
Redshift."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  192  (1974),  pages  251-259. 

Dickinson,  D.  F.  "Water  Vapor  in  Infrared  Stars."  [Abstract]  Bulletin  of 
the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  6  (1974),  page  340. 

Dickinson,  D.  F.,  and  E.  J.  Chaisson.  "An  OH  Survey  of  the  Hoffmann  100  m 
Sources."  Astronomical  Journal,  volume  79  (1974),  pages  938-940. 

Dickinson,  D.  F.,  J.  A.  Frogel,  and  S.  E.  Persson,  "CO  Emission  Associated 
with  Sharpless  H  II  Regions."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  192  (1974), 
pages  347-350. 

Dickinson,  D.  F.,  G.  Kojoian,  and  S.  E.  Strom.  "A  Strong  Water  Maser  Asso- 
ciated with  a  Herbig-Haro  Object."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume 
194  (1974),  pages  L93-L95. 

Docken,  K.  K.  "A  Test  of  the  R-Centroid  Method."  Chemical  Physics  Letters, 
volume  30  (1975),  pages  334-336. 

Docken,  K.  K.,  and  R.  R.  Freeman.  "Some  Molecular  Properties  of  LiH  and 
LiD."  Journal  of  Chemical  Physics,  volume  61  (1974),  pages  4217-4223. 

Doyle,  H.,  M.  Oppenheimer,  and  A.  Dalgarno.  "Bound-State  Expansion  Method 
for  Calculating  Resonance  and  Nonresonance  Contributions  to  Continuum 
Processes:  Theoretical  Development  and  Application  to  the  Photoionization 
of  Helium  and  the  Hydrogen  Negative  Ion."  Physical  Review,  series  A, 
volume  11  (1975),  pages  909-915. 

Dupree,  A.  K.  "Ultraviolet  Observations  of  Capella  from  Copernicus."  [Ab- 
stract] Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  7  (1975), 
page  359. 

.    "Ultraviolet    Observations    of   Chromospheric    Emission    Lines    in    G 

Stars."  [Abstract]  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume 
6  (1974),  page  446. 

Dupree,  A.  K.,  P.  V.  Foukal,  M.  C.  E.  Huber,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  M.  Reeves,  E.  J. 
Schmahl,  J.  G.  Timothy,  J.  E.  Vernazza,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "Extreme 
Ultraviolet  Solar  Spectra  from  Skylab-Apollo  Telescope  Mount."  [Abstract] 
Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  6  (1974),  page  349. 

Elliot,  J.  L.,  L.  H.  Wasserman,  J.  Veverka,  C.  Sagan,  and  W.  Liller.  "Occupa- 
tion of  /3  Scorpii  by  Jupiter.  V.  The  Emersion  of  /3  Scorpii  C."  Astronomical 
Journal,  volume  80  (1975),  pages  323-332. 

Fazio,  G.  G.,  D.  E.  Kleinmann,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  L.  Wright,  and  F.  J.  Low.  "A 
Balloon-Borne  1-Meter  Telescope  for  Far-Infrared  Astronomy."  In  Pro- 
ceedings of  the  Symposium  on  Telescope  Systems  for  Balloon-Borne  Re- 
search, Ames  Research  Center,  California,  NASA  TM  X-62,  397,  pages  38- 
50.  1974. 

Fazio,  G.  G.,  D.  E.  Kleinman,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  L.  Wright,  M.  Zeilik,  II,  and 
F.  J.  Low.  "A  High  Resolution  Map  of  the  Orion  Nebula  at  Far-Infrared 
Wavelengths."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters),  volume  192  (1974),  pages 

.  "High  Resolution  Maps  of  H  II  Regions  at  Far-Infrared  Wavelengths." 

In  H  II  Regions  in  the  Galactic  Centre,  Eighth  ESLAB  Symposium,  edited 
by  A.  F.  M.  Moorwood,  pages  79-85.  Neuilly,  France:  European  Space  Re- 
search Organization,  1974. 

Field,  G.  B.  "Intergalactic  Gas."  In  Confrontation  between  Cosmological 
Theories  and  Observational  Data,  edited  by  M.  S.  Longair,  pages  13-30. 
Dordrecht,  Holland:  D.  Reidel  Publishing  Company,  1974. 

.   "The   Physics   of   Interstellar  Matter."   In   Highlights   of  Astronomy, 

edited  by  G.  Contopoulos,  volume  3,  pages  37-50.  Dordrecht,  Holland:  D. 
Reidel  Publishing  Company,  1974. 

-.  "Intergalactic  Matter  in  Clusters  of  Galaxies."  [Abstract]  Bulletin  of 

the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  6  (1974),  page  275. 

"Interstellar    Depletion."    [Abstract]    Bulletin    of    the    American    As- 

tronomical Society,  volume  6  (1974),  page  262. 
400  /  Smithsonian  Year  1975 

Fireman,  E.  L.  "Regolith  History  from  Cosmic-Ray-Produced  Nuclides."  In 
Proceedings  of  the  Fifth  Lunar  Science  Conference,  Geochrimica  et  Cosmo- 
chimica  Acta,  supplement  5,  volume  2,  pages  2075-2092.  New  York: 
Pergamon  Press,  1974. 

Fireman,  E.  L.,  J.  D'Amico,  and  J.  DeFelice.  "Solar  Wind  Tritium  Limit  from 
Surveyor  3."  In  Lunar  Science  VI,  pages  266-267.  Houston,  Texas:  Lunar 
Science  Institute,  1975. 

Ford,  A.  L.,  K.  K.  Docken,  and  A.  Dalgarno.  "The  Photoionization  and  Disso- 
ciative Photoionization  of  H-,  HD,  and  D-."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume 
195  (1975),  pages  819-824. 

Forman,  W.,  R.  Giacconi,  C.  Jones,  E.  Schreier,  and  H.  Tananbaum.  "Uhuru 
Observations  of  Short-Time-Scale  Variations  of  the  Crab."  Astrophysical 
Journal  (Letters),  volume  193  (1974),  pages  L67-L70. 

Foukal,  P.  V.  "The  Pressure  Balance  and  Currents  in  Active  Region  Loop 
Structures."  [Abstract]  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society, 
volume  7  (1975),  page  346. 

.  "A  Three-Component  Concept  of  the  Chromosphere  and  Transition 

Region."  Solar  Physics,  volume  37  (1974),  pages  317  321. 

Foukal,  P.  v.,  M.  C.  E.  Huber,  R.  W.  Noyes,  E.  M.  Reeves,  E.  J.  Schmahl,  J.  G. 
Timothy,  J.  E.  Vernazza,  and  G.  L.  Withbroe.  "Extreme  Ultraviolet  Observa- 
tions of  Sunspots  with  the  Harvard  Spectrometer  on  ATM."  Astrophysical 
Journal  (Letters),  volume  193  (1974),  pages  L143-L145. 

Franklin,  F.  A.  "Structure  of  Saturn's  Rings:  Optical  and  Dynamical  Con- 
siderations." In  The  Rings  of  Saturn,  edited  by  F.  D.  Palluconi  and  G.  H. 
Pettengill,  NASA  SP-343,  pages  3-15.  Washington,  D.  C,  1974. 

Franklin,  F.  A.,  and  A.  F.  Cook.  "Photometry  of  Saturn's  Satellites:  The 
Opposition  Effect  of  lapetus  at  Maximum  Light  and  the  Variability  of 
Titan."  Icarus,  volume  23  (1974),  pages  355  362. 

Freeman,  R.  R.,  E.  M.  Mattison,  D.  E.  Pritchard,  D.  Kleppner.  "Alkali-Metal 
Hyperfine  Shift  in  the  Van  der  Waals  Molecule  KAr."  Physical  Review 
Letters,  volume  33  (1974),  pages  397-399. 

Frogel,  J.  A.,  and  S.  E.  Persson.  "Compact  Infrared  Sources  Associated  with 
Southern  H  II  Regions."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume  192  (1974),  pages 

.  "Infrared  Emission  from  OH  284.2-0.8."  Astrophysical  Journal,  volume 

197  (1975),  pages  351-353. 

Frogel,  J.  A.,  S.  E.  Persson,  M.  Aaronson,  E.  E.  Becklin,  K.  Matthews,  and  G. 
Neugebauer.  "Stellar  Content  of  the  Nuclei  of  Elliptical  Galaxies  Determined 
from  2.3-Micron  CO  Band  Strengths."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters), 
volume  195  (1975),  pages  L15-L18. 

.  "Stellar  Content  of  Elliptical  Galaxy  Nuclei."   [Abstract]   Bulletin   of 

the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume  1  (1974),  page  441. 

Gaposchkin,  E.  M.  "Earth's  Gravity  Field  to  the  Eighteenth  Degree  and  Geo- 
centric Coordinates  for  104  Stations  from  Satellite  and  Terrestrial  Data." 
Journal  of  Geophysical  Research,  volume  79  (1974),  pages  5377-5411. 

Garton,  W.  R.  S.,  and  W.  H.  Parkinson.  "Series  of  Autoionization  Resources 
in  Ba  I  Converging  on  Ba  II  6-P."  Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Society,  London, 
series  A,  volume  341  (1974),  pages  45-48. 

Garton,  W.  R.  S.,  E.  M.  Reeves,  and  F.  S.  Tomkins.  "Hyperfine  Structure  and 
Isotope  Shift  of  the  6s6p'  T1/2  Level  of  TI  I."  Proceedings  of  the  Royal 
Society,  London,  series  A,  volume  341   (1974),  pages  163-166. 

Gerassimenko,  M.,  J.  M.  Davis,  R.  C.  Chase,  A.  S.  Krieger,  J.  K.  Silk,  and 
G.  S.  Vaiana.  "Simultaneous  X-Ray  Spectra  and  X-Ray  Images  of  an  Active 
Region."  [Abstract]  Bulletin  of  the  American  Astronomical  Society,  volume 
7  (1975),  page  347. 

Giacconi,  R.  "X-Ray  Sky."  In  X-Ray  Astronomy,  edited  by  R.  Giacconi  and 

Appendix  7.  Publications  of  the  Staff  I  401 

H.  Gursky,  pages  155-168.  Dordrecht,  Holland:  D.  Reidel  Publishing  Com- 
pany, 1974. 

Giacconi,  R.,  and  H.  Gursky,  editors.  X-Ray  Astronomy.  Dordrecht,  Holland: 
D.  Reidel  Publishing  Company,  1974. 

Gillett,  F.  C,  D.  E.  Kleinmann,  E.  L.  Wright,  and  R.  W.  Capps.  "Observations 
of  M82  and  NGC  253  at  8-13  Microns."  Astrophysical  Journal  (Letters), 
volume  198  (1975),  pages  L65-L68. 

Gingerich,  O.  J.  "The  Astronomy  and  Cosmology  of  Copernicus."  In  High- 
lights in  Astronomy,  edited  by  G.  Contopoulos,  volume  3,  pages  67-85. 
Dordrecht,  Holland:  D.  Reidel  Publishing  Company,